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Basic concepts-of-marketing



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Basic concepts-of-marketing

  3. 3. WHAT IS MARKETING ? <ul><li>The essence of Marketing is a transaction - an exchange- intended to satisfy human needs and wants.There are three elements in the marketing process : </li></ul><ul><li>(A) MARKETERS </li></ul><ul><li>(B)WHAT IS BEING MARKETED </li></ul><ul><li>(C) TARGET MARKET </li></ul>
  4. 4. WHAT IS MARKETING ? <ul><li>Marketing is a social process by which individuals and groups obtain what they need and want through creating and exchanging products and value with others </li></ul><ul><li>PHILIP KOTLER </li></ul><ul><li>This definition includes following core concepts : NEEDS ,WANTS and DEMANDS --- PRODUCTS------VALUE & SATISFACTION---EXCHANGE & TRANSACTION---MARKETS & MARKETERS </li></ul>
  5. 5. NEEDS,WANTS AND DEMANDS <ul><li>NEED : A state of felt deprivation of some basic satisfaction ( Food, Clothing, Shelter, Belonging etc. ) </li></ul><ul><li>WANTS : Wants are desires for specific satisfiers of the deeper needs. Needs are few and wants are many . </li></ul><ul><li>DEMANDS : are wants backed by ------Ability to buy and Willingness to buy </li></ul>
  6. 6. PRODUCTS / OFFERS / SATISFIERS / RESOURCES <ul><li>Anything that can be offered to someone to satisfy a need or want is a product . </li></ul><ul><li>Product refers to physical object </li></ul><ul><li>Services refer to intangible object </li></ul>
  7. 7. VALUE AND SATISFACTION <ul><li>Value is the customers’ estimate of the Product’s capacity to satisfy a set of goals </li></ul><ul><li>Value is the ratio between what the customer gets and what he gives (V=B/C) </li></ul><ul><li>Customer gets benefits & assume costs </li></ul><ul><li>WHEN : Customer Expectance=Performance (satisfied) </li></ul><ul><li>Customer Expectance>Performance (dis-satisfied) </li></ul><ul><li>Customer Expectance<Performance (Highly satisfied) </li></ul>
  8. 8. EXCHANGE AND TRANSACTION <ul><li>Exchange is the act of obtaining a desired product by offering something in return . </li></ul><ul><li>Exchange takes place when 5 conditions are satisfied: </li></ul><ul><li>( a) Two parties should be there </li></ul><ul><li>(b) Each party must have something of value to the other </li></ul><ul><li>(c) Each party is capable of communication & delivery </li></ul><ul><li>(d) Each party is free to accept or reject the offer </li></ul><ul><li>(e) Each party believes that it is appropriate to deal with the other party </li></ul>
  9. 9. EXCHANGE AND TRANSACTION <ul><li>Exchange is a process rather than event. It is a value creating process because it normally leaves both parties better off. </li></ul><ul><li>A transaction is a trade of values between two or more parties ( A BARTER TRANSACTION OR A MONETARY TRANSACTION ). </li></ul>
  10. 10. WHAT IS MARKET ? <ul><li>A market consists of all the potential customers sharing a particular need or want who might be willing and able to engage in exchange to satisfy that need or want. </li></ul>
  11. 11. WHAT IS MARKETING ? <ul><li>Marketing is the management process which identifies, anticipates, and supplies customer requirements efficiently and profitably. </li></ul><ul><li>In other words, it is the process of understanding, creating, and delivering profitable value to targeted customers better than the competition. </li></ul>
  12. 12. WHAT IS MARKETING ? <ul><li>Its aim is to establish, maintain, enhance long term relationship with customers at a profit so that the objectives of the parties involved are met. </li></ul><ul><li>In short marketing consists of attracting, developing, and retaining profitable customers. </li></ul>
  13. 13. BUSINESS IS MARKETING <ul><li>Marketing can not be considered as a separate function , it is the whole business, seen from the point of view of its final results.................that is profit,through customer satisfaction </li></ul>PETER DRUCKER
  14. 14. A SIMPLE MARKETING SYSTEM Industry Market Communication Information/Feedback Goods & Services Money
  15. 15. WHAT IS MARKETING MANAGEMENT ? <ul><li>Marketing Management is the analysis, planning, implementation and control of programs designed to create, build and maintain beneficial exchanges and relationships with target markets for the purpose of achieving Organisational objectives. </li></ul>
  16. 16. WHAT IS MARKETING MANAGEMENT ? <ul><li>Marketing management is demand management or it involves the task of influencing the level, timing and composition of demand. At times the actual demand level may be below, equal to, or above the desired demand level and the major task of marketing management is to regulate the level of demand. </li></ul>
