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Autonomic nervous system Physiology

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Autonomic nervous system Physiology

  1. 1. Autonomic Nervous System
  2. 2. Central nervous system • The nervous system with the endocrine system controls and coordinates various functions of the body. • The body has to make adjustments according to the changes in its internal and external environments. • These adjustments are essential for the maintenance of homeostasis, as well as for existence.
  3. 3. The nervous system can be classified: • Anatomically, according to its different structures, • Physiologically, according to its functions. Anatomically nervous system formed of (Somatic nervous system, autonomic nervous system and integrative nervous system).
  4. 4. Nervous System Peripheral NS Central NS Efferent Division Afferent Division Autonomic Somatic Sympathetic Parasympathetic
  5. 5. Peripheral Nervous System • Handles the CNS’s input and output. • Contains all the portions of the NS outside the brain and spinal cord. • Contains sensory nerves and motor nerves • Divided into autonomic nervous system and somatic nervous system.
  6. 6. Peripheral Nervous System • Sensory Nerves (to the brain) Carry messages from receptors in the skin, muscles, and other internal and external sense organs to the spinal cord and then to the brain • Motor Nerves (from the brain) Carry orders from CNS to muscles, glands to contract and produce chemical messengers
  7. 7. • The ANS is part of the peripheral nervous system and it controls many organs and muscles within the body. • In most situations, we are unaware of the workings of the ANS because it functions in an involuntary, reflexive manner. • For example, we do not notice when blood vessels change size or when our heart beats faster. • However, some people can be trained to control some functions of the ANS such as heart rate or blood pressure.
  8. 8. The ANS is most important in two situations: 1- In emergencies that cause stress and require us to "fight" or take "flight" (run away). 2- In no emergencies that allow us to "rest" and "digest".
  9. 9. DefinitionDefinition The portion of the nervousThe portion of the nervous system that controls mostsystem that controls most visceral functions of the body isvisceral functions of the body is called thecalled the autonomic nervousautonomic nervous system (ANS).system (ANS). 12:11 drsherwanshal@gmail.com 11
  10. 10. DefinitionDefinition Or it is the motor nervousOr it is the motor nervous system that controls glands,system that controls glands, cardiac muscle, and smoothcardiac muscle, and smooth muscle.muscle. 12:11 drsherwanshal@gmail.com 12
  11. 11. The primary target organs of theThe primary target organs of the ANSANS The viscera of the thoracic andThe viscera of the thoracic and abdominal cavities andabdominal cavities and some structures of the bodysome structures of the body wall, including cutaneous bloodwall, including cutaneous blood vessels, sweat glands, andvessels, sweat glands, and piloerector muscles.piloerector muscles. 12:11 drsherwanshal@gmail.com 13
  12. 12. ControlControl Autonomic literallyAutonomic literally means “self-governed.”.means “self-governed.”. TheThe ANS usually carries out itsANS usually carries out its actions involuntarily, without ouractions involuntarily, without our conscious intent or awareness, inconscious intent or awareness, in contrast to the voluntary nature ofcontrast to the voluntary nature of the somatic motor system.the somatic motor system. 12:11 drsherwanshal@gmail.com 14
  13. 13. Visceral effectorsVisceral effectors Visceral effectors do not dependVisceral effectors do not depend on the ANS to function, but onlyon the ANS to function, but only to adjust their activity to theto adjust their activity to the body’s changing needs.body’s changing needs. 12:11 drsherwanshal@gmail.com 15
  14. 14. Visceral effectorsVisceral effectors The heart, for example, goes onThe heart, for example, goes on beating even if all autonomicbeating even if all autonomic nerves to it are severed, but thenerves to it are severed, but the ANSANS modulates (adjusts) themodulates (adjusts) the heart rate in conditions ofheart rate in conditions of restrest or exercise.or exercise. 12:11 drsherwanshal@gmail.com 16
  15. 15. Visceral effectorsVisceral effectors If the somatic nerves to aIf the somatic nerves to a skeletal muscle are severed, theskeletal muscle are severed, the muscle exhibits flaccidmuscle exhibits flaccid paralysis—it no longerparalysis—it no longer functions.functions. 12:11 drsherwanshal@gmail.com 17
  16. 16. Visceral effectorsVisceral effectors But if the autonomic nerves toBut if the autonomic nerves to cardiac or smooth muscle arecardiac or smooth muscle are severed, the muscle exhibitssevered, the muscle exhibits exaggerated responsesexaggerated responses (denervation hypersensitivity).(denervation hypersensitivity). 12:11 drsherwanshal@gmail.com 18
  17. 17. 12:11 drsherwanshal@gmail.com 19
  18. 18. striking characteristics of the ANS The rapidity and intensity. For instance, Within 3 to 5 seconds it can increase the heart rate to twice normal. Within 10 to 15 seconds the arterial pressure can be doubled. The arterial pressure can be decreased low enough within 10 to 15 seconds to cause fainting. Sweating can begin within seconds, and the urinary bladder may empty involuntarily, also within seconds. 12:11 drsherwanshal@gmail.com 20
  19. 19. Autonomic System • Two divisions: – sympathetic – Parasympatheitic • Control involuntary functions – heartbeat – blood pressure – respiration – perspiration – digestion • Can be influenced by thought and emotion
  20. 20. • It is usual to divide the nervous system into somatic, autonomic and integrated systems. • The somatic nervous system provides voluntary motor control of skeletal muscle. • The autonomic nervous system provides an involuntary control of internal environment and the viscera.
