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SAJAL DEBBARMA

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Seminar

  1. 1. Role of Bio-regulators in Vegetable Production Course title : Master’s seminar Course No. : APV-600 Speaker : Sajal Debbarma Id.No: 48052
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION  Bio-regulators are endogenous or synthetically produced substances that can control one or more specific biochemical and physiological functions of many species probably by their influence on gene and enzyme interactions (Olaiya, 2013).  Other terms used for Bio–regulator are Plant growth regulator (PGR) or Growth hormone.  Account for 5-10% of the world agrichemical sales. (Mori, 2011)
  3. 3.  TYPES OF BIO- REGULATOR  Natural bio-regulator- Auxins, Gibberellins, Cytokinins, Ethylene, Abscisic acid Fig : GA3  Synthetic bio-regulator- IBA, 2,4-D, NAA, 2,4,5-T, Alar, Morphactin, Cycocel, Maleic hydrazide etc. Fig : TIBA Fig : GA3
  4. 4.  Major groups of bio-regulators  Auxins Gibberellins Cytokinins Ethylene Abscisic acid
  5. 5. AUXINS  Types of Auxins Natural : Indole 3 acetic acid (IAA).  Synthetic : IBA, NAA,2,4-D. Fig : IBA powder Fig: NAA
  6. 6.  FUNCTIONS OF AUXINS
  7. 7.  Functions of Gibberellins
  8. 8.  Functions of Cytokinins 1. Cell division :The most important biological effect of kinetin on plants is to induce cell division especially in carrot root tissue, pea callus etc. 2. Cell enlargement : Like auxins and gibberellins, the kinetin may also induces cell enlargement in the leaves of Phaseolus vulgaris, pumpkin cotyledons etc. 3. Flower induction: Cytokinins can be employed successfully to induce flowering in short day plants. 4. Dormancy of seeds: Like gibberellins, the dormancy of certain light sensitive seeds such as lettuce can also be broken by kinetin treatment. 5. It delays leaf senescence. Fig : Kinetin
  9. 9. Functions of Abscisic acid Growth Inhibiters: ABA inhibits shoot growth but has less effect on root growth. Induces bud dormancy and seed dormancy. Induces tuberisation. Induces senescence of leaves , abscission of leaves, flowers and fruits.  Stomatal closing.
  10. 10.  Functions of Ethylene
  11. 11. CommerCial uses of bio- regulators in vegetable Crops
  12. 12.  Seed Germination Pre-sowing treatment of seed with growth regulators has been reported to enhance seed emergence.  In tomato, pre sowing seed treatment with 100 ppm IAA, IBA and NAA enhanced the seed germination ( Olaiya et al.,2009).  Pre-sowing treatment of seed with GA3 and KNO3 @ 50 ppm enhanced the germination of endive and chicory, respectively (Tzortzakis, 2009). In muskmelon, soaking of seeds in ethephon at 480 mg/liter of water for 24 hours improves germination in muskmelon at low temperature (Meena, 2015).
  13. 13. Effect of plant bioregulators on seed yield, germination and vigour in okra [ Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench ] SL. NO. TREATMENTS GERMINATION % SEEDLING LENGH ( cm) 1 Control 79.50 29.05 2 NAA @ 50 ppm 85.00 28.39 3 NAA @ 100 ppm 94.67 27.39 4 NAA @ 150 ppm 89.83 27.07 5 GA3 @ 50 ppm 87.50 27.63 6 GA3@ 100 ppm 87.50 26.34 7 GA3 @ 150 ppm 84.83 25.41 CD at 5% 5.02 3.67 Source : Khan et al., 2013
  14. 14.  Seed dormancy  Seed dormancy is main problem in potato and Lettuce. Chemicals which have been reported to break the rest period are GA, Ethylene chlorhydrin and Thiourea. Soak the tubers in 1% aqueous solution of thiourea for 1 hour or solution containing 5-10 ppm GA3 for 10- 20 minutes can be used to break the dormancy of potato ( Byran , 1989) Lettuce is another vegetable in which treatment with GA3 or Cytokinin has been reported to break seed dormancy induced by high temperature.
