Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
Submitted by:                     Submitted to:
Rimando, Maria Clarita Tondy A.   Ms. Shalimaar Dimaandal
BSN3-d2         ...
   Meningitis is the infection and inflammation
    of the meninges (covering of the brain and
    spinal cord: duramater...
   Causative agents
     Neisseria meningitides
      ▪ Incubation period: 2-10 days
     Haemophilus influenzae
      ...
   Nuchal rigidity:
     It is the inability to
      flex the head forward
      due to rigidity of the
      neck musc...
   Kernig's sign:
     It is positive when the
     leg is bent at the hip
     and knee at 90
     degree angles, and
 ...
   Brudzinski's signs
     It is the appearance
     of involuntary lifting
     of the legs in
     meningeal irritatio...
   Antibiotics:
     Ampicillin, Third-generation Cephalosporin such
      as Ceftriaxone or Ampicillin and an
      Ami...
   Rifampacin and Ciprobay
   Anti-fungal, Antibiotic, Mannitol
   Corticosteroid (Dexamethasone/Solucortef)
   Anti-c...
   A person can pass the infection to others for
    as long as the bacteria are present in
    discharges from the nose ...
   Encourage personal hygiene especially the practice of hand
    washing. Keep hands clean and wash hands properly. Wash...
   Haemophilus Influenzae type B
     Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) is a bacterium
      that can infect the outer...
   Vaccines against four strains of N.
    meningitidis
   Meningococcal Conjugated vaccine are
    given to adolescents...
   Assess neurologic status.
   Monitor vital signs especially temperature frequently or continuously.
   Pulse oximete...
   Vancomycin Hydrochloride in combination
    with one of the Cephalosporins is
    administered IV.
   Dexamethasone (...
   Lumbar Puncture (Increase Protein and
    WBC, Low Sugar level)
     A lumbar puncture takes samples of the fluid aro...
   Imaging (X-rays and CT scans)
     X-rays and computerized tomography (CT) scans
     of the head, chest or sinuses m...
   Both viral meningitis and bacterial meningitis
    can be transmitted through direct contact
    with nose and throat ...
Nasopharyngeal Colonization
                   ↓
           Local Invasion
                   ↓
            Bacteremia
   ...
   Encephalitis is irritation and swelling
    (inflammation) of the brain
    parenchyma, most often due to infections.
...
   Causative agents
     Specifically to rural areas are Arboviruses or
      Arthropod-borne Viruses (viruses carried b...
   Severe headache
   Fever
   Altered consciousness
   Confusion or agitation
   Personality changes
   Seizures
 ...
   Antiviral medications, such as Acyclovir (Zovirax) and
    Foscarnet (Foscavir) -- to treat herpes encephalitis or
   ...
   The period of communicability varies by etiologic
    agent, and some of them are not transmitted from
    person to p...
   Dress to protect yourself. Wear long-sleeved
    shirts and long pants if you're outside when
    mosquitoes are most ...
   Monitoring pupils and vital signs frequently for increased
    intracranial pressure(ICP; irregular pupils, widening p...
   Carefully positioned the patient to prevent joint stiffness
    and neck pain, and turn the patient often.
   Provide...
   Antiviral agent Acyclovir given I.V. for 10 days
    to 3 weeks for herpes simplex virus.
   Blood cultures and fosca...
 Spinal fluid analysis
  ▪ By doing a lumbar puncture (also called a spinal
    tap), your doctor can check the spinal fl...
   Electroencephalography (EEG)
     This can identify abnormal brain waves by monitoring
      electrical activity in t...
   Computer-assisted
    imaging (Computed
    tomography: CT
    SCAN and Magnetic
    resonance imaging:
    MRI)
    ...
   Breathing in respiratory droplets from an
    infected person
   Skin contact
   Mosquito, tick, and other insect bi...
ARTHROPOD-BORNE VIRUS
                    Mosquito bite
                          ↓
        Inadequate Host Immune Respons...
FUNGAL ENCEPHALITIS
            Fungal Spores (enter body through inhalation)
                                  ↓
        ...
Meningitis and Encephalitis
Meningitis and Encephalitis
Meningitis and Encephalitis
Meningitis and Encephalitis
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