  21. 21. Peripheral Nervous System • Somatic NS Consists of nerves connected to sensory receptors and skeletal muscles Permits voluntary action (writing your name) • Autonomic NS Permits the Involuntary functions of blood vessels, Glands and internal organs e.g.:- the bladder stomach heart
  22. 22. Characteristic Somatic nervous system Autonomic N. system Effectors Voluntary muscle Cardiac muscle glands, s. muscle General functions Adjustment to external environment Adjustment within internal environment Numbers of neurons 1 2 Ganglia outside the CNS ------------ Chain ganglia, collateral ganglia or terminal ganglia Neurotransmitter acetylcholine Acetylcholine, adrenaline, noradrenaline Center Anterior Horn cells Lateral Horn cells
  23. 23. 12:11 drsherwanshal@gmail.com 26 Comparison of Somatic and ANSComparison of Somatic and ANS
  24. 24. Comparison of Autonomic and Somatic Motor Systems • Autonomic nervous system – Chain of two motor neurons • Preganglionic neuron • Postganglionic neuron – Conduction is slower due to thinly or unmyelinated axons Pre-ganglionic Ganglion Post-ganglionic
  25. 25. Sympathetic N.S. Parasympathetic N.S. Like the accelerator of your car Like the brakes in your car Slows the body down to keep its rhythm Mobilized the body for action Enables the body to conserve and store energy Preganglionic: short, synapse within the lateral & collateral ganglia Preganglionic: long, synapse within the terminal ganglia Postganglionic: long Postganglionic: short Has a wide distributions Has a restricted distributions
  26. 26. Autonomic Nervous System • Often work in opposition • Cooperate to fine- tune homeostasis • Regulated by the brain; hypothalamus, pons and medulla • Can also be regulated by spinal reflexes; no higher order input • Pathways both consist of a two neuron system Preganglionic neuron autonomic ganglion postganglionic neuron target from CNS outside CNS
  27. 27. ANATOMY 1)    SYMPATHETIC (THORACOLUMBAR) DIVISION. 2 ) PARASYMPATHETIC (CRANIOSACRAL) DIVISION.
