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Copernicus and Galileo: A Scientific Revolution

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These slides were designed to accompany a lecture on Copernicus and Galileo and their contributions to the development of heliocentric theory during the Scientific Revolution.

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Copernicus and Galileo: A Scientific Revolution

  1. 1. Photo Credit: NASA
  2. 2. acos , Q l - ‘ ' - 5 «. - I . - . I .9. ‘ , . . _ C . O ‘ -I I ' v 0 . O _ . * ‘ Co. ‘ . . ' ' " . ‘ ‘ . .1 I , ‘ ‘ - / . ‘ -l'- , _- - l_. ' o o. ‘ fir - - ' ’ . , ' . -Q _~ _, .;. ‘ ‘ . V . ‘o O . $1‘ I. ' I ‘ b '. ~ . ‘ '- " ' " . I , . V‘ ' o . . ' , '- , - , n . . . _ . . 0 ’ - ‘ . ‘Q
  3. 3. ‘ : .‘l"r‘ The belief thwchcggarth is at the center of thA“%¢AU(niVers, c4~ " R ‘M Photo by NASA
  4. 4. ~ * * mznce for yqwient Authorities ' 3 . — Greco-Egyptian mathematician 8: astronomer
  5. 5. ct/ ice for Agtcient A Agitllioritics c : Aristotle A (4th c. BC) Greek philosopher and scientist — THE authority on physics
  6. 6. : 5: 1‘ a O . ... s 7. . .J3:. . A ”, I . . _ . I . .' 4‘ r J: — John Ivfartin, fosbua Commanding the Sun to Stand Still (1816)
  7. 7. There was no day like that before it or after it, c_; _i‘, .5’ ‘ ‘T when the LORD listened -- ‘P to the voice of a man; for the LORD fought for H - ‘ “ Israeli” - _ p J ‘:4 p__". A —- Joshua 10' John Martin, Joshua Commanding the Sun to Stand Still (1816)
  8. 8. Sin up i H, *1“ I142
  9. 9. . . - j‘ ’ ‘ § I ~ ‘o‘I ‘Q . V‘: -‘. ... .. , ..‘o M’ ‘ I _ V. _. . . _. . . _ H . .l “t. ‘ . l ‘ ' ‘ 2 v ' "’ . . ‘R °. ' 94'. ’REVOI . e U" Ir'I'ON. . ' . ‘ I I _ . ' , - _ . _‘ I‘ ‘ L .0 . ' . ‘I, . ' uh -. ' . '. -. li_l'. - ‘. ‘ _ . - - -. .; -. -, __ I - ' . ~ . o _ ‘ . _g , _ ' . . . I y . ‘ . v _ , , » _ ‘Fresh Inqu1r.1es1nt_o__ 5 " Nat? ur'2il, ‘Plfilosophy- I . " '. - ' - '- ‘V . . Pg_ .0 ‘V _ ‘ . " 1 . . v v at‘.
  10. 10. (lfico[aus Copernicus 16th century Polish Priest 8: Astronomer On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres (1543 — Posthumous)
  11. 11. LORD FARQUAAD CONFIRMED Image Subject to Copyright (Fair Use)
  12. 12. .. . . ,1 V . ‘c ‘ _ . .‘ . .' _ . . ‘ . v <PIie[ioeente. ism Tl-1'e'ea.1;t; h r. evol. Ves's ‘I’ at‘, ‘p, __ J1} §§V: around'the; §sgn. . ‘ ‘ - . . ' _ . Photo by NASA
  13. 13. u u . .u zrfi-A~«‘ " v;7l"71vn_1Kriy , .vZ"‘. ‘,-' ‘ ' l
  14. 14. Ejhe Center of the (Universe? ‘ y GEOcentric I . . Theory Copernicus HELIOcentric 16”‘ c. Poland Theory Galileo CONFIRMED 17”‘ c. Italy " Heliocentric Theory
  15. 15. Galileo Gafifei Italian Astronomer and Physicist Photo by 191311
