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Foreign aid

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Year 10 Geography

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Foreign aid

  1. 1. Global Citizenship
  2. 2. What can global citizenship achieve?
  3. 3. What can global citizenship achieve?
  4. 4. What is AID? Aid means assistance and it takes different forms. Sometimes it is monetary assistance which means that money is paid to the government or an organisation working in the other country. Sometimes it is expertise, workers, equipment or machinery. Aid is the transfer of goods and services from developed to developing nations. Foreign Aid, improving human wellbeing
  5. 5. Outline the concerns for human wellbeing in Source C. What time of day was this photograph taken?
  6. 6. Poverty means lacking basic living standards and conditions. Not being able to progress and have the same opportunities as other people. Poverty means a relatively short life, poor health and poor access to health care. It can also mean a low income and poor education level (literacy skills) Poverty often involves large families and often war and conflict.
  7. 7. THE STATE OF THE WORLD IN 2016 Today across the world, 1.3 billion people out of 7.2 billion live on less than $1 a day. 3 billion live on under $2 a day 1.3 billion have no access to clean drinking water 2.5 billion have no access to SANITATION. 2 billion have no access to electricity Every day, around 25,000 children die from poverty related issues 150 million children without the chance to go to school. 1 billion people are illiterate.
  8. 8. What is the HDI? The Human Development Index recognises that a country’s economy alone is not enough to measure its wellbeing – we have to look at its people and their capabilities. It looks at health, knowledge and standard of living, The HDI is a summary of average achievement in key dimensions of human development – a long and happy life, being knowledgeable and having a decent standard of living. Access the 2015 HDI report here The HDI
  9. 9. WHY DOES POVERTY EXIST AND WHY ARE PEOPLE STUCK IN POVERTY? What if I was born into poverty?
  10. 10. A New Solution by the United Nations
  11. 11. What are they? World leaders met in New York in September 2015 and agreed on 17 goals for the world to be met by 2030 Build on the success of the Millennium Development Goals but integrating economic growth with protecting the planet They are not legally binding The Sustainable Development Goals are an intergovernmental set of aspiration goals, overseen by the UN, to improve economic prosperity and sustainability globally by 2030 Sustainable Development Goals
  12. 12. Go to https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org In pairs, choose one goal each and read the targets. Write a summary of how that goal will be achieved – use subheadings and ask about any new terms Report back to the class Task
  13. 13. If each nation donated 0.7% of their gross national income to foreign aid the Sustainable Development Goals could be met by 2030 What is Needed?
  14. 14. WHAT IS FOREIGN AID?
  15. 15. Opinions on foreign aid
  16. 16. Opinions on foreign aid
  17. 17. Foreign Aid Myths
  18. 18. + Types of AID • Aid can be given or received in a variety of forms depending on the country who is giving or receiving the aid, and whether it is a long term or short term solution. TERM DEFINITION Bilateral Monetary or other assistance given from one country to another. E.g. Australia giving aid to East Timor Multi-lateral Provided by a number of countries, often through an international organisation, or through a number of countries agreeing to help out. E.g. Australia, NZ, USA and China giving aid to Japan after the tsunami. Tied Aid Aid provided where a country ensures that the money is spent on what they are giving the aid for. Sometimes it is given with an agreement that the receiving country will now trade goods and services with them. Untied Aid Assistance given, free of conditions (very rare in the 21st century due to corruption and poor governance).
  19. 19. + What other types of aid are there? Food aid Assistance in the food of fruit, vegetables, drinking water, seeds, etc. Technical Aid Assistance thorough the provision of experts. This could include teachers, doctors, builders etc. Monetary Aid Assistance in the form of funds Emergency Aid Urgent assistance provided after an incident such as an earthquake, brushfire, Tsunami or flood
  20. 20. GROUP WORK TASK 1. Economic advantages 2. Cultural advantages 3. Geopolitical advantages 4. Economic disadvantages 5. Cultural disadvantages 6. Geopolitical disadvantages EACH GROUP IS TO FORM 4 POINTS UNDER THEIR GIVEN TOPIC FROM THE ARTICLE AND ARE TO SHARE THEIR INFORMATION WITH THE CLASS IN 10 MINUTES.
  21. 21. Cultural, economic and geopolitical advantages 1. Increase regional stability – prevent ‘failed states’ 2. Better Regional security in the Asia-Pacific Region 3. Increase demand for Australian exports, employment and investment opportunities. 4. Strengthen long-term international relations 5. Poverty reduction 6. Learn about new cultures and their beliefs (Educate Australians). 7. humanitarian needs 8. Creates jobs 9. Saves Lives