  28. 28. General Organization of the ANSGeneral Organization of the ANS The EFFERENTEFFERENT autonomic signals are transmitted to the various organs of the body through two major subdivisions called The sympathetic nervous system.sympathetic nervous system. The parasympathetic nervous parasympathetic nervous  systemsystem. 12:11 drsherwanshal@gmail.com 33
  29. 29. SympatheticSympathetic Nervous SystemNervous System 12:11 drsherwanshal@gmail.com 34
  30. 30. 12:11 drsherwanshal@gmail.com 35 Physiologic Anatomy of the Sympathetic NSPhysiologic Anatomy of the Sympathetic NS
  31. 31. Each sympathetic pathwaysympathetic pathway from the cord to the stimulated tissue is composed of two neuronstwo neurons, a preganglionic neuron preganglionic neuron  and a postganglionic neuronand a postganglionic neuron, in contrast to only a single neuron in the skeletal motor pathway. 12:11 drsherwanshal@gmail.com 36
  32. 32. Sympathetic Division of the ANS
  33. 33. ParasympatheticParasympathetic Nervous SystemNervous System 12:11 drsherwanshal@gmail.com 38
  34. 34. Physiologic Anatomy of thePhysiologic Anatomy of the Parasympathetic Nervous SystemParasympathetic Nervous System  Parasympathetic fibers leave the CNS through cranial nerves III, VII, IX, and XIII, VII, IX, and X.  Additional parasympathetic fibers leave the lowermost part of the spinal cord through the second and third sacralsecond and third sacral spinalspinal nerves and occasionally the first and fourth sacral nerves. 12:11 drsherwanshal@gmail.com 39
  35. 35. Physiologic Anatomy of thePhysiologic Anatomy of the Parasympathetic Nervous SystemParasympathetic Nervous System About 75 per cent of all parasympathetic nerve fibers are in the vagus nerves vagus nerves  (cranial nerve X), passing to the entire thoracic and abdominal regions of the body. Therefore, a physiologist speaking of the parasympathetic nervous system often thinks mainly of the two vagus nerves. 12:11 drsherwanshal@gmail.com 40
  36. 36. Sympathetic • Sometimes called the “thoracolumbar” division • Short preganglionic neurons; long postganglionic neurons; ganglia are called the chain ganglia • Preganglionic neurons secrete Ach onto nicotinic receptors • Postganglionic neurons secrete NE on to α or β receptors • Target tissues are smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, endocrine glands, brown fat
  37. 37. Parasympathetic •Sometimes called the “cranio-sacral division •Long preganglionic neurons; •short postganglionic neurons (often in the target organ) •Preganglionic neurons secrete Ach on to nicotinic receptors •Postganglionic neurons secrete Ach on to muscarinic receptors •Target tissues are smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, exocrine glands, brown fat
  38. 38. Anatomical Differences in Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Divisions
  39. 39. Anatomical Differences in Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Divisions
  40. 40. Similarities between Sympathetic & ParasympatheticSimilarities between Sympathetic & Parasympathetic • Both are efferent (motor) systems: “visceromotor” • Both involve regulation of the “internal” environment generally outside of our conscious control: “autonomous” • Both involve 2 neurons that synapse in a peripheral ganglion and Innervate glands, smooth muscle, cardiac muscle CNS ganglion preganglionic neuron postganglionic neuron glands smooth muscle cardiac muscle
  41. 41. Differences between Sympathetic & ParasympatheticDifferences between Sympathetic & Parasympathetic Location of Preganglionic Cell Bodies Thoracolumbar T1 – L2/L3 levels of the spinal cord Craniosacral Brain: CN III, VII, IX, X Spinal cord: S2 – S4 Sympathetic Parasympathetic
  42. 42. Sympathetic CNS ganglion short preganglionic neuron long postganglionic neuron target Parasympathetic CNS ganglion long preganglionic neuron target short postganglionic neuron Differences between Sympathetic & ParasympatheticDifferences between Sympathetic & Parasympathetic Relative Lengths of Neurons
  43. 43. Parasympathetic Overview of the Autonomic Nervous SystemOverview of the Autonomic Nervous System Differences between Sympathetic & ParasympatheticDifferences between Sympathetic & Parasympathetic Neurotransmitters ACh, + NE (ACh at sweat glands), + / -, α & ß receptors ACh, + / - muscarinic receptors • All preganglionics release acetylcholine (ACh) & are excitatory (+) • Symp. postgangl. — norepinephrine (NE) & are excitatory (+) or inhibitory (-) • Parasymp. postgangl. — ACh & are excitatory (+) or inhibitory (-) Sympathetic • Excitation or inhibition is a receptor-dependent & receptor-mediated response ACh, +
  44. 44. Overview of the Autonomic Nervous SystemOverview of the Autonomic Nervous System Differences between Sympathetic & ParasympatheticDifferences between Sympathetic & Parasympathetic Target Tissues ParasympatheticSympathetic • Organs of head, neck, trunk, & external genitalia • Organs of head, neck, trunk, & external genitalia • Adrenal medulla • Sweat glands in skin • Arrector muscles of hair • ALL vascular smooth muscle » Sympathetic system is distributed to essentially all tissues (because of vascular smooth muscle) » Parasympathetic system never reaches limbs or body wall (except for external genitalia)
  45. 45. Overview of ANSOverview of ANS Functional Differences Sympathetic • “Fight or flight” • Catabolic (expend energy) Parasympathetic • “Feed & breed”, “rest & digest” • Homeostasis » Dual innervation of many organs — having a brake and an accelerator provides more control
  46. 46. 55 FUNCTION OF  PARASYMPATHETIC  &  SYMPATHETIC  NEVOUS SYSTEM
  47. 47. 57 Sympathetic Nervous System Main functions of the SNS • Regulation of cardiovascular system • Regulation of body temperature • Implementation of “fight or flight” reaction • FIGHT OR FLIGHT RESPONSE • Stressful Situations ---- trauma, fear , hypoglycemia.