of

Meningitis and Encephalitis Slide 1 Meningitis and Encephalitis Slide 2 Meningitis and Encephalitis Slide 3 Meningitis and Encephalitis Slide 4 Meningitis and Encephalitis Slide 5 Meningitis and Encephalitis Slide 6 Meningitis and Encephalitis Slide 7 Meningitis and Encephalitis Slide 8 Meningitis and Encephalitis Slide 9 Meningitis and Encephalitis Slide 10 Meningitis and Encephalitis Slide 11 Meningitis and Encephalitis Slide 12 Meningitis and Encephalitis Slide 13 Meningitis and Encephalitis Slide 14 Meningitis and Encephalitis Slide 15 Meningitis and Encephalitis Slide 16 Meningitis and Encephalitis Slide 17 Meningitis and Encephalitis Slide 18 Meningitis and Encephalitis Slide 19 Meningitis and Encephalitis Slide 20 Meningitis and Encephalitis Slide 21 Meningitis and Encephalitis Slide 22 Meningitis and Encephalitis Slide 23 Meningitis and Encephalitis Slide 24 Meningitis and Encephalitis Slide 25 Meningitis and Encephalitis Slide 26 Meningitis and Encephalitis Slide 27 Meningitis and Encephalitis Slide 28 Meningitis and Encephalitis Slide 29 Meningitis and Encephalitis Slide 30 Meningitis and Encephalitis Slide 31 Meningitis and Encephalitis Slide 32 Meningitis and Encephalitis Slide 33 Meningitis and Encephalitis Slide 34 Meningitis and Encephalitis Slide 35 Meningitis and Encephalitis Slide 36 Meningitis and Encephalitis Slide 37
Upcoming SlideShare
Meningitis And Encephalitis
Next
Download to read offline and view in fullscreen.