  15. 15.  Flowering  Induction of flowering which otherwise fails to flower has also been reported with the use of various growth regulators.  NAA 50 ppm has been reported to induce early flowering in paprika ( Kannan et al., 2009)  Plants sprayed with 300 ppm GA3 were earliest to flower and recorded highest number of fruits and yield per plant in tomato ( Sharma et al.,1992)
  16. 16. Effect of Plant Growth Regulators on Yield Contributing Characters and Yield of Bell Pepper (Capsicum annum) Varieties VARIETIES TREATMENTS Days to 1st flowering No. of flowers /plant Days to 1st harvest BARI Misti morich-1 Control 57.33 29.67 122.33 GA3 at 100 ppm 53.67 30.33 113.67 4-CPA at 2000 ppm 49.67 32.67 101.67 Litosen at 1000 ppm 50.33 31.33 109.67 Lamuyo Control 52.67 31.67 119.33 GA3 at 100 ppm 51.67 32.67 109.33 4-CPA at 2000 ppm 48.67 33.33 103.67 Litosen at 1000 ppm 50.00 32.67 107.00 CD at 5% 2.623 1.838 0.896 9.976 Source: Das et al.,2015Source: Das et al.,2015
  17. 17.  Sex expression  The treatment with growth regulators has been found to change sex expression in cucurbits, okra and pepper.  Female inducing hormones are Auxin and Ethylene whereas male inducing hormone is Gibberellic acid.  Application of ethephon at two true leaf stage to both bush and trailing forms of Cucurbita maxima and C. pepo caused suppression of male flowers, earlier production and increase in numbers of female flowers. Thus gave rise to an increase in the ratio of female to male flowers per plant (Hume et al., 1983)
  18. 18. Altered sex expression by plant growth regulators: An overview in medicinal vegetable bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.) (Source : Mia et al.,2014) Treatments Days to flower Node no. of first flower Flowers per plant Sex ratio male: femaleMale Female Male Female Male Female Control 38 53 10.50 12.20 310 27.42 11.31 GA3@ 50 ppm 35 49 9.55 11.80 383 29.42 13.02 NAA@ 50 ppm 37 41 8.45 7.00 250 35.14 7.48 NAA@100 ppm 36 46 10.75 8.90 285 33.43 8.11 CEPA@100 ppm 40 42 8.50 6.50 210 38.33 5.48 CEPA@300 ppm 33 43 6.25 9.70 342 31.43 10.88 CD at 5% 0.95 0.75 0.35 0.85 12.45 1.65 0.55
  19. 19.  Parthenocarpy Plant growth regulators helps to stimulate the fruit development without fertilization ( Parthenocarpy). 2,4-D at 50 ppm when applied at anthesis showed better performance over other in parthenocarpic fruit development in kakrol ( Chowdhury et al ,2007). Seed treatment with 2,4-D @ 2-5ppm gives early fruit set and leads to parthenocarpy in tomato. ( Meena, 2015)  At G.B.P.U.A.&T. Pantnagar, staminate flowers were induced in parthenocarpic line of cucumber through use of plant growth regulator GA3@1500 ppm and silver nitrate @200-300ppm by four sprays at 4 days interval (Singh and Ram, 2004)
  20. 20.  Stimulation of fruit Set
  21. 21. Fruit Set and Yield Enhancement in Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) Using Gibberellic Acid and 2,4-Dichlorophenoxy Acetic Acid Spray (Source Treatments Fruit set (%) Total no. of fruits /plant Fruit weight (g) Fruit yield /plant (g) GA3@ 0 ppm 39.8 10.9 47.3 434.7 GA3@ 5 ppm 53.4 14.2 47.6 497.7 GA3@ 10 ppm 54.0 14.7 47.6 506.2 GA3@15 ppm 53.8 14.2 50.9 574.3 2,4-D@ 0 ppm 43.7 12.2 45.6 436.2 2,4-D@ 5 ppm 55.0 17.2 51.4 587.9 2,4-D@10 ppm 52.1 14.8 53.2 515.6
  22. 22. Contd…. fruit set in unsprayed (control) plant fruit setting in tomato after the spray of 2,4 D @ 5ppm (Source : Luitel et al., 2015)
  23. 23.  Hybrid seed production Bioregulators have also been used for maintenance of gynoecious lines in cucurbits. Growth regulator like GA3 (1,500-2000ppm) and chemical like silver nitrate (200-300ppm) induces the male flowers on gynoecious cucumber (Meena, 2015). Exogenous application of silver thiosulphate (300-400ppm) induces the male flower in gynoecious muskmelon (Meena, 2015).