  48. 48. Sympathetic • “ Fight or flight” response • Release adrenaline and noradrenaline • Increases heart rate and blood pressure • Increases blood flow to skeletal muscles • Inhibits digestive functions
  49. 49. somatic tissues (body wall, limbs) visceral tissues (organs) Sympathetic System: Preganglionic Cell BodiesSympathetic System: Preganglionic Cell Bodies • Preganglionic cell bodies in intermediolateral gray • T1 — L2/L3 • Somatotopic organization intermediolateral gray columns lateral horn T1 – L2/L3 Clinical Relevance » dysfunction due to cord injury » spinal nerve impingement & OMM » referred pain
  50. 50. spinal nerve dorsal ramus ventral ramus gray ramus communicans white ramus communicans sympathetic ganglion intermediolateral gray column Structure of spinal nerves: Sympathetic pathwaysStructure of spinal nerves: Sympathetic pathways
  51. 51. Sympathetic System: Postganglionic Cell BodiesSympathetic System: Postganglionic Cell Bodies Paravertebral ganglia Prevertebral ganglia • celiac ganglion • sup. mesent. g. • inf. mesent. g. aorta sympathetic trunk (chain) 1. Paravertebral ganglia • Located along sides of vertebrae • United by preganglionics into Sympathetic Trunk • Preganglionic neurons are thoracolumbar (T1–L2/L3) but postganglionic neurons are cervical to coccyx • Some preganglionics ascend or descend in trunk synapse at same level ascend to synapse at higher level descend to synapse at lower level
  52. 52. Sympathetic System: Postganglionic Cell BodiesSympathetic System: Postganglionic Cell Bodies Paravertebral ganglia Prevertebral ganglia • celiac ganglion • sup. mesent. g. • inf. mesent. g. aorta sympathetic trunk (chain) 2. Prevertebral (preaortic) ganglia • Located anterior to abdominal aorta, in plexuses surrounding its major branches • Preganglionics reach prevertebral ganglia via abdominopelvic splanchnic nerves abdominopelvic splanchnic nerve
  53. 53. Sympathetic Trunk Ganglia
  54. 54. Sympathetic System: SummarySympathetic System: Summary T1 L2 4- somatic tissues (body wall, limbs) visceral tissues (organs) postganglionics via 31 spinal nerves to somatic tissues of neck, body wall, and limbs sympathetic trunk prevertebral ganglia 2- Cardiopulmonary Splanchnics: postganglionic fibers to thoracic viscera 3- Abdominopelvic Splanchnics: preganglionic fibers to prevertebral ganglia, postganglionic fibers to abdominopelvic viscera 1- Cervical division
  55. 55. 1- Cervical division Origin: T1-2 Course: preganglionic fibres reach the sympathetic chain and then ascend upwards to relay in the superior cervical ganglion. Postganglionic neuron: pass from ganglion to the following organs:- • EYE: pupil dilatation, widening of palpebral fissure, exophthalmos, Vasoconstriction of eye b.v. and Relaxation of ciliary muscle. • Salivary gland : trophic secretion, Vasoconstriction of its blood vessels and Squeezing of salivary secretion. • Lacrimal gland: Trophic secretion and Vasoconstriction. • Face skin blood vessel: Vasoconstriction of (Pale color). • Sweet secretion: copious secretion. • Hair: erection due to contraction of erector pilae muscles.. • Cerebral vessels: Weak vasoconstriction
  56. 56. Sympathetic Pathways to the Head
  57. 57. (2) Cardiopulmonary division Origin: Lateral horn cells of upper 4-5 thoracic segments. Course: Preganglionic neurons reach the sympathetic chain to relay in the three cervical ganglion and upper four thoracic ganglion. The postganglionic arise from these ganglia supply the following structures:- • Heart: Increase all properties of cardiac muscle (contraction, rhythmicity, excitability, conductivity. • Coronary vessels, its sympathetic supply. At first it causes vasoconstriction, and then it causes vasodilatation due to accumulation of metabolites. • Bronchi: Broncho dilation, decrease bronchial secretions and vasoconstriction of pulmonary blood vessels.