28 Likes

Share

Download to read offline

Meningitis and Encephalitis

Download to read offline

Related Books

Free with a 30 day trial from Scribd

See all

Meningitis and Encephalitis

  1. 1. Submitted by: Submitted to: Rimando, Maria Clarita Tondy A. Ms. Shalimaar Dimaandal BSN3-d2 Clinical Instructor
  2. 2.  Meningitis is the infection and inflammation of the meninges (covering of the brain and spinal cord: duramater, arachnoid and piamater) and the cerebrospinal fluid.
  3. 3.  Causative agents  Neisseria meningitides ▪ Incubation period: 2-10 days  Haemophilus influenzae ▪ Incubation period: 1-4 days  Enteroviruses ▪ Incubation period: 3 to 7 days
  4. 4.  Nuchal rigidity:  It is the inability to flex the head forward due to rigidity of the neck muscles; if flexion of the neck is painful but full range of motion is present, nuchal rigidity is absent.
  5. 5.  Kernig's sign:  It is positive when the leg is bent at the hip and knee at 90 degree angles, and subsequent extension in the knee is painful (leading to resistance).
  6. 6.  Brudzinski's signs  It is the appearance of involuntary lifting of the legs in meningeal irritation when lifting a patient's head off the examining couch, with the patient lying supine.
  7. 7.  Antibiotics:  Ampicillin, Third-generation Cephalosporin such as Ceftriaxone or Ampicillin and an Aminoglycoside.  Other drugs include Digitalis glycoside such as Digoxin (to control arrythmias), Mannitol (to decrease cerebral edema) or a Sedative (to reduce restlessness) and Aspirin or Acetaminophen (to relieve headache and fever).
  8. 8.  Rifampacin and Ciprobay  Anti-fungal, Antibiotic, Mannitol  Corticosteroid (Dexamethasone/Solucortef)  Anti-convulsant (Phenytoin) (to reduce restlessness)
  9. 9.  A person can pass the infection to others for as long as the bacteria are present in discharges from the nose and mouth. A person is no longer infectious within 24 to 48 hours after starting antibiotic treatment.
  10. 10.  Encourage personal hygiene especially the practice of hand washing. Keep hands clean and wash hands properly. Wash hands when they are dirtied by respiratory secretions e.g. after sneezing. Cover nose and mouth while sneezing or coughing and dispose of nasal and mouth discharge properly.  Do not share eating and drinking utensils and wash them before use by others.  Avoid going to overcrowded places.  For Neisseria meningitidis meningitis, household contacts and others who have had close personal contact with infected persons are recommended to receive a preventive antibiotic which kills bacteria living in nose and throat secretions.  For contacts of Haemophilus influenzae meningitis, antibiotics may also be recommended  Effective vaccines against Haemophilus influenzae type b, and some types of Neisseria meningitidis are available.
  11. 11.  Haemophilus Influenzae type B  Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) is a bacterium that can infect the outer lining of the brain causing meningitis. Hib disease occurs most often at three months to three years of age, peaking at six to seven months of age. The disease is uncommon after age five years. ▪ Children should get Hib vaccine at: ▪ 2 months of age ▪ 6 months of age ▪ 4 months of age ▪ 12-15 months of age
  12. 12.  Vaccines against four strains of N. meningitidis  Meningococcal Conjugated vaccine are given to adolescents entering high school and to college freshmen living in dormitories.
  13. 13.  Assess neurologic status.  Monitor vital signs especially temperature frequently or continuously.  Pulse oximeter and arterial blood gas (ABG) are use to quickly identify the respiratory support for increasing ICP  Institute other cooling measures such as TSB.  Monitor I & O closely.  Encourage adequate fluid intake.  Darken the room if photophobia is present.  Assist with position to comfort neck stiffness and turn patient slowly and carefully with head and neck in alignment.  Elevate the head of the bed to decrease intracranial pressure and reduce pain.  Administer vaccines against H. influenza type B for children; N. meningitides for patients at high risk; and S. pneumonia for patients with chronic illnesses and the elderly.  Inform patients about the importance of vaccination.
  14. 14.  Vancomycin Hydrochloride in combination with one of the Cephalosporins is administered IV.  Dexamethasone (Decadron)  Dehydration and shock are treated with fluid volume expanders.  Phenytoin (Dilantin)- treatment for seizures if occurs.
  15. 15.  Lumbar Puncture (Increase Protein and WBC, Low Sugar level)  A lumbar puncture takes samples of the fluid around the spine and brain, known as cerebral spinal fluid (CSF). A culture of the spinal fluid is done to check for organisms known to cause illness.  Blood Culture  A blood culture is a test on a sample of blood to check for bacteria in the bloodstream; it may be done if a doctor suspects a blood infection. A blood culture may be helpful in determining the specific bacteria causing an infection and selecting the appropriate antibiotic to treat it.
  16. 16.  Imaging (X-rays and CT scans)  X-rays and computerized tomography (CT) scans of the head, chest or sinuses may reveal swelling or inflammation. These tests can also help your doctor look for infection in other areas of the body that may be associated with meningitis.
  17. 17.  Both viral meningitis and bacterial meningitis can be transmitted through direct contact with nose and throat secretions of infected person (Droplet).  Healthy persons, who have no signs of illness, can carry these bacteria in their nose or throat (Upper respiratory tract infection).  Viral meningitis can also be transmitted through fecal-oral route.
  18. 18. Nasopharyngeal Colonization ↓ Local Invasion ↓ Bacteremia ↓ Endothelial Cell Injury ↓ Meningeal Invasion ↓ Sub arachnoid Space Inflammation ↓ Increased CSF outflow resistance ↓ Interstitial Edema ↓ Increased Intracranial Pressure ↓ Decreased Cerebral Blood Flow
