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FUNCTIONAL ASPECTS OF THE
AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM
AUTONOMIC NERVOUS
          SYSTEM
  The autonomic nervous system is the
  subdivision of the peripheral nervous
  system ...
DIVISION OF ANS
Parasysmpathetic: routine maintenance
  “rest &digest”




Sympathetic: mobilization & increased
  metabol...
WHERE THEY COME FROM


Parasympathetic:   Sympathetic:
craniosacral       thoracolumbar




                             5
PARASYMPATHETIC
    SYSTEM




                  6
PARASYMPATHETIC
                OUTFLOW
 Cranial outflow
     III - pupils constrict
     VII - tears, nasal mucus, sal...
SYMPATHETIC SYSTEM




                     8
SYMPATHETIC OUTFLOW
                  “fight, flight or fright”
 Also called thoracolumbar system: all its neurons
  are ...
PRE AND POST
  GANGLION NEURON

 Somatic division:
   Cell bodies of motor neurons reside in CNS (brain or
    spinal co...
PRE AND POSTGANGLION
      FIBER

 Axon of 1st (preganglionic) neuron leaves
  CNS to synapse with the 2nd (ganglionic)
 ...
12
13
SYMPATHETIC AND PARA
  SYMPATHETIC GANGLIA
 Sympathetic ganglia
   Many lie close to spinal
    cord(paravertebral)
   ...
Figure 8-2
IMPORTANT
    NEUROTRANSMITTERS
 Acetylcholine =Cholinergic
 Fibers that release acetylcholine are
  known as cholinergi...
Norepinephrine = Adrenergic
 Neurotransmitter between the sympathetic
  postganglionic fiber and the effector cell
   Fi...
CHOLINERGIC RECEPTOR
 Nicotinic receptor
 Nicotinic receptors are found on the
  postganglionic cell bodies in all auton...
 Muscuranic receptor
 found on cell membranes of effectors
  organ (smooth muscle, cardiac muscle,
  and glands)

 they...
ADRENERGIC RECEPTOR
 Alpha receptors are located at
  sympathetic neuroeffector junctions of
  many organs.
 In general,...
TYPES OF α-ADRENERGIC
                RECEPTOR
 α-adrenergic receptors are adrenergic receptors
  that respond to norepin...
Beta receptors are also located
postsynaptically at sympathetic
neuroeffector junctions of many organs.

 beta receptors...
β-RECEPTOR TYPES
 β-adrenergic receptors respond particularly
  to epinephrine and nor epinephrine
 There are three know...
24
ADRENAL GLAND IS
           EXCEPTION
On top of kidneys

Adrenal medulla
(inside part) is a
major organ of
the sympathetic...
Adrenal gland is exception
 Synapse in gland

 Can cause body-wide
  release of epinephrine
   and norepinephrine




  ...
27
28
29
30
31
32
 SYMPATHETIC PARASYMPATHETIC
  TONE
 DUAL INNERVATION
 MASS DISCHARGE(ALARM OR STRESS
  RESPONSE)
 LOCAL RESPONSE
 SO...
VISCERAL REFLEXES
 These are the simplest functions of the ANS.
 Each visceral reflex arc consists of a receptor, a sens...
VISCERAL REFLEX ARCS