  58. 58. Sympathetic Pathways to Thoracic Organs
  59. 59. 3- Splanchnic division Origin: lateral horn cells of the lower six thoracic and upper four lumber segments. Course: Preganglionic neurons originate from these segments reach the sympathetic chain where they pass without relay, and then they divided into two branches: (1) Greater splanchnic nerve (2) Lesser splanchnic nerve. Greater splanchnic nerve: • Origin: Preganglionic nerves fibers emerge from lateral horn cells of lower six thoracic segments and then relay in the collateral ganglion in the abdomen. • Course: Postganglionic nerve fibers arise from these ganglia (celiac, superior mesenteric and inferior mesenteric ganglia) and supply the abdominal organs causing the following effects: • Vasoconstriction: of most arteries of stomach, small intestine, proximal part of large intestine, kidney, pancreas and liver. • Relaxation of the musculature of: stomach, small intestine and proximal part of large intestine. • Contraction of sphincters: of the stomach and intestine leading to (food retention). • Contraction of the capsule: of the spleen leading to evacuation of about 200 ml of blood. • Breakdown of the glucose in the liver: (glycogenolysis) leading to increase of blood glucose level. • Stimulation of adrenal medulla: Secrete adrenaline and noradrenalin.
  60. 60. Sympathetic Pathways to the Abdominal Organs
  61. 61. The Adrenal Medulla
  62. 62. The Role of the Adrenal Medulla in the Sympathetic Division • Major organ of the sympathetic nervous system • Secretes great quantities epinephrine (a little norepinephrine) • Stimulated to secrete by preganglionic sympathetic fibers
  63. 63. Lesser splanchnic nerve Origin: Preganglionic nerve fibers originate from the lateral horn cells of the 12 thoracic and upper two lumber segments. Course: 2 nerves from both sides unite together forming the presacral nerve, which proceeds to pelvis and divided into two branches (hypogastric nerves), then relay in the inferior mesenteric ganglion. Postganglionic nerve fiber supplies the following pelvic viscera: Urinary bladder: Relaxation of its wall. – Contraction of internal urethral sphincter. – Leading to urine retention. Rectum: – Relaxation of the distal part of large intestine. – Relaxation of the rectum wall. – Contraction of the internal anal sphincter. – Leading to feces retention.
  64. 64. Genital organs: - Vasoconstriction of its blood vessels. –Leading to shrinkage of penis and clitoris. Vas deferens: - Contraction of its wall, and wall of seminal vesicles, ejaculatory ducts and prostate - Leading to ejaculation.
  65. 65. Sympathetic Pathways to the Pelvic Organs
  66. 66. (4) Somatic division Origin: Preganglionic nerve fibers arise from all lateral horn cells of all sympathetic segments, and then relay in the cervical and sympathetic chain ganglia. Course: Postganglionic nerve fibers emerge from these ganglia proceeds outside the central nervous system to return back to spinal cord to join the spinal nerve when it comes out from the anterior horn cells, and supply the following structures: Skin: • Vasoconstriction giving the pale color of the skin. • Stimulation of the sweet glands, the eccrine glands give copious secretion, while the apocrine glands give thick odoriferous secretion. • Hair erection. Skeletal muscle: • Its blood vessels show vasodilatation (V.D.) due to cholinergic effect or vasoconstriction (V.C.) due to a adrenergic effect. • The type of stimulation depends upon the nature of stimulation. • Muscles: its stimulation causing delayed fatigue and early recovery.