  24. 24.  Gametocides Some PGR’s posseses gametocidal action to produce male sterility which can be used for F1 hybrid seed production. MH at 100 to 500 ppm appeared most effective in inducing a high level of male sterility in eggplant, okra, peppers and tomato, without detrimental influence on female fertility (Saimbhi et al., 1978).  A high concentration of gibberellic acid (2%) was found to act as a gametocide for the common onion (Allium cepa L.), when sprayed in the beginning of the bolting process (Meer et al., 1973).
  25. 25. Gibberellic acid as gametocide for cole crops Fig : Male sterility in cauliflower as induced by GA4. Left : Male fertile flowers Right : Male sterile flowers (Source : Meer and Dam, 1979)(Source : Meer and Dam, 1979)
  26. 26.  Fruit ripening  Ethephon, an ethylene releasing compound, has been reported to induce ripening in tomato and pepper.  Application of ethephon at 1000 mg/L at turning stage of earliest fruits induced early ripening of fruits thus increasing the early fruit yield by 30- 35%.  Post-harvest dip treatment with ethephon at 500-2000 mg/L has also been reported to induce ripening in mature green tomatoes. (Gould, 1992)
  27. 27. Effect of Post harvest Treatments on Shelf Life of Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) Fruits during Storage Treatments Physiological loss of weight (%) Decay (%) Storage life (Days) T1 (GA3@0.1%) 6.50 8.89 18 T2 (GA3@0.3% 9.87 11.11 15 T3 (GA3@0.5%) 11.85 11.11 14 T4 (Cacl2@0.5%) 8.77 13.33 15 T5 (Cacl2@1%) 6.64 8.87 17 T6 (Cacl2@1.5%) 5.35 8.86 17 T7(SA@0.1mM) 11.56 11.11 13 T8 (SA0@0.2mM) 9.95 13.33 14 T9 (SA@0.4mM) 6.78 8.89 17 T10 (Control) 19.89 24.44 10 CD (5% level) 2.28 9.27 Source: Pila et al.,2010
  28. 28.  Fruit yield 1. TOMATO  Spraying with 60 ppm GA3 10 days before transplanting increased the yield per ha of variety Roma ( Naeem et al., 2001)  Foliar sprays of 2,4-D @ 6 ppm gave highest yield of tomato ( Patel et al., 2014). 2. BRINJAL  Foliar sprays of 4 ppm 2,4-D gave the highest yield of brinjal.( Patel et al, 2012)  Seed treatment with 10ppm GA3 or IAA gave the highest yield in brinjal (Sharma et al, 1992). 3. CHILLI  Foliar sprays of 2 ppm 2,4-D, 40 ppm NAA and 10 ppm GA3 gave 28.75%, 13.61% and 2.30% higher fruit yield over control, respectively. ( Chaudhoury et al., 2006).  Spraying plants with 10 ppm NAA gave significantly highest fruit yield (277.8 g/plant). ( Sultana et al., 2006)