                                                                                   35
*e.g. “ente...
Central control of the   Amygdala: main limbic
                          region for emotions
  Autonomic NS
              ...
Lecture function autonomic nervous system
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Lecture function autonomic nervous system Slide 1 Lecture function autonomic nervous system Slide 2 Lecture function autonomic nervous system Slide 3 Lecture function autonomic nervous system Slide 4 Lecture function autonomic nervous system Slide 5 Lecture function autonomic nervous system Slide 6 Lecture function autonomic nervous system Slide 7 Lecture function autonomic nervous system Slide 8 Lecture function autonomic nervous system Slide 9 Lecture function autonomic nervous system Slide 10 Lecture function autonomic nervous system Slide 11 Lecture function autonomic nervous system Slide 12 Lecture function autonomic nervous system Slide 13 Lecture function autonomic nervous system Slide 14 Lecture function autonomic nervous system Slide 15 Lecture function autonomic nervous system Slide 16 Lecture function autonomic nervous system Slide 17 Lecture function autonomic nervous system Slide 18 Lecture function autonomic nervous system Slide 19 Lecture function autonomic nervous system Slide 20 Lecture function autonomic nervous system Slide 21 Lecture function autonomic nervous system Slide 22 Lecture function autonomic nervous system Slide 23 Lecture function autonomic nervous system Slide 24 Lecture function autonomic nervous system Slide 25 Lecture function autonomic nervous system Slide 26 Lecture function autonomic nervous system Slide 27 Lecture function autonomic nervous system Slide 28 Lecture function autonomic nervous system Slide 29 Lecture function autonomic nervous system Slide 30 Lecture function autonomic nervous system Slide 31 Lecture function autonomic nervous system Slide 32 Lecture function autonomic nervous system Slide 33 Lecture function autonomic nervous system Slide 34 Lecture function autonomic nervous system Slide 35 Lecture function autonomic nervous system Slide 36
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Lecture function autonomic nervous system

