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Density based-traffic-light-control-system project-2 (3)

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Density based-traffic-light-control-system project-2 (3)

  1. 1. DENSITY BASED TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM..... RISHI
  2. 2. CONTENTS  INTRODUCTION  OBJECTIVE  BLOCK DIAGRAM  HARDWARE COMPONENTS  SOFTWARE COMPONENTS  APPLICATIONS  ADVANTAGES  RESULT  CONCLUSION  FUTURE SCOPE
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION  The aim of the project is to solve traffic congestion which is a severe problem in many modern cities all over the world.  To solve the problem, we have designed a framework for a dynamic and automatic traffic light control system and developed a simulation model with codes in to help build the system on hardware.  Generally, each traffic light on an intersection is assigned a constant green signal time.  It is possible to propose dynamic time-based coordination schemes where the green signal time of the traffic lights is assigned based on the present conditions of traffic.
  4. 4. BLOCK DIAGRAM OF DENSITY BASED TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM • The block diagram consists of the following blocks:- -signalling lights -ATMEL 89S52 micro controller -Infrared transmitter -Infrared receiver -power supply
  5. 5. HARDWARE COMPONENTS REGULATED POWER SUPPLY
  6. 6. DESCRIPTION OF REGULATED POWER SUPPLY Each of the block is described in more detail below- Transformer-steps down high voltage AC mains to low voltage AC. Rectifier- Converts AC to DC ,but DC output is varying. Smoothing- smoothens the DC from varying greatly to a small ripple. Regulator-Eliminates ripple by setting DC output to a fixed voltage.
  7. 7. The AT89S52 is a low-power, high-performance CMOS 8-bit microcontroller with 8K bytes of in-system programmable Flash memory. PIN DIAGRAM OF AT89S52
  8. 8. FEATURES OF AT89S52: • 8K Bytes of In-System Programmable (ISP) Flash Memory • Endurance: 10,000 Write/Erase Cycles • 4.0V to 5.5V Operating Range • Fully Static Operation: 0 Hz to 33 MHz • Three-level Program Memory Lock • 256 x 8-bit Internal RAM • 32 Programmable I/O Lines • Three 16-bit Timer/Counters • Eight Interrupt Sources • Full Duplex UART Serial Channel • Low-power Idle and Power-down Modes • Interrupt Recovery from Power-down Mode • Watchdog Timer • Dual Data Pointer • Power-off Flag • Fast Programming Time
  9. 9. LED • LEDs are semiconductor devices. Like transistors, and other diodes, LEDs are made out of silicon. What makes an LED give off light there are the small amounts of chemical impurities that are added to the silicon, such as gallium, arsenide, indium, and nitride. • When current passes through the LED, it emits photons as a byproduct. Normal light bulbs produce light by heating a metal filament until it's white hot. Because LEDs produce photons directly and not via heat, they are far more efficient than incandescent bulbs.
  10. 10. PCB  Printed circuit board(pcb) mechanically supports and electrically connects electronic components using conductive tracks,pads and other features etched from cooper sheets laminated onto a non-conductive substrate. PCBs can be single sided(one copper layer),double sided(two copper layers) or multi layer(outer and inner layers).
  11. 11. REGULATOR: A voltage regulator is an electrical regulator designed to automatically maintain a constant voltage level. we are using LM7805 regulator in this project .it may be used to regulate one or more AC or DC voltages .
  12. 12. SENSOR: In this we are using infrared sensors namely infrared transmitter and infrared receiver .the IR transmitter sends light ray to IR receivers. If there is any obstacles occurring between these two then the data signal is send to microprocessor and its act upon a signal.
  13. 13. BUTTON:  A push button or simply button is a simple switch mechanism for controlling some aspect of a machine or a process. Buttons are typically made out of hard material, usually plastic or metal. Buttons are most often biased switches, through even many un-biased buttons(due to their physical nature) require a spring to return to their un- pushed state. Different people use different terms for the “pushing” of the button ,such as PRESS,DEPRESS,MASH,HIT,PUNCH..
  14. 14. :  A CRYSTAL OSCILLATOR is an electronic oscillator circuit that uses the mechanical resonance of a vibrating crystal of piezoelectric material signal with a very precise frequency. This frequency is commonly used to keep track of time. To provide a stable clock signal for digital integrated circuits, and to stabilize frequencies for radio transmitters and receivers. The most common type of piezoelectric resonator used is quartz crystal..
  15. 15. A photo diode is a type of photo detector capable of converting light into either current or voltage depending upon the mode of operation. Photo diodes are similar to regular semiconductor diodes except that they may be either exposed or packaged with a window or a optical fiber connection to allow light to reach the sensitive part.
  16. 16. SOFTWARE COMPONENTS PROTEUS SOFTWARE FOR DESIGN CIRCUIT IMPLEMENTATION
  17. 17. Keil U vision software program procedure: Creating Your Own Application in µVision2 To create a new project in µVision2, you must: -Select Project - New Project. -Select a directory and enter the name of the project file. -Select Project - Select Device and select an 8051, 251, or C16x/ST10 device from the Device Database™. -Create source files to add to the project. -Select Project - Targets, Groups, Files, Add/Files, select Source Group1, and add the source files to the project. -Select Project - Options and set the tool options. Note when you select the target device from the Device Database™ all special options are set automatically. You typically only need to configure the memory map of your target hardware. Default memory model settings are optimal for most applications. -Select Project - Rebuild all target files or Build target.
  18. 18. ADVANTAGES:  Density based traffic light control have many advantages compared to time based traffic control.  We can save considerable amount of time  We can avoid unnecessary occurrence of traffic jams which causes public inconvenience.
  19. 19.  There is no need of traffic inspector at the junctions for supervising the traffic to run smoothly The intelligent work which is done by traffic inspector will be perfectly done by the microcontroller in the circuit with the help of sensors and the program which is coded to the microcontroller.
  20. 20. Thus from above theory we can conclude that using the method of density based control of traffic lights we can save a considerable amount of time and also we can prevent excessive traffic jams thus leading to smooth traffic flow. In practice presently in India we are following time based control of traffic signals and we are experiencing a heavy traffic jams all over which in turn consumes lot of time and fuel. We hope these methods will be adopted as soon as possible so that the limitations we are experiencing with present method can be overcome.
  21. 21. FUTURE SCOPE:
  22. 22. QUERIES…..?

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