  22. 22. Cultural, economic and geopolitical disadvantages 1. encourages a culture of dependence 2. Aid can discourage development and hinder growth of a nation. 3. There are dangers and risks associated with delivering aid. 4. foster resentment – paternalist, neo-colonialism – insensitive to cultural values of recipient country 5. promote economic growth for the rich, but not address environmental impacts and poverty-reduction. In other words (widen the gap between rich and poor). 6. Poor countries may not afford to repay Australia. They can fall further into debt.
  23. 23. Extension activity 1. Compare Australia's Aid Program with ONE other developed world country from the following: 2. - USA, France, Norway, UK, Sweden
  24. 24. The Millennium Development Goals
  25. 25. Read the article from World Vision and summarise it Answer this question: Evaluate the effectiveness of foreign aid in improving global inequalities Does Foreign Aid Work?
  26. 26. Writing Evaluative Responses • Evaluate= make a judgment based on criteria. Put a value on factors or points. • Therefore, however, clearly evident, moreover, primary factor, major influence, significant, in addition, overall, it is for these reasons, firstly, secondly, thirdly, most important factor, significantly, highly influential, this has been successful/unsuccessful, because, it is for these reasons, as a result, vital factor. • You must write explicitly, using geographic terminology. • You need to strengthen your answer with evidence and write with confidence and clarity.
  27. 27. In the year 2000 developed counties agreed to give 0.7% of their Gross National Income (GNI) to aid for developing countries by 2015. In 2015 the Australian government gives 0.22%, which is $4 billion. By 2016–17 the annual aid figure is estimated to reach around $8–9 billion (0.5 per cent of Gross National Income Australian Foreign Aid
  28. 28. AUSTRALIAN GOVERNMENT AID 1 Indonesia $458 million 2 PNG $457 million 3 Solomon Islands $225 million 4 Afghanistan $123 million 5 Vietnam $120 million 6 Philippines $118 million 7 East Timor $103 million 8 Bangladesh $70 million 9 Vanuatu $66 million 10 Cambodia $64 million 70% of Australian foreign aid is spent in the Asia Pacific region.
  29. 29. THE COMPONENTS OF AUSTRALIA'S AID PROGRAM: • Security (strengthening regional security by enhancing the recipients capacity to prevent conflict, enhance stability and manage relations with other countries). • Sustainable resource management (promoting sustainable approaches to the management of the environment, including rural development and the use of scarce natural resources • Human capital: supporting stability and the legitimacy of government through improved basic services, such as health, education and water and sanitation services • Governance (promoting democratic and accountable government and effective public administration) • Globalisation: (assisting developing countries to access and maximise the benefits from trade and new information technologies
  30. 30. Winners of the 2014 budget! 1. Medical research Gets a $20 billion Medical Research Future Fund 2. Small to medium businesses 1.5 per cent company tax cut and no parental leave levy 3. Construction firms With $11 billion in infrastructure spending 4. School chaplains $245 million over five years 5. Defence Spending to rise to 2 per cent of GDP within a decade 6. Mothers Paid Parental Leave Scheme to pay new mothers up to $50,000 7. Ballerinas $1 million for ballet students' boarding accommodation
  31. 31. Losers of the 2014 budget 1. The sick $7 fee increase for GP visits and cuts to hospital funding 2. University students Face higher, deregulated fees 3. Foreign aid Reduction in foreign aid budget of $7.9 billion over five years 4. High income earners Deficit tax rise of 2 percentage points for people earning more than $180,000 a year 5. Public servants 16,500 job losses 6. Video gamers Abolishing the Australian Interactive Games Fund, saving $10 million 7. Pensioners Pension age rises to 70 from 2035 and concessions cut 8. Families Cuts to Family Tax Benefit Part B 9. Young unemployed Under 30s face a six-month wait for a reduced dole 10. Motorists More expensive petrol with a fuel levy 11. Indigenous people A $500 million cut to indigenous programs over five years 12. Local councils Cuts of nearly $1 billion over four years
  32. 32. Evaluating Australia's foreign aid budget
  33. 33. Case Study: World Bank Who are they? What is their goal/mission? What type of aid do they provide? Outline three strategies they use to provide this aid Outline three achievements they have made Do a Google News search to find one criticism of the World Bank and outline it briefly. Do you think it is valid? Why/why not?
  34. 34. Case Study: Aid Recipient Find a country that receives aid from Australia. Find its GDP, GNI, HDP, infant mortality rate, fertility rate, HIV/AIDS rate, history of natural disasters (note that you will need to define these terms) Create an overview of Australia’s aid to the nation in the last ten years, outlining the types of aid, amount of aid and programs instituted Evaluate the success of this aid program using improvements in the criteria above to make your judgment. You may not be able to locate information on all criteria, but do your best.
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Year 10 Geography

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