  29. 29. Effect of GA3 and NAA on growth and yield of tomato Treatments Percent fruit set No. of fruits/ plant Fruit weight (g) Fruit length (cm) Fruit width (cm) Rind thickness (cm) Fruit yield (q/ha) Control 30.6 13.2 80.5 4.3 4.4 0.40 380.7 GA3 20 ppm 35.4 18.7 85.1 4.8 4.92 0.45 396.2 GA3 40 ppm 40.2 22.7 120.2 5.06 5.21 0.48 418.6 GA3 60 ppm 47.3 26.2 125.7 5.92 6.20 0.52 446.5 GA3 80 ppm 51.6 30.2 130.8 6.46 6.86 0.56 483.6 NAA 25 ppm 32.1 18.5 84.1 4.6 4.72 0.44 390.5 NAA 50 ppm 37.7 21.7 118.2 4.82 4.90 0.45 402.7 NAA 75 ppm 44.5 23.4 121.8 5.78 6.11 0.50 433.6 NAA 100 ppm 49.1 24.7 128.6 6.08 6.38 0.55 474.2 CD (0.05) 3.42 9.50 6.48 1.01 NS 1.23 12.6 Source : Singh et al., 2013
  30. 30. Contd… Fig : Plant height of tomato as affected by GA and NAA
  31. 31. Effect of GA3 and kinetin on growth, yield and quality of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) Treatments Plant height (cm) No. of leaves Days to central head formation Days to secondary head formation Head size (cm3) Total yield /ha (q) GA3 20 ppm 60.73 13.73 61.40 70.93 1306.65 169.80 GA3 40 ppm 63.07 13.47 61.53 71.33 1369.48 175.29 GA3 60 ppm 60.93 14.53 57.86 66.20 1496.47 176.11 kinetin 20 ppm 55.40 14.80 59.86 69.60 1356.81 163.88 kinetin 40 ppm 61.47 15.67 59.87 69.93 1412.67 174.94 kinetin 60 ppm 60.80 14.53 60.40 71.60 1509.20 185.16 GA3 10 ppm + kinetin 10 ppm 59.67 15.33 58.86 69.60 1272.16 170.58 GA3 20 ppm + kinetin 20 ppm 57.843 15.20 61.13 71.53 1518.83 187.05 GA3 30 ppm + kinetin 30 ppm 63.77 16.00 60.73 70.06 1542.66 189.67 control 58.27 13.33 63.60 74.53 884.64 145.15 C.D at 5% 5.09 2.01 2.62 2.94 481.70 42.24 Singh et al., 2010
  32. 32. Effect of bio-regulators on performance of tomato under naturally ventilated polyhouse during off- season Treatments Plant height (cm) Days to 50% flowering Days to 50% fruiting Fruit setting (%) July August July August July August July August GA310 ppm 120.19 108.38 46.50 49.50 53.00 54.50 65.72 58.70 GA325 ppm 127.25 120.13 47.25 50.00 51.00 52.40 69.80 60.26 PCPA 50 ppm 113.50 80.38 41.75 44.50 48.25 49.30 61.74 54.87 NAA 10 ppm+ 1ppm Boron 107.50 74.13 37.67 39.40 55.75 57.75 50.34 47.25 Control 70.67 54.13 35.65 37.60 68.40 70.20 29.24 20.92 CD (5%) 2.90 3.16 1.91 1.74 3.62 3.13 3.94 3.66 Source :Phukan et al.,
  33. 33. Contd…. Treatments Number of fruits per plant Average fruit weight (g) Fruit yield (g/plant) Fruit yield (kg/m2) July August July August July August July August GA310 ppm 21.50 18.50 58.00 49.82 1247.09 679.66 4.61 2.51 GA325 ppm 23.00 21.00 68.00 62.27 1563.23 1307.36 5.79 4.84 PCPA 50 ppm 23.67 20.72 60.00 57.48 1421.64 1191.49 5.26 4.41 NAA 10 ppm+ 1ppm Boron 20.54 16.00 51.00 43.96 1045.98 703.17 3.87 2.60 Control 11.25 10.00 45.00 39.72 507.57 397.32 1.88 1.47 CD (5%) 2.32 2.65 3.70 2.61 152.74 292.34 0.56 1.08