  17. 17. STATE OF DEMAND AND MARKETING TASK <ul><li>State of demand </li></ul><ul><li>Negative Demand </li></ul><ul><li>No Demand </li></ul><ul><li>Latent Demand </li></ul><ul><li>Falling Demand </li></ul><ul><li>Irregular Demand </li></ul><ul><li>Full Demand </li></ul><ul><li>Overfull Demand </li></ul><ul><li>Un-wholesome Demand </li></ul><ul><li>Marketing task </li></ul><ul><li>Conversional Mktg. </li></ul><ul><li>Stimulational Mktg. </li></ul><ul><li>Developmental Mktg. </li></ul><ul><li>Remarketing </li></ul><ul><li>Synchro-marketing </li></ul><ul><li>Maintenance Mktg. </li></ul><ul><li>Demarketing </li></ul><ul><li>Counter-marketing </li></ul>
  18. 18. EVOLUTION OF MARKETING MANAGEMENT <ul><li>Marketing management has evolved through following stages : </li></ul><ul><li>(1) Production Orientation Stage </li></ul><ul><li>(2) Sales Orientation Stage </li></ul><ul><li>(3) Marketing Orientation Stage </li></ul><ul><li>(4) Social Responsibility & Human Orientation Stage </li></ul>
  19. 19. COMPANY ORIENTATION FOR MARKETING ACTIVITIES <ul><li>Marketing Management can be defined as the effort to achieve desired EXCHANGE outcomes with TARGET MARKETS. </li></ul><ul><li>Now the question arises : (1) What philosophy should guide the marketing activities? (2) What weights should be given to the interests of the organisation,the customers and the society? </li></ul>
  20. 20. MARKETING CONCEPTS <ul><li>There are FIVE competing concepts under which organizations conduct their marketing activities: </li></ul><ul><li>The Production Concept </li></ul><ul><li>The Product Concept </li></ul><ul><li>The Selling Concept </li></ul><ul><li>The Marketing Concept </li></ul><ul><li>The Societal Marketing Concept </li></ul>
  21. 21. (1) THE PRODUCTION CONCEPT Produce Sell Consumers Company Produce more & more Practically sells itself
  22. 22. THE PRODUCTION CONCEPT <ul><li>Consumers will favour those products that are widely available and low in cost. </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore increase production and cut down costs. </li></ul><ul><li>And build profit through volume. </li></ul>
  23. 23. (2) THE PRODUCT CONCEPT Produce Quality Products Sell Consumers Practically sells itself,if it gives most quality for money Buyers admire well-made products and can appraise product quality and performance.
  24. 24. THE PRODUCT CONCEPT <ul><li>Consumers will favour those products that offer the most quality, performance, or innovative features. </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore, improve quality, performance and features. </li></ul><ul><li>This would lead to increased sales and profits. </li></ul>
  25. 25. (3) SELLING CONCEPT <ul><li>Consumers have normal tendency to resist. </li></ul>Produce Sell it Consumers Aggressive selling & promotion efforts Making sales becomes primary function and consumer satisfaction secondary .
  26. 26. THE SELLING CONCEPT <ul><li>Consumers , if left alone , will not buy enough of company’s products. </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore, promote sales aggressively. </li></ul><ul><li>And,build profit through quick turnover. </li></ul>
  27. 27. (4) MARKETING CONCEPT <ul><li>“ LOVE THE CUSTOMER , NOT THE PRODUCT ” </li></ul>Consumers Produce it Market it Learn what they want(MR) Sell what they want(Satisfy needs of customers)
  28. 28. THE MARKETING CONCEPT <ul><li>The key to achieving organizational goals consist in determining the needs and wants of target markets and delivering the desired satisfactions more effectively and efficiently than competitors. </li></ul><ul><li>And build profit through customer satisfaction and loyalty. </li></ul>
  29. 29. (5) THE SOCIETAL MARKETING CONCEPT <ul><li>It is Marketing Concept (+) Society’s well being. </li></ul><ul><li>Balancing of following three considerations while setting marketing policies : -Customer’s want satisfaction -Society’s well being -Company’s profits </li></ul>
  30. 30. THE SOCIETAL MARKETING CONCEPT <ul><li>The societal marketing concept holds that the organization’s task is to determine the needs, wants, and interests of target markets and to deliver the desired satisfactions more effectively and efficiently than competitors in a way that preserves or enhances the consumer’s and the society’s well being. - It addresses conflicts between consumer’s and firm’s short run wants and long term welfare. </li></ul>
  32. 32. STRATEGIC CONCEPT OF MARKETING <ul><li>Shifted the focus of Marketing from Product or customer to the CUSTOMER IN THE CONTEXT OF THE BROADER EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT . To succeed, marketers must know the customer in a context including the competition, Govt. Policy& regulation and the broader economic, social and political macro forces that shape the evolution of market. </li></ul>