  1. 1. FUNCTIONAL ASPECTS OF THE AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM
  2. 2. AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM The autonomic nervous system is the subdivision of the peripheral nervous system that regulates body activities that are generally not under conscious control Autonomic nervous system innervate  smooth muscle (eg, blood vessels, gut wall, urinary bladder)  cardiac muscle  glands (eg, sweat glands, salivary glands) 3
  3. 3. DIVISION OF ANS Parasysmpathetic: routine maintenance “rest &digest” Sympathetic: mobilization & increased metabolism “fight, flight or fright” 4
  4. 4. WHERE THEY COME FROM Parasympathetic: Sympathetic: craniosacral thoracolumbar 5
  5. 5. PARASYMPATHETIC SYSTEM 6
  6. 6. PARASYMPATHETIC OUTFLOW  Cranial outflow  III - pupils constrict  VII - tears, nasal mucus, saliva  IX – parotid salivary gland  X (Vagus n) – visceral organs of thorax & abdomen:  Stimulates digestive glands  Increases motility of smooth muscle of digestive tract  Decreases heart rate  Causes bronchial constriction  Sacral outflow (S2-4): form pelvic splanchnic nerves  Supply 2nd half of large intestine  Supply all the pelvic (genitourinary) organs 7
  7. 7. SYMPATHETIC SYSTEM 8
  8. 8. SYMPATHETIC OUTFLOW “fight, flight or fright”  Also called thoracolumbar system: all its neurons are in lateral horn of gray matter from T1-L2  Lead to every part of the body (unlike parasymp.)  Easy to remember that when nervous, you sweat; when afraid, hair stands on end; when excited blood pressure rises (vasoconstriction): these sympathetic only  Also causes: dry mouth, pupils to dilate, increased heart & respiratory rates to increase O2 to skeletal muscles, and liver to release glucose 9
  9. 9. PRE AND POST GANGLION NEURON  Somatic division:  Cell bodies of motor neurons reside in CNS (brain or spinal cord)  Their axons (sheathed in spinal nerves) extend all the way to their skeletal muscles  Autonomic system: chains of two motor neurons  1st = preganglionic neuron (in brain or cord)  2nd = gangionic neuron (cell body in ganglion outside CNS) 10
  10. 10. PRE AND POSTGANGLION FIBER  Axon of 1st (preganglionic) neuron leaves CNS to synapse with the 2nd (ganglionic) neuron  Axon of 2nd (postganglionic) neuron extends to the organ it serves 11 Note: the autonomic ganglion is motor
  11. 11. 12
  12. 12. 13
  13. 13. SYMPATHETIC AND PARA SYMPATHETIC GANGLIA  Sympathetic ganglia  Many lie close to spinal cord(paravertebral)  Others lie approximately midway between spinal cord and effector organ(prevrtebral or collateral)  Parasympathetic ganglia  Lie close to or within the walls of Figure 8-2 effector organ
  14. 14. Figure 8-2
  15. 15. IMPORTANT NEUROTRANSMITTERS  Acetylcholine =Cholinergic  Fibers that release acetylcholine are known as cholinergic fibers  All preganglionic neurons of the autonomic division and all postganglionic neurons of the parasympathetic division are cholinergic
  16. 16. Norepinephrine = Adrenergic  Neurotransmitter between the sympathetic postganglionic fiber and the effector cell  Fibers that release norepinephrine are adrenergic fibers  Most postganglionic neurons of the sympathetic division are adrenergic  Few are cholinergic(sweat gland,some blood vessels in skeletal muscle) 17
  17. 17. CHOLINERGIC RECEPTOR  Nicotinic receptor  Nicotinic receptors are found on the postganglionic cell bodies in all autonomic ganglia.  Response to acetylcholine released from both sympathetic and parasympathetic 18
  18. 18.  Muscuranic receptor  found on cell membranes of effectors organ (smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glands)  they bind with acetylcholine released from parasympathetic postganglionic nerve fiber 19
  19. 19. ADRENERGIC RECEPTOR  Alpha receptors are located at sympathetic neuroeffector junctions of many organs.  In general, alpha receptors mediate excitation or increased activity of the effector cells.  alpha receptor have greater affinity for norepinephrine 20
  20. 20. TYPES OF α-ADRENERGIC RECEPTOR  α-adrenergic receptors are adrenergic receptors that respond to norepinephrine  They are subdivided into two types:  α1, found in smooth muscle, heart, and liver, with effects including vasoconstriction, intestinal relaxation, uterine contraction and pupillary dilation,  α2, found in platelets, vascular smooth muscle, nerve termini, and pancreatic islets, with effects including platelet aggregation, vasoconstriction, and inhibition of norepinephrine release and of insulin secretion.
  21. 21. Beta receptors are also located postsynaptically at sympathetic neuroeffector junctions of many organs.  beta receptors mediate relaxation or decreased activity of the effector cells. Heart muscle is an important exception to this rule. Activation of beta adrenoceptors in heart increases the automaticity and contractility of all parts of the heart.
  22. 22. β-RECEPTOR TYPES  β-adrenergic receptors respond particularly to epinephrine and nor epinephrine  There are three known types of beta receptor, designated β1, β2 and β3.  β1-Adrenergic receptors are located mainly in the heart. Sensitive to both EN and NOR EN  β2-Adrenergic receptors are located mainly in the lungs, gastrointestinal tract, liver, uterus, vascular smooth muscle, and skeletal muscle sensitive to EN only.  β3-receptors are located in fat cells.
  23. 23. 24
  24. 24. ADRENAL GLAND IS EXCEPTION On top of kidneys Adrenal medulla (inside part) is a major organ of the sympathetic nervous system 25
  25. 25. Adrenal gland is exception  Synapse in gland  Can cause body-wide release of epinephrine and norepinephrine 26
  26. 26. 27
  27. 27. 28
  28. 28. 29
  29. 29. 30
  30. 30. 31
  31. 31. 32
  32. 32.  SYMPATHETIC PARASYMPATHETIC TONE  DUAL INNERVATION  MASS DISCHARGE(ALARM OR STRESS RESPONSE)  LOCAL RESPONSE  SOME EXCEPTIONS: BLOOD VESSELS SWEAT GLAND, SALIVARY GLAND 33
  33. 33. VISCERAL REFLEXES  These are the simplest functions of the ANS.  Each visceral reflex arc consists of a receptor, a sensory neuron, an interneuron, and two visceral motor neurons.  All visceral reflexes are polysynaptic.  PS reflexes include : gastric and intestinal reflexes, defecation, urination, direct light reflexes, swallowing reflex, coughing reflex, baroreceptor reflex and sexual arousal.  S reflexes: cardioaccelaratory reflex, vasomotor reflex, pupillary reflex and ejaculation (in males).
  34. 34. VISCERAL REFLEX ARCS 35 *e.g. “enteric” nervous system: 3 neuron reflex arcs entirely within the wall of the gut
  35. 35. Central control of the Amygdala: main limbic region for emotions Autonomic NS Hypothalamus: main integration center Reticular formation: most direct influence over autonomic function 36
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