  67. 67. 4- somatic tissues (body wall, limbs) postganglionics via 31 spinal nerves to somatic tissues of neck, body wall, and limbs sympathetic trunk
  68. 68. Sympathetic Pathways to Periphery Figure 15.9
  69. 69. 80 ORGANS RECEIVING ONLY SYMPATHETIC INNERVATION • Adrenal Medulla • Kidney • Pilomotor muscles • Sweat glands • Vessels • Metabolic processes
  70. 70. Fig. 45.34(TE Art)Hypothalamus activates sympathetic division of nervous system Heart rate, blood pressure, and respiration increase Blood flow to skeletal muscles increases Stomach contractions are inhibited Adrenal medulla secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine
  71. 71. Flight or fight reaction • Acceleration of heart and lung action • Inhibition of stomach and intestinal action • Constriction of blood vessels in many parts of the body • Liberation of nutrients for muscular action • Dilation of blood vessels for muscles • Inhibition of tear glands and salivation • Dilation of pupil • Relaxation of bladder • Inhibition of erection
  72. 72. 83 Parasympathetic Nervous System (PNS) • Rest & Digest situations. The regulatory functions of PNS affect these sites • Heart rate • Gastric secretions • Bladder and bowel • Vision • Bronchial smooth muscle
  73. 73. Parasympathetic • “ Rest and digest ” system • Calms body to conserve and maintain energy • Lowers heartbeat, breathing rate, blood pressure
  74. 74. ParasympatheticParasympathetic PathwaysPathways Cranial outflow • CN III, VII, IX, X • Four ganglia in head • Vagus nerve (CN X) is major preganglionic parasymp. supply to thorax & abdomen • Synapse in ganglia within wall of the target organs (e.g., enteric plexus of GI tract) Sacral outflow • S2–S4 via pelvic splanchnics • Hindgut, pelvic viscera, and external genitalia Clinical Relevance » Surgery for colorectal cancer puts pelvic splanchnics at risk » Damage causes bladder & sexual dysfunction
  75. 75. The Parasympathetic Division • Cranial outflow – Comes from the brain – Innervates organs of the head, neck, thorax, and abdomen • Sacral outflow – Supplies remaining abdominal and pelvic organs
  76. 76. Cranial Outflow • Preganglionic fibers run via: – Oculomotor nerve (III) – Facial nerve (VII) – Glossopharyngeal nerve (IX) – Vagus nerve (X) • Cell bodies located in cranial nerve nuclei in the brain stem
  77. 77. Sacral Outflow Origin: Preganglionic nerve fibers arise from the lateral horn cells of the 2nd, 3rd and 4th sacral segments. Course: These preganglionic passes without relay, then the right and left branches unit together to form the pelvic nerve, the pelvic nerve relay in the terminal ganglia, where the postganglionic nerve fibers emerge and supply the following structures:- Urinary bladder: parasympathetic stimulation causes: - Contraction of the bladder wall - Relaxation of its sphincter. - These responses lead to micturition.
  78. 78. Rectum and descending colon: parasympathetic stimulation causes: - Contraction of its wall. - Relaxation of internal anal sphincter. - These responses lead to defecation. Seminal vesicles and prostate: parasympathetic stimulation -causes: - Secretion of these glands. Erectile tissue: parasympathetic stimulation causes: - Vasodilatation which lead to erection.
  79. 79. Comparison of sympathetic and Parasympathetic Pathways • Neurotransmitters • Receptors
  80. 80. Sympathetic receptors Adrenergic receptors Alpha Beta Alpha 1 Alpha 2 Beta 1 Beta 3 Beta 2
  81. 81. 103 ACTIONS OF CHOLINERGIC AGONIST • CVS: The action of Ach on heart mimic the effects of VAGAL stimulation.   The normal vagal activity regulates the heart by • release of Ach at SA node.   Vasodilatation   Decrease in heart rate ( -ve chronotropic effect).   Decrease in force of contraction ( -ve Inotropic • effect).   Decrease in rate of conduction in SA & AV • nodes ( -ve dromotropic effect).
  82. 82. 104 Opposing effects of parasympathetic and sympathetic nerves.
  83. 83. Summary of autonomic differences Autonomic nervous system controls physiological arousal Sympathetic division (arousing) Parasympathetic division (calming) Pupils dilate EYES Pupils contract Decreases SALVATION Increases Perspires SKIN Dries Increases RESPERATION Decreases Accelerates HEART Slows Inhibits DIGESTION Activates Secrete stress hormones ADRENAL GLANDS Decrease secretion of stress hormones

Editor's Notes

  • keywords: sympathetic nervous system; fighlt or flight response
  • key words: parasympathetic nervous system; rest and digest system
  • key words: sympathetic nervous system; parasympathetic nervous system
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