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Valuation is the technique of estimating and determining the fair price or value of
a property such as a building, a factory or other engineering structures of various
types, land etc.
Valuation is an art of assessing the value of a Property. For doing valuation it is
important to know from the client what the purpose of valuation is.
Valuation of a building depends on:-
Type of the building,
Building structure and durability,
On the situation,
Size of building,
Shape of building,
Frontage of building,
Width of roadways,
The quality of materials used in
Present day prices of materials
The valuation of a building is determined on working out its cost of construction at
present day rate and allowing a suitable depreciation.
PURPOSE OF VALUATION:-
Buying or Selling Property: - When it is required to buy or sell a property, its
valuation is required.
Taxation: - To assess the tax of a property, its valuation is required. Taxes may
be municipal tax, wealth tax, Property tax etc, and all the taxes are fixed on the
valuation of the property.
Rent Function: - In order to determine the rent of a property, valuation is
required. Rent is usually fixed on the certain percentage of the amount of
valuation which is 6% to 10% of valuation.
Security of loans or Mortgage: - When loans are taken against the security of the
property, its valuation is required.
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Compulsory acquisition: - Whenever a property is acquired by law; compensation
is paid to the owner. To determine the amount of compensation, valuation of the
property is required.
Insurance, Betterment charges, speculations:- Valuation of a property is also
required for Insurance, Betterment charges, speculations etc.
Probate/ death duty
Partition of property
Fixing minimum reserve price in property auctions.
Value means the worth of a commodity in exchange, and for the sake of
convenience it is measured in terms of money.
Value is an estimate of what the price ought to be.
Valuation is an opinion and varies from purpose to purpose. Value can be said to
be ratio between prices of money and price in return.
In order to have value, a commodity must have three essential qualifications, namely:-
a) It must possess utility
b) It must be scarce
c) It must be transferable or marketable.
TYPES OF VALUE:-
The market value of a property is the amount which can be obtained at any
particular time from the open market if the property is put for sale.
The market value will differ from time to time according to demand and supply.
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The market value also changes from time to time for various miscellaneous
reasons such as changes in industry, changes in fashions, means of transport,
cost of materials and labour etc.
i. Vendor must be willing to sell
ii. Purchaser must be willing to purchase and must be a prudent one who can put
the land to the most beneficial use.
iii. No compulsion on either in the transaction
iv. Urgent necessity of purchase or sale to be discarded
v. Disinclination of vendor to be ignored.
vi. Sentimental value to the vendor will have no place
vii. Present and future uses known as potentials are to be taken into account.
It is worked out and recorded in the register of local municipal authority and used
for the purpose of determining the property tax payable by the owner.
Forced value or Distress value is the value paid to seller who is in some kind of
compulsion to sell, by a buyer who is not particularly interested in buying the
asset. In such cases the transaction materializes due to the low price payable or
the high price obtained as compared to the fair market value.
It is the present value of a property duly taking into consideration the income it
will start yielding in future.
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Potential value takes into account future utility, means the value which a property
is expected to develop if and then probabilities like movement of building activity
towards the pierce of land or property, due to proposed new roads, town planning
schemes, division into building plots and the like become actualities.
Scrap value may be defined as the values of materials of dismantle buildings.
After the completion of utility period the dismantled materials such as Steel,
timber, bricks and furniture will fetch a certain amount which is called scrap value
Scrap value of building is about 10 % of its total cost of construction.
The value of building at the end of utility period without being dismantled is called
the Salvage Value.
Another example is a machine after the completion of its usual span of life, may
be sold or purchased by someone for other use.
The sale value of that machine is called Salvage value.
Salvage value of a property or an asset may be positive, zero or negative. For
example the salvage value of RCC structures is negative, because dismantling
and removal will be costly.
Scrap value of machine is Positive because it will be used for other purpose.
Insurable value relates to the cost to reproduce improvements. Insurance
proceeds for building construction for damages caused by fire, flood or other
hazard, are usually based on the cost to reproduce the structure.
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Liquidation Value relates to the concept that the property requires immediate
Liquidation value would result with an abbreviated marketing period such as an
auction or bank foreclosure sale.
This would not meet the criteria of the market value definition that a reasonable
time is allowed for exposure in open market.
To estimate liquidation value, a discount is usually applied to the property’s
market value; the discount is based on other liquidation sales.
Book value is the amount shown in the account book after allowing necessary
The book value of a property at a particular year is the original cost minus the
amount of depreciation allowed per year and will be gradually reduced year to
year and at the end of the utility period of the property, the book value will be only
INTER-RELATION OF COST, VALUE AND PRICE:-
COST:It is the expenditure to produce a commodity having a value
PRICE:It is cost of commodity plus additional reward to the producer for the
labour and capital invested.