  34. 34. Effect of bio-regulators on Quality of Vegetables Growth Regulators Concentration (ppm) Method of Application Crops Effect on Quality GA3 15 Foliar spray Muskmelon Improve rind thickness GA3 5-15 Foliar spray Cauliflower, cabbage Increases head or curd size GA3 50 Foliar spray Lettuce and Chinese cabbage Increases dry matter, protein and ascorbic acid content PCPA 50 Foliar spray Tomato Increases sugar and vitamin-C, but reduces acidity
  35. 35. Contd…. CCC 250 Foliar spray Potato Increases TSS and vitamin-C content in tuber MENA (vapour) + CIPA 5000 Post-harvest dip Potato Reduces sprouting and rooting of tuber in storage Cytozyme 1% Foliar spray Garden pea Increases vitamin-C, reducing sugars and total sugars Ethephon 250 Foliar spray Tomato Increases TSS NAA 50-70 Seed treatment Chilli Increases amino acid and vitamin-C content in fruits Mixtallol 1-2 Foliar spray Potato Increases starch, reducing sugars, non- reducing sugars, total sugars, and protein Bahadur and Singh, 2014
  36. 36. BIOREGULATORS FAVOURABLY AFFECT THE LEVELS OF VITAMINS AND SUGARS IN TOMATO FRUIT TISSUES Genotypes Ascorbic acid (mg/100 g) Control 100 ppm IAA 100 ppm IBA 100 ppm NAA Mean NHLy 11 12.87 14.77 16.78 11.97 14.09 NHLy 12 20.06 20.16 20.23 19.67 20.08 NHLy 13 15.36 17.28 16.87 19.88 17.34 NHLy 15 16.67 18.23 19.61 17.97 18.12 NHLy 16 18.97 20.36 19.68 20.14 19.78 Mean 16.76 18.16 18.63 17.92 Source: Olaiya, 2011Source: Olaiya, 2011
  37. 37. Contd….. Genotypes Total sugar (g/100 ml juice) Control 100 ppm IAA 100 ppm IBA 100 ppm NAA Mean NHLy 11 3.02 3.11 3.26 2.67 3.01 NHLy 12 3.06 2.47 3.23 3.11 2.96 NHLy 13 2.27 2.46 2.30 2.22 2.31 NHLy 15 2.51 2.47 3.13 3.01 2.78 NHLy 16 2.61 2.81 3.22 2.76 2.85 Mean 2.69 2.66 3.02 2.75
  38. 38. Works at G.B.P.U.A&T., Pantnagar
  39. 39. Effect of plant bioregulators on chilliPlant bioregulators (ppm) Total leaf area per plant (cm) Shoot fresh wt. (g) Root dry wt (g) Root fresh wt. (g) NAA 20 2286.93 167.53 26.80 32.66 NAA 40 2970.90 210.20 28.40 39.06 NAA 60 2118.36 187.13 28.20 24.73 GA3 10 2239.00 153.06 24.00 27.26 GA3 20 2517.76 164.46 25.20 28.80 GA3 30 2749.83 172.66 26.00 29.93 Ethepon 50 2285.10 160.93 23.73 26.26 Ethepon 100 2594.33 198.86 24.80 27.86 Ethepon 150 2847.86 214.20 26.20 32.66 2 ,4- D 2 2061.43 200.93 24.20 25.27 2, 4- D 4 1583.36 221.33 31.80 47.26 2 ,4 -D 6 1351.73 156.06 25.66 26.20 PP333 100 1923. 45 158.46 26.73 35.93 PP333 200 1770.10 148.33 27.60 38.73 PP333 300 1552.63 133.73 28.00 41.53 Control 2040.93 158.53 24.86 26.20 CD at 5% 53.81 8.49 1.37 3.33 Source: Joshi et al., 2001
