Human Resources Development
Training & Development
Training Need Analysis, Design & Budgeting
1. Training Wheel
2. Excerpts on BTNI
3. Organizational Triggers
Training Wheel in Training Needs Analysis and Evaluation by Frances and Roland Bee
Systematic environmental scan
and presenting data for
F Y IN
business •Performance reviews
needs? •Testing and assessment
T R AT
NI •Succession planning
•Employee career objectives
What are the
Is the training effective in
Which are best met
Development & Delivery PEOPLE
What precisely is the
AN I N
What is the performance gap?
What are the
Assembling and prioritizing information.
Preparing and monitoring training plans
Preparing a job specification
Analysing the performance gap
NEEDS INTO ACTION
Deciding on format or informal training.
Preparing a training specification.
Deciding to make or buy training.
Choosing a training supplier.
Excerpts on Business Training Needs
Excerpts and its adaptation for the Aditya Birla Group
drawn from Training Needs Analysis – Sharon
Bartram and Brenda Gibson
Types of Training Needs
Training needs fall into two basic categories:
1. Training needs of the organization
2. Training needs of individual employees
The training needs of the organization
have to do with the requirements to
meet the organization's objectives.
• For example, a new employee orientation program is
something the unit / company wants all new employees to
• It meets an organizational need of ensuring all employees have
similar and correct information about the organization, its
policies, and its benefits.
• The unique skills required for jobs within a company are
organizational training needs. For example, providing new
employees in a job with the ability to work with the unit’s PC-
based ERP system is an organizational training need.
• It is a specialized ability—unique to the job—that typical new
employees cannot be assumed to have learned elsewhere.
• However, the basic skills required of an individual employee
(not all employees) in a job are not usually classified as
organizational training needs.
Training Needs of the Organization
• Organizational training needs can be broadly
classified into two general categories:
– Recognized training needs
– Requested training needs
Recognized Training Needs
• These are the needs identified as required by all of
the organization's employees. Sometimes they are
called planned training needs since the organization
knows that all employees have them, and plans can
be made in advance for fulfilling these needs.
They include such things as:
• The need to know the organization, its structure,
policies, procedures, and benefits.
• The need to know a department, its policies, rules,
operating procedures, and personnel.
• The need to have specific job skills and knowledge
not generally possessed by most new employees in
The Need to Know the Organization, Its
Structure, Policies, Procedures, and Benefits
• Most new employees require basic information about
their new employer, the structure of the
organization, its policies, procedures, and conditions
of employment (benefits, general rules, etc.).
• Most units already have an individual or group
orientation training program that supplies this
during the first few days of employment. These days
most benchmarked companies have divided the
orientation program into several parts. Each part is
conducted at the time the employee has the
greatest need of its information.
The need to know a department, its
policies, and personnel
• These needs are similar to those of new employees;
only here the concern is with the individual
department’s requirements and working conditions.
They represent what is required to be known by all
employees in a department (rules, operating
procedures, schedules, team members). The sources
of information usually are— the supervisors and
managers of a department, existing employees etc.
The need to learn specific job requirements
not generally known by most employees
• These are training needs required for specific jobs,
and they are needs that the majority, if not all, new
employees in those jobs (hired, promoted, and
transferred) will probably possess. They are the
activities and responsibilities unique to a job.
For example, most cement sales companies have
customized selling systems. While experience at
another sales company assists a new employee, but
all new employees to Grasim Cement Marketing
would need to be trained in Grasim’s selling systems
Requested Training Needs
• These are needs that are not planned.
• They result from activities :
– Department performance
– Operational and job changes
– Employee and unit’s work culture and morale.
– They are brought to the attention of the
organization when they occur rather than being
Typically, they are brought to training
dept.'s attention by such activities as:
• Changes in jobs and/or systems
• Addition of new equipment/ new processes
• Departmental performance reviews
• New and revised government/ statutory
• OHS, customer satisfaction surveys, organizational
studies, department meetings, and focus groups
• Exit interviews conducted with departing employees
Changes in Jobs and / or Systems
• These are changes made to current methods of
operation. They are usually initiated by the
organization, and they almost always require some
degree of retraining. Here you generally have to
look to the people initiating the change for
information on what training is required. Many times
you will have to conduct studies with existing
employees to determine what training they require
in order to fulfill the changed jobs or systems.
• Addition of New Equipment / Processes
This is basically the same as a change in systems or
jobs. The difference here is that a new piece of
physical equipment or e.g. an ERP system being
Changes in Jobs and / or Systems
• Departmental Performance
If a department’s performance is not meeting its
established standards or objectives, there can be a
number of factors responsible. The department may
have a high percentage of new employees. Its
employees may need either retraining or training on
changes that were not recognized. Employees may
not be operating in the most efficient fashion, or
the problem may not be solvable by training.
Other factors may be causing the problem—other
factors that training cannot correct. For example,
the performance standards for the department may
have been improperly increased or external
economic factors may be reducing product demand
that affects department performance.