VALUE: It is not inherent in the property itself will be determined in the open
market by following factors
a) Utility of commodity
b) Scarcity as existing
c) Transferability or Marketability
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VALUE IS A FUNCTION OF TIME, PLACE AND PURPOSE.
Cost is a Fact
Price is a policy
Value is an Opinion
Factors affecting the value of property:-
Increase in demand or decrease in supply tend to cause the prices to rise, and
Where the supply is highly elastic and quickly adjusts and matches the demand,
the rise or fall in prices will only be marginal.
The demand and supply of land and building is affected by:-
Rise or fall in population of a particular property
Stability, expanding business, commerce and enterprises, new factories,
increasing level of prosperity and the like will increase the demand for new and
better residential accommodation/shops/offices etc. And the rents will in turn
show an upward tendency.
Restrictions imposed by local and state authorities affect the supply of land and
buildings. Such restrictions may be in the form of development plans, zoning for
residential/commercial/industrial areas, curbs on intensity of use of land such as
laid down floor space index, building bye laws, urban land ceiling act and the like.
When other forms of investment become more attractive in comparison, the
value of land and buildings get adversely affected.
Concentration of available investable capital in a few hands usually results in
increase in value of lands and buildings and vice versa.
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Value of land and building tend to rise sharply when inflationary conditions
prevail. Shares, bullions and real estate are of late considered as the only forms
of investment capable of keeping ahead of the eroding worth of rupee.
Proposals for developments in civil amenities in a particular locality will enhance
the value of vacant plots. On the other hand, declaration of green belts,
reservations, possibility of government acquiring land and other such factors will
sharply reduce price of land in the affected locality.
A plot surrounded on all sides leaving no approach will fetch a lower price as
compared to adjoining plots having proper approach.
In the case of built up property, the condition of the structure, amounts required
to be spent on repairs, insurance, and maintenance, future life of building, vacant
or tenant occupied and all such pertinent factors affect value of the property.
Obsolescence is defined as the overall decrease in the value of property or
structure due to becoming outdated in style, in structure or in design. So
ultimately reducing value of the building.
i.e an old dated building with massive walls, arrangement of rooms not suited in
present days becomes obsolete even if it is well maintained.
Reasons of Obsolescence
Progress in Art
Change in Fashion
Change in planning idea
New trends in Market
Improvement in Design
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DIFFERENT METHODS OF VALUATION
The method changes depending on whether you are building, buying or selling
the property in question and despite common misperceptions, valuations of a
property can alter significantly depending on the valuation method used.
There are a number of methods of valuing property, each of which has its
advantages and disadvantages. But, most common are divided in two categories
A. INCOME CAPITALIZATION OR INVESTMENT METHOD
i) Rental method
ii) Profit method
B. PHYSICAL METHOD
i) Land and building method
ii) Development method
A. INCOME CAPITALIZATION OR INVESTMENT METHOD
Income capitalization or investment method of valuation depends on a fairly
accurate assessment of the net income from the property.
The various periodically recurring charges/expenses/taxes etc. termed as
“outgoings” are to be deducted from the gross income in order to arrive at the net
income of the property.
Total of outgoings of a property will differ from one case to another, and may vary
in the region of 30 to 55% of the gross rent receivable from the property.
i) Rental Method:
In this method, the net income by way of rent is found out by deducting all
outgoing from the gross rent.
A suitable rate of interest as prevailing in the market is assumed and Year’s
purchase is calculated. This net income multiplied by Year’s Purchase gives the
capitalized value or valuation of the property.
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This method is applicable only when the rent is known or probable rent is
determined by enquiries.
ii) Profit Method:
This method of Valuation is suitable for buildings like hotels, cinemas, theatres
etc for which the capitalized value depends on the profit.
In such cases, the net income is worked out after deducting gross income; all
possible working expense, outgoings, interest on the capital invested etc. The net
profit is multiplied by Year’s Purchase to get the capitalized value.
In such cases, the valuation may work out to be high in comparison with the cost
B. PHYSICAL METHOD
i) Land and Building method of valuation:-
Land and building method of valuation consists of estimating the cost of building,
depreciated to allow for age of the building on the relevant date of valuation, and
adding to it the fair market value of land on the relevant date of valuation.
This method is suitable when land forming part of the property is not yet utilized
to the full extent allowable by rules/statutes/legislation of the local/state
authorities, making application of rental method of valuation difficult.
It also provides a useful cross-check on the valuation done by other methods.
a. Valuation of Land component:-
Valuation of land component of the property depends on the comparison
technique, wherein value of comparable plots of land from various instances of
sale in the recent past is taken, and by working out an average, assessment of
the market rate of land is made.
Market value of land depends on many factors such as location, size and shape
of plot, depth/frontage/return frontage, width of road, vista etc.