  40. 40. Contd…. Plant bioregulators (ppm) Shoot dry wt. (g) No. of seeds per fruit Weight of seed (mg) Fruit yield per plant NAA 20 61.00 40.66 194.66 232.73 NAA 40 63.26 43.13 196.66 274.03 NAA 60 65.60 45.00 200.66 246.46 GA3 10 47.40 36.60 160.33 231.80 GA3 20 52.13 30.46 150.00 234.53 GA3 30 57.13 25.80 123.33 240.73 Ethepon 50 42.26 35.73 176.66 229.26 Ethepon 100 45.20 34.13 153.33 233.73 Ethepon 150 72.86 33.20 160.00 240.80 2 ,4- D 2 44.66 41.46 173.33 276.80 2, 4- D 4 52.80 39.86 168.33 240.93 2 ,4 -D 6 67.46 36.13 165.66 228.66 PP333 100 43.13 41.53 200.00 265.20 PP333 200 35.13 43.46 203.33 271.13 PP333 300 27.46 43.86 208.33 282.20 Control 42.43 32.93 156.66 209.73 CD at 5% 8.49 3.67 7.01 10.023
  41. 41. EFFECT OF GROWTH REGULATORS ON SUMMER TOMATO (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) Treatments Days to first set of fruit Percentag e of fruit set Days to first harvest Weight of fruit (g) No. of fruits per plant TSS (%) Ascorbic acid (mg/100 g of fruit) GA3@10 ppm 39.89 56.84 59.66 35.26 41.05 13.07 25.20 GA3@ 25 ppm 38.00 51.87 57.55 33.40 42.91 13.29 26.22 2,4-D @ 1 ppm 41.44 54.35 62.55 35.20 43.99 12.56 17.27 2,4-D @ 5 ppm 40.67 65.05 61.44 44.15 51.32 13.20 17.58 NAA @ 0.1 ppm 42.89 58.38 63.67 36.37 44.67 10.78 29.17 NAA @ 0.2 ppm 42.00 60.21 62.55 37.54 46.32 10.46 30.21 Control 42.89 50.18 63.67 32.52 35.67 11.99 22.67 CD at 5% 0.590 1.68 0.612 1.045 0.846 0.811 0.482 Source : Mehta ,1973
  42. 42.  Constraints in the Use of Growth Regulators • The cost of developing new PGR is very high due to which they are very much costly.  Screening for PGR activities entails high costs and much difficult.  Some synthetic plant growth regulators causes human health hazards.  It is difficult in identification of proper stage of crop at which the growth regulators should be applied.  Lack of support from agricultural researchers in public and private sectors.  Lack of basic knowledge of toxicity and mechanism of action.
  43. 43. Precautions in Bio- regulator Application Growth regulators should be sprayed preferably in the afternoon.  Avoid spraying in windy hours.  Spray should be uniform and wet both the surface of leaf.  Add surfactant or adhesive materials like Teepol with growth regulators @ 0.5- 1.0 ml/l solution.  Use growth substances at an appropriate stage of plant growth. Chemical should be completely dissolved before use. Use always fresh solution of plant growth regulators.  Solution should be always being prepared in distilled water only..  Wash the machine or pump after each spraying.  Repeat the spray within 7-8 hours, if chemical is washed out due to rain.
  44. 44. Conclusion Bio-regulators has an immense potential in vegetable production to increase the yield and quality of vegetables to better meet the requirements of food supply in general. But more research is needed to develop simple, economical and technical viable production system of bio-regulator. Bioregulators must be toxicologically and environmentally safe.

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