  16. 16. Aristotelian (Physics Free Falling Objects Acceleration? Heavy objects fall faster Objects fall at a constant than lighter objects rate (no acceleration)
  17. 17. Galilean (Physics Free Falling Objects Hea vs. Li tOb'ects l Acceleration? Heavy objects fall at the Objects accelerate as they same rate as lighter objects fall due to gravity Empiricism
  18. 18. Galileo performed his -'«’-um -in D. in1iuy_B. experiments here. A ‘R
  19. 19. ff j, ;;; .T-- —‘v Cannon (Ball vs 1 t . ,-. .. __ ' — ‘E- ‘Q . v . —“ ‘- _ ~ - . ..}, _ j , _ - -‘ . _,. t_}_ - _ . __ T fl. _ V ‘. - » -_ A . ._, _,. ,_ / >_ ‘- “' ‘ u—. _e _ ”_}-__ ‘ ‘ -: c-- 4» _ . :- ' - . ~ ~ . ' . ‘.. , - . .-. - I _ V -e, ‘. ... - . . ‘- ‘-'—’. _‘x T . - R 1. Photo by henhrittcn A, A Qlflusket (Ball
  20. 20. .'s: i.. II‘ . i.I . -ur . ~;I: ‘ . ' '- -': 9:1 . ‘.l:1-‘-I: ):'—. ,--‘- : j‘. n‘_ - - - _‘ ' I . -., , . .‘uI. .'. 'kV_. ‘l: ):«“E. ; u2"' ~~. '.= a): m(: ,«-. *~ " ; a:; nu: -is w"_: -.. ;~&~a: x_Iem: sv. "’= 5 A , _ . ‘ . .““(‘. "' :1 : »,. ' ‘ , ,l ‘J. k ‘ ‘ jj; 'jVk‘_‘H IL , :-. : I: _. -.~; -.~~"r': )i'4_’ls1 :0:t. '~/ Iv); .0‘L . . ‘ 1;‘ ‘ 3. : ;_’- * ‘. ‘.'J ‘'’= ):: l:»‘r‘. '- ‘: l" I’ ll s. ‘.¥'rv. “.'i_‘cxblz-Win‘? ! 'r ; : -_-x. -(«'2' . om’i: :3i'5-I .1 . m:-cu’ 'I: _~ Photo by
  21. 21. CI{e‘fracting {felescope Galileo’s improved telescope allowed him to see things in space that others had not been able to see. Art Credit: Tamasflex
  22. 22. Cjlujnar Q@untains and Craters The moon’s surface was not smooth as was traditionally , i. ‘ ‘_ r . ‘¢‘¢ '_" i. ‘t, '_ . '*~x-0.» ‘u. ‘ -. ‘u i‘! - "4_. ‘ “" ‘ ‘A . ‘ l“‘. '&' “ | ‘,' . ‘ y v _~ - . ‘ . . . .. _‘. . V ~ “ i believed ( _. & a_ - , . u 3. ' I I‘ . Photo by Edan
  23. 23. Galilean QVQ)ons Galileo discovered four moons orbiting Jupiter, proving that objects orbited planets other than earth.
  24. 24. *""""/ ‘R77! ~-’-'5-' -1 / .2» I g. e / / r ‘t . _ . //t. ’/. :/5.»j, u,'; .;fl. 0. _. ol 3 ‘ 3% I’ J ‘ r’ / ' x I at‘ ‘t’‘47 ' -114" ‘ . _ . , . ’ ' /1 j/ ,. / A41 it / / ‘/1 A J 2 ' Cf‘ / // :(/ /D (‘.94 ( 1/; ' . , Z ’/ , $1"? /1‘ 7. ‘G5’ A ‘_‘ IQZILI I . 3;. .. e - ea 4» ~. — we . - / /./ lo. ‘i . .', /I JJQIB ‘ / '5’. K 4?-‘4'(P»-"/1‘ llhii "< “ H. , {I3 ‘I . ).'1‘ S»l: ;~, »r/ L: Ll] (‘N x», /7 we ‘Z i_. _«»‘ v-4.. /4' /1. 7 7, « ' - J, 5"" «L. ta’/ nr: ‘:’: ‘_, /.u: ‘;1§__’, P ‘ I {’ / (}, Alu. z<. -r/ /=-d 144.’lI14// ‘.'~ 4 (I, /fut ‘ix. 4'” “l“7 . /‘J; 2‘/ ta '/5 J_f_/ ""'-"’ / /4 . ,x- , y- .7. / z.- / / f/157 ‘, -p 24’ yr: 14 / )u&_. t 4‘ 71-.1;/ M 97.: . .1 - ‘/ W. 9./ a ; . ;/; .,; e;. ® it / ’ , xv ~/6 p ff‘ ll)‘ ® . -~'. ".; k , »J/ 0 ‘ - ,7 ~14‘-: mu }. .- the ‘ V-. :_"* ; ;.. "/1:: <_3a'7Q, :.. ... (,4,&1,- ~, , / . 7 . if ' 7-— 4 C : ~ i‘). V Palm :4; Lzhlln. M-4‘-'t .