Changes in Jobs and / or Systems
• Government Requirements
Revised or new government rules and regulations
can require employee training. For example,
introduction of VAT etc. will lead to many
employers having to conduct training in the
administration of the act's requirements and
compliance by operating personnel with the act's
• OHS, customer satisfaction surveys,
organizational studies, department meetings,
and focus groups
Activities conducted for other purposes may also
identify training needs, even though that is not their
Our OHS studies
• Every two years throw up areas like customer
orientation, management of young talent etc, as
areas which may lend themselves to training.
• Organizational studies may recommend restructuring
of the entire organization or an individual
department. Such restructuring often requires
retraining of existing employees to meet new
requirements. Other times organizational studies
uncover problems with the current structure that
can be solved through training.
Our OHS studies
• Department meetings and focus groups called for
other than the identification of training needs can
still uncover such needs. For example, a meeting to
introduce a new process may discover training is
required to make the change work.
• It is important that all employees be aware that
when such needs are discovered through activities
of this type that they be brought to the attention of
the training department. Then a formal
investigation can be conducted to identify the
specifics of the need.
There always are a few triggers for
Organizational training needs. Some of
them are given in Exhibit 1 below
Organizational Triggers for Training needs
What is happening in your organization that
might be a trigger for training needs analysis?
Potential Triggers include
• Taking on new people • Involvement in initiatives such
• Internal promotions or transfers as ISO , OHS implementation
• New procedures & systems • Diversification into new markets
• New standards • Downsizing
• New structures and relationships • Commitment to training for
• New products specific employees, eg.
• New customer Graduates
• New equipment • Succession planning activities
• Appraisals • Feedback from training events
• Request from: your manager,
senior managers, individuals
• Review of previous training plans
Are there any negative indicators in your
organization that might be additional
triggers? Negative indicators include –
• Customer complaints
• Accident records
• Increasing numbers of grievance and/or disciplinary
• High turnover of new recruits
• Loss of customers
• Increasing turnover of experienced employees
• Standards of work not being achieved
• Increase in waste / rejects / errors
• Higher incidence of sickness and absence
• Decreases in productivity / output
• Low response rates to internal job vacancies
What external influences are there on
your organization that might be further
triggers? External indicators include –
• New legislation
• Changes in legislation
• Customer requirements
• Competitor activity
• Supplier activity
• Professional body regulations / requirements
Who is likely to be affected by each of
• The people at the top?
• Senior managers of functions?
• Departmental managers?
• Section managers, supervisors?
• Other grades, for example clerical, operational?
Where can you find information about
these triggers? For example –
• Training records
• Personnel records
• Health and safety audits
• Sales figures
• M I S reports
• Appraisal documentation
• Direct from customers
• Industry / sector journals
• Industry / sector conferences and exhibitions
• Other trainers in similar organizations
How can you find information about
these triggers? For example –
• Research reports, records and statistics
• Examine the current situation, spend time in
departments / sections to become familiar
with the workflow and observe how people
do their jobs
• Attend management meetings / briefings
• Arrange individual discussions with people at
Translating Training needs into action
• To help ensure that training needs are met as
efficiently as possible, you should conduct annual
training needs identification for the coming year.
• These are then forwarded to the training dept. (or
Gyanodaya ) who would prioritize the needs and
schedule programs to meet these needs.
• You should complete your training needs
Identification along with or before the annual
• The prime responsibility of ensuring that there is a
return on investments in training therefore lies with
the manager and his direct report.
• The training needs for GM’s and above in the Aditya
Birla Group is met from 3 sources – programs at
Gyanodaya, programs at the Units and External
Gyanodaya seeks inputs from 3 sources before
finalizing the annual training calendar –
• First from the BMC Directors, Business Heads & Unit
• Second from the inputs received from the Unit HR
• Third by a skill validation questionnaire filled up by
the participants at Gyanodaya.
Identifying and Reporting Training Requirements
The output of the training needs Identification
exercise goes in to fill the Development Plan
on page 8 of the MPDP form.
• As explained above, the training needs of about 800
GM’s and above in the Group are compiled at
Gyanodaya , these are then converted to "priorities"
for training to be funded.
• Obviously, all training is not funded every year
because of budgetary limitations or physical
limitations of centralized facilities.
Therefore, it becomes incumbent upon you
as a manager to keep accurate records of:
• Your overall training requirements reported and
forecast for the future;
Which of your direct reports have received
requested training, and when;
Which personnel still require or are eligible for
• The impact, on the manpower requirements in your
office, of all of the requested training;
What changes in training requirements are
likely to arise in the coming year?
As a Manager
• You must make sure that you can afford to have
employees absent for training off-the-job
considering other training, operational schedules,
scheduled leave, and other manpower fluctuations.
• You must ensure that the training needs of your
direct reports are met from any of the 3 sources
( Gyanodaya , Unit training or External Training )
• In summation, efforts in training needs
identification will help us ‘do the right things’.
• Training Needs Analysis and Evaluation – Frances and
Roland Bee (Institute of Personnel Management ,
• Training Needs Analysis – Sharon Bartram and Brenda
• How to Identify your organizations Training Needs :
a practical guide to needs analysis – John H