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HUMAN SECURITY
outline
•   Background of human security concept
•   Conceptual basis of human security
•   How to define human security
•...
HISTORICAL CONTEXT
• Become a part of international discourse on security
  as an impact of UNDP Report in 1994. Then beco...
Historical context
The idea of human security had been discussed in many meetings:
1. Club of Rome 1970s report on “World...
THREE CONCEPTIONS OF HUMAN SECURITY
1. Natural rights/ rule of law conception of human
   security-core element is individ...
THREE CONCEPTIONS OF HUMAN SECURITY
Broader concept of Human Security………
DEFINING HUMAN SECURITY
1. Human Security is the absence of threaths to
   various core human values, including the
   bas...
DEFINING HUMAN SECURITY
3. Commission on Human Security (2003)
  Human Security is the protection of the vital core of
   ...
DEBATES ON HUMAN SECURITY
 1. The relationship between globalization and Human Security.
a. Globalization promotes the exp...
DEBATES ON HUMAN SECURITY
2. Normative dimension of Human Security-Whether force
   should be used in pursuing particular ...
3. The relationship between human security and
   traditional concept of democracy, and peace
   making. In many developin...
THE RISKS OF HUMAN SECURITY

1. The majority of Literature mentions threats with
   short term or long term impacts-such a...
THE RISKS OF HUMAN SECURITY
4. Organized violence – caused by social and economic
   inequality, by group aspiration for b...
Human security
Human security
Human security
Human security
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Human security

  1. 1. HUMAN SECURITY
  2. 2. outline • Background of human security concept • Conceptual basis of human security • How to define human security • Debates in human security • Sources of threat
  3. 3. HISTORICAL CONTEXT • Become a part of international discourse on security as an impact of UNDP Report in 1994. Then become a core component in foreign policy of some countries. E.g. Canada • A need to link development agenda with the pursuit of security. • The main goal is to link between traditional dan non- traditional security approach • Focusing on personal and communal security.
  4. 4. Historical context The idea of human security had been discussed in many meetings: 1. Club of Rome 1970s report on “World Problematique” 2. Independent Commission on International Development Issues and Security (willy Brandt Commission) “North and South Report 3. Independent Commission on Disarmament and Security Issues (Olof Palme Commission) Common Security Report 4. Stockholm Initiative on Global Security Governance 1991Common Responsibility in the 90s 5. Commission on Global Governance 1994 “Our Global Neighborhood” Report. 6. Explicitly used by Maqbul Ul Haq in his writing “ New Imperative on Human Security” 1994 7. Adopted by the UNDP Human Development Index (HDI)
  5. 5. THREE CONCEPTIONS OF HUMAN SECURITY 1. Natural rights/ rule of law conception of human security-core element is individual basic rights such rights for life, liberty and the pursuit of happines that should be protected by international community. 2. Humanitarian conception – human security refers international actions to abolish weapons that harm civilian and non-combatant, to genocide and to punish war crimes by strengthening international law. 3. Broad conception of Human Security including economic, political, environment and other threats to human and individual well being.
  6. 6. THREE CONCEPTIONS OF HUMAN SECURITY Broader concept of Human Security………
  7. 7. DEFINING HUMAN SECURITY 1. Human Security is the absence of threaths to various core human values, including the basic human value, individual physical safety (negative definition). 2. The main goal of human security is to safeguard the vital core of all human lives from critical pervasive threats (Alkire, 2002) (positive definition)
  8. 8. DEFINING HUMAN SECURITY 3. Commission on Human Security (2003) Human Security is the protection of the vital core of all human freedoms and fulfillment…protecting people from severe and widespread threats. How? (1) using process that build on people’s strengths and aspirations; (2) creating political, social, environmental, economic, military and cultural system that together give people the building blocks of survival.
  9. 9. DEBATES ON HUMAN SECURITY 1. The relationship between globalization and Human Security. a. Globalization promotes the expansion of trade and investment that increase world income and contribute to the redistribution of wealth from rich to poor countries. b. Globalization increases wealth in some countries in the South but the income gap between rich and poor countries is widening. c. World Bank Report 2007: Globalization increases world income over the next 25 years, but at the same time income inequality will be worse and environmental pressure will be severe. The impact is the likelihood of conflict and social unrest that threaten human security.
  10. 10. DEBATES ON HUMAN SECURITY 2. Normative dimension of Human Security-Whether force should be used in pursuing particular human security. To what extent the use of force in humanitarian intervention is justifiable when it harms non-combatants.
  11. 11. 3. The relationship between human security and traditional concept of democracy, and peace making. In many developing countries, the establishment of Liberal democracy and economic model does not positively correlates to the protection of human security. Class domination and unequal access to economic resource prevent marginal groups to enjoy their rights. International agencies tend to neglect local values system in the process of