  25. 25. . / " ’Q'j'he §l3hases of <@enus S ‘ - l. ‘—, )_"= .~< -9‘ V’ T EARTH
  26. 26. DRIVING SCIENCE Art Credit: Tamasflex
  27. 27. ._? ‘ ' “#3 .3 ‘- SWll’ = ,, - 4,9. '* ‘ A ‘ 3: . e:; *- . 3 - -3‘ 5,” , ;__
  28. 28. Ni V‘ M
  29. 29. idereas Q[zmcz'as (161 o) The Starry Messenger . rluourllt, I‘ dlflbldllh . ,_, GALILEO GALILEO 247111110 PLORENTINO tuna, -cum-uauuhuuaao PBIISPLCILLL . q{— VATVO Pihafllfli chum M rm} u. . u-
  30. 30. DIALDOGO GALILEO GALILEI LINCEO MATEMATICO SOPRAORDINARIO DELLO STVDIO DI PISA. E Filojéfiz , e M amnatico primaria dd s 1-: R 1-: N1 ss1 M o GR. DVCA DI TOSCAN A- Done ne i congreffi di quatrro giomatc fl difcoxre {op ra i due MASSIMI SISTEMI DEL MONDO TOLEM AJCO, E COPERNICANO; Tropormnlo indeurminatamenlt It ugioni File/ Bfir/7:, 4- Natural; Mntoprr frwm , quanta per l'aIIrd part: . IN FIORENZA, Per Gio: B:ui{L1 L-mdini M DCXXXII. CON LICENZA DE’ SVPEIVORI.
  31. 31. .- A J fl} ”t V l‘‘. :.’£! l.; »1 ‘. ". .I . r l ’ Aristotle believed that heavenly bodies were perfect spheres made up of the fifth element.
  32. 32. st‘? CI know u clicln’t The Catholic Church continued to support biblical cosmology.
  33. 33. : 5: 1‘ a O . ... s 7. . .J3:. . . j’, I . . _ . I . .' 4‘ r J: — John Ivlartin, foshua Commanding the Sun to Stand Still (1816)
  34. 34. Galileo vs. the Clnauisition . _j ’ °
  35. 35. INDEX LIBROKVM PROHIBITORVM, CVM REGVLIS CONFECTIS perP3tr<: saTridcntinaSynodo "‘ " :1ué‘toritateSané? :ifs. D.N. Pij J-, Pont. Max. COmP1'Ol)Zltl: .”
  36. 36. Science VS. the Church? Galileo recanted under pressure from the Church and remained under house arrest in his later years.
  37. 37. gomla of Galileo Florence, Italy 2&3 - » 92‘- L g. _ ‘its. 72"! ’ L91“ 2.3.9 - -, ,___. .. . -- . .. - . Hitoltr 33' .1r. nIiit-§lia_g; <I' '-n. .'. 'i| ‘.c"§g1iI'i'lr. ‘ . .:—
  38. 38. 1 ¢ —-. ;_. .. . C a c A / ‘”. i’ r’ ‘ , 7——______. _____r _ ' ; . rt. . V ‘ ‘ ; ~~ 7' V: ~ N _ _ ‘vi .5 T-. —% - C()ery Ohviously Catholic Photo by at
  39. 39. Conversations with Goal r . - . . ) - “‘)? “ I . -1’ ' ‘ Ii . Q; -_l T? ‘ . "I ‘$1 ll’ .1 I - H53 1" ‘ * f n . -,2‘. .. . .. . . , .7 _- ” -~-‘ N . . -. _ , Q -. _ ,1 _ - J __ - . - 4‘. r Astronomer Co ernicus or Conversations with God, by Matejg (19‘*‘ c)
  40. 40. “A little philosophy A _ C inclineth man’s mind 4;. . ,. 1, _ to atheism; but depth 4.. .! «. —,-:1’-'1 A in philosophy bringeth , men’s minds ab out to N. ‘ ' religion. " —- Sir Francis Bacon
  41. 41. C; %. u-- .1 . ,, r; V‘ v .5» -. . - , ». " , ;, ' § 3,‘ I 4 . -x', ‘’ ‘ 3 J . ‘ an‘. r’ R _ ’ “'7' - . / . x; A — ’ » ‘ ‘air. ,4‘ 1;‘: 1"" . --: - . r_ ) K‘ ', fir/ i "’ “. ._ 311,1 “/ ‘I; . __‘_‘ x‘ _': . l}_, .'l‘§“‘; ‘_; /,? ’,)' “'“~ ' * -_
  42. 42. flohannes lfipler German Mathematician and Astronomer Laws of Planetary Motion
  43. 43. (Elliptical = t"bllS Art Credit: Hankwang
  44. 44. f ‘A Elliptical Talk Soon Come ‘X l . . . -I’ ,
  45. 45. Photo Credit: NASA
  46. 46. NeWton’s Law of ‘Universal Gravitation Dependent on Kepler’s Laws
  47. 47. t, _ . il _. ‘Pnl. .¥. c=I. t1, #3 I. I.Em. r1r’1fm: ., c_1_rr_(_L '{1:~. _.-», J,
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These slides were designed to accompany a lecture on Copernicus and Galileo and their contributions to the development of heliocentric theory during the Scientific Revolution.

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