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After deciding the average market value of land in the vicinity, weightage for
various plus and minus factors of the land being valued is considered to arrive at
the land rate to be adopted for the valuation being done.
BELTING OF LAND:-
Front land is always more valuable than land at its rear.
For valuation of large plots of land having considerable depth and where the plot
cannot be subdivided into smaller plots due to legal or situational restraints the
method of belting of land is adopted.
Belting method can be resorted to only for very large plots of say more than 1000
sq.m. In area and having road at one of the smaller side of the plot only.
In the belting method the depth of plot is divided into three belts. The depth of the
first belt having frontage has to be decided considering the nature of land use in
Generally 20meter depth in commercial locality and 30 meter depth in residential
locality is adopted for the first belt.
Depth of the second belt is usually taken as 50% more than the depth of the first
belt, and remaining land at rear of the second belt is taken as the third belt.
Value per unit of land in the first belt is taken same as the rate of plots of
reasonable size and having depths ideal for the intended land use i.e.
Rate of land in the second belt is taken as 66% of the land rate in the first belt.
And for the balance third belt the rate is taken as 50% of the land rate in the first
b. Valuation of Building component:-
Valuation of the building component of a property involves two aspects namely
ascertainment of cost of construction on the date of valuation and the
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depreciation in value to account for age of the building, duly allowing for scrap
value realizable at the end of the buildings life.
The account method for calculating cost of a building can be employed where
careful account of costs incurred on labour, materials, supervision and incidental
expenses such as architect’s fees etc. is carefully maintained or where work has
been executed by concluding a contract with a builder.
Detailed or item wised method of calculating cost of building involves working out
quantities of all items of work and applying unit rates of each item prevailing on
the date of valuation.
This is the most accurate method but is laborious and involves a great deal of
time and effort.
Development method for a valuation of land is used in the case of a large tract of
vacant land which has gained a building potential due to movement of building
activity towards the land.
The purpose of this method is to find out the potential value of the land if it is
developed by laying out roads and dividing the land into plots of reasonable size
for sale to prospective buyers after providing essential amenities and
Procedure for valuation of this method will be:-
i) Examine the demand and current market rate for small plots of reasonable size
in the area.
ii) Ensure that there are no encumbrances like “green belt”, or reservations for
public utilities/hospitals/educational institutions/market yards etc, applicable to
the land in question.
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iii) Examine rules of development control/town planning departments etc. To find out
minimum widths for colony roads, areas to be set aside for compulsory gardens/
children’s play ground/community hall/electric sub-stations/pumping sub-
stations/overhead water tanks/sewage disposal schemes and the like.
After deducting the area required for roads and other amenities from the area of
land being developed, the balance area multiplied by the expected sale price per
unit area for small plots will yield the likely gross income.
VARIOUS TERMS IN VALUATION
Sinking Fund may be defined as the fund which is gradually accumulated by way
of periodic on account deposit for the replacement of building or structure at the
end of its useful life.
Main function of creating Sinking fund is to accumulate sufficient to meet the cost
of construction or maintenance or replacement of structure after its utility period.
Depreciation is the gradual decrease in the property with time due to structural
deterioration, wear and tear, decay and obsolescence .the value is reduced due
to gradually used reduced due to its use, life, wear & tear.
Depreciation is the gradual exhaustion of the usefulness of a property. This may
be defined as the decrease or loss in the value of a property due to structural
deterioration, life wear and tear, decay and obsolescence.
Depreciation as the ‘allocation of the depreciable amount of an asset over its
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Rateable Value is net annual letting value of a property, which is obtainable after
deducting the amount of yearly repairs from gross income. Municipal and other
taxes are charged at a certain percentage on the rateable value.
Annuity is the annual periodic payments for repayment of the capital amount
invested by the party.
These payments are either paid at the end of year or at the start of year.
Capital cost is the total cost of construction including land, or the original total
amount required to possess a property.
It is the original cost and does not change while the value of the property is the
present cost which may be calculated by methods of Valuation.
Capitalized Value of a Property
The capitalized value of a property is the amount of money whose annual interest
at the highest prevailing rate of interest will be equal to the net income from the
To determine the capitalized value of a property, it is required to know the net
income from the property and the highest prevailing rate of interest.
Capitalized Value = Net income x year’s purchase
Year’s purchase is defined as the capital sum required to be invested in order to
receive a net receive a net annual income as an annuity of rupee one at a fixed
rate of interest.
The capital sum should be 1×100/rate of interest.
Thus to gain an annual income of Rs x at a fixed rate of interest,
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The capital sum should be x(100/rate of interest)
But (100/rate of interest) is termed as Year’s Purchase.
Factors considered During Valuation
Area where Property Situated
Present Cost of Material
Heritage value of Building
Condition of scrap