  33. 33. STRATEGIC CONCEPT OF MARKETING <ul><li>Shifted the Marketing Objectives from PROFIT TO STAKEHOLDER BENEFITS. </li></ul><ul><li>Stakeholders are individuals or groups who have an interest in the activity of a company . They include -----The employees and management, Customers, Society, Shareholders, Financiers/ Bankers, Government etc. </li></ul>
  34. 34. STRATEGIC CONCEPT OF MARKETING <ul><li>Strategic Marketing Concept is Strategic Management, which integrates marketing with the other management functions. ( Major task is Profit for Stakeholders’ benefits ). </li></ul>
  35. 35. MARKETING SYSTEM <ul><li>Marketing is concerned with the flow of goods and services from the points of production to the points of consumption. There is a systematic arrangement of these functions of marketing to move the goods and services to the needy persons. This system is essential to the creation of time, place and possession utilities . </li></ul>
  36. 36. MARKETING SYSTEM <ul><li>A dynamic marketing system must be willing to undertake the following specific activities : 1. Define market area. 2. Research consumer wants and needs. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Develop and redevelop product / service. 4. Select,train,motivate and control human resources. </li></ul><ul><li>5. Develop sales approach and advertising support. </li></ul>
  37. 37. GOALS OF THE MARKETING SYSTEM <ul><li>(1) MAXIMIZE CONSUMPTION </li></ul><ul><li>(2) MAXIMIZE CONSUMER SATISFACTION </li></ul><ul><li>(3) MAXIMIZE CHOICE </li></ul><ul><li>(4) MAXIMIZE LIFE QUALITY </li></ul>
  38. 38. THREE BASIC PRINCIPLES OF MARKETING <ul><li>The essence of marketing can be summarized in three great principles. The first identifies the purpose and task of marketing, the second the competitive reality of marketing and third the principal means for achieving the first two. </li></ul>
  39. 39. THREE BASIC PRINCIPLES OF MARKETING <ul><li>(1) . The Customer Value and Value </li></ul><ul><li>Equation : </li></ul><ul><li>V=B/P Where; V=Value </li></ul><ul><li>B= Perceived Benefits </li></ul><ul><li>P= Price </li></ul><ul><li>(Value is increased by increasing the numerator and/or reducing the denominator) </li></ul>
  40. 40. THREE BASIC PRINCIPLES OF MARKETING <ul><li>(2). Competitive or Differential Advantage : </li></ul><ul><li>The total offer must be more attractive than that of the competition in order to create a competitive advantage. </li></ul><ul><li>(3). Focus or the Concentration of </li></ul><ul><li>Attention : The task of creating </li></ul><ul><li>Customer Value at a Competitive advantage. </li></ul>
  41. 41. VALUE MAP A B C D E VEL Value Advantaged Area Value Disadvantaged Area Customer Perceived Benefits Perceived Price
  42. 42. CUSTOMER AS THE CONTROLLING FUNCTION Production Finance Marketing Personnel CUSTOMER
  43. 43. MARKETING AS THE INTEGRATIVE FUNCTION CUSTOMER Production Personnel Finance Marketing
  44. 44. THREE LEVELS OF MARKETING <ul><li>Responsive Marketing </li></ul><ul><li>Anticipative Marketing </li></ul><ul><li>Need Shaping Marketing </li></ul>
  45. 45. RESPONSIVE MARKETING <ul><li>It is the form of marketing when some company defines an existing clear need and prepare an affordable solution. </li></ul><ul><li>(Recognizing that women wanted to spend less time for cooking and cleaning, led to the invention of modern washing machine, microwave oven etc.) </li></ul>
  46. 46. ANTICIPATIVE MARKETING <ul><li>It is a form of marketing when a company recognize an emergent or latent need, and come out with an affordable solution. Evian, Perrier anticipated growing market for bottled drinking water as the quality of water deteriorated in many places. </li></ul><ul><li>Anticipative marketing is more risky than responsive marketing;companies may come into market too early or too late,or may even be totally wrong about thinking that such a market would develop.(eg. Dish washers in India) </li></ul>
  47. 47. NEED SHAPED MARKETING <ul><li>The broadest level of marketing occurs when a company introduces product that nobody asked for and often could not even conceive of. </li></ul><ul><li>(e.g. Sony Walkman, Sony Compact Disc ) </li></ul><ul><li>Late Akio Morita, founder and chairman of Sony, who introduced these and many other new products, summarized his marketing philosophy in these words: “ I don’t serve markets. I create them.” </li></ul>
  48. 48. MARKET- DRIVEN AND MARKET- DRIVING COMPANY <ul><li>Market-driven companies focus on researching current customers to identify their problems, gather new ideas, develop products that result in incremental improvements, not radical innovations. </li></ul><ul><li>Market-driving companies generate significantly new products, services, business formats and raise our sights and our civilization. These companies are much more than customer-led. They lead customer where they want to go, but don’t know yet. </li></ul>

Editor's Notes

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