  19. 19.  Encephalitis is irritation and swelling (inflammation) of the brain parenchyma, most often due to infections.  Encephalitis with meningitis is known as meningoencephalitis.
  20. 20.  Causative agents  Specifically to rural areas are Arboviruses or Arthropod-borne Viruses (viruses carried by arthropods, such as mosquitoes and tick), while in urban areas it is most frequently caused by Enteroviruses (Coxsackievirus, Poliovirus and Echovirus)  Enteroviruses Incubation Period is most oftenly 3-5 days
  21. 21.  Severe headache  Fever  Altered consciousness  Confusion or agitation  Personality changes  Seizures  Loss of sensation or paralysis in certain areas of the body  Muscle weakness  Hallucinations  Double vision  Perception of foul smells  Problems with speech or hearing  Loss of consciousness
  22. 22.  Antiviral medications, such as Acyclovir (Zovirax) and Foscarnet (Foscavir) -- to treat herpes encephalitis or other severe viral infections (however, no specific antiviral drugs are available to fight encephalitis)  Antibiotics -- if the infection is caused by certain bacteria  Anti-seizure medications (such as Phenytoin) -- to prevent seizures  Steroids (such as Dexamethasone) -- to reduce brain swelling (in rare cases)  Sedatives -- to treat irritability or restlessness  Acetaminophen -- for fever and headache
  23. 23.  The period of communicability varies by etiologic agent, and some of them are not transmitted from person to person (e.g., histoplasmosis and toxoplasmosis). Enteroviruses may be shed in feces for several days to many weeks after symptoms have resolved. Enteroviruses may also be shed in respiratory secretions, usually for no longer than one week following symptoms.
  24. 24.  Dress to protect yourself. Wear long-sleeved shirts and long pants if you're outside when mosquitoes are most active and when you're in a wooded area with tall grasses and shrubs where ticks are more common.  Apply mosquito repellent. To repel mosquitoes.  Keep mosquitoes out of your home. Repair holes in screens on doors and windows.
  25. 25.  Monitoring pupils and vital signs frequently for increased intracranial pressure(ICP; irregular pupils, widening pulse pressure, tachycardia, irregular breathing hyperthermia).  Monitor neurologic status closely. Watch for subtle changes, such as behavior or personality changes, weakness, or cranial nerve involvement  Maintain adequate fluid intake to prevent dehydration, but avoid fluid overload, which may increase cerebral edema.  Maintain adequate nutrition. Give small, frequent meals, or supplement meals with nasogastric tube or parenteral feedings.  To prevent constipation and minimize the risk of increased ICP resulting from straining at stool, provide a mild laxative or stool softener.
  26. 26.  Carefully positioned the patient to prevent joint stiffness and neck pain, and turn the patient often.  Provide thorough mouth care.  Maintain a quiet environment. Darkening the room may decrease headache.  If the patient has seizures, take precautions to protect him from injury.  Measure and record intake and output.  If the patient becomes delirious or confused, try to reorient him often.  Teach the patient and his family about the disease and its effects.  Teach eradication of the source of infection: Use insecticide or insect repellent and placement of screens to doors and windows.
  27. 27.  Antiviral agent Acyclovir given I.V. for 10 days to 3 weeks for herpes simplex virus.  Blood cultures and foscarnet I.V. for CMV encephalitis.  Anticonvulsants to treat seizures, corticosteroids to reduce cerebral edema, and sedatives and analgesics as supportive therapy.
  28. 28.  Spinal fluid analysis ▪ By doing a lumbar puncture (also called a spinal tap), your doctor can check the spinal fluid for an increase in white blood cells and protein.
  29. 29.  Electroencephalography (EEG)  This can identify abnormal brain waves by monitoring electrical activity in the brain through the skull. Among its many functions, EEG is used to help diagnose certain seizure disorders, brain damage from head injuries, specific viral infections such as herpes virus, and inflammation of the brain and/or spinal cord.  Blood tests.  These tests can show what type of virus is causing encephalitis.
  30. 30.  Computer-assisted imaging (Computed tomography: CT SCAN and Magnetic resonance imaging: MRI)  This can reveal signs of brain inflammation, internal bleeding or hemorrhage, or other brain abnormalities.
  31. 31.  Breathing in respiratory droplets from an infected person  Skin contact  Mosquito, tick, and other insect bites  Tick of Horses  Migratory Birds  Contaminated food or drink
  32. 32. ARTHROPOD-BORNE VIRUS Mosquito bite ↓ Inadequate Host Immune Response ↓ Viremia ↓ Cerebral Capillaries ↓ Central Nervous System ↓ Cortical Gray Matter, The Brain Stem and Thalamus ↓ Meningual Exudates ↓ Irritating The Meninges ↓ Increasing Intracranial Pressure
  33. 33. FUNGAL ENCEPHALITIS Fungal Spores (enter body through inhalation) ↓ Infect the Lungs ↓ Vague Respiratory Symptoms or Pneumonitis ↓ Bloodstream ↓ Fungemia ↓ Central Nervous System ↓ Encephalitis ↓ Fever, Malaise, Headache, Meningeal signs and change in Cranial Nerve Dysfunction
  • UtkarshPatel87

    Sep. 16, 2021
  • MohanaPriya252

    Sep. 1, 2021
  • JemaPatel

    Apr. 14, 2021
  • SwetaKumar11

    Oct. 15, 2020
  • SuganyaRajan7

    Aug. 17, 2020
  • HetviVyas1

    Jul. 1, 2020
  • GeetanjaliSah1

    May. 11, 2020
  • NamitaSingh87

    Feb. 14, 2020
  • RazanMandour

    Jan. 13, 2020
  • PratikshaSingru1

    Jan. 9, 2020
  • PoojaHajra

    Nov. 5, 2019
  • ARJUNARJUN57

    Jun. 12, 2019
  • sureshsukhwani02

    Jun. 10, 2019
  • muppalaprakash

    Mar. 27, 2019
  • Samarsmj

    May. 10, 2018
  • AnchalAnand2

    Apr. 18, 2018
  • SuryaHunk

    Apr. 11, 2018
  • AnumKhan92

    Mar. 27, 2018
  • DokkuSwathi

    Feb. 26, 2018
  • edgardunamis

    Nov. 27, 2017

Views

Total views

14,867

On Slideshare

0

From embeds

0

Number of embeds

56

Actions

Downloads

753

Shares

0

Comments

0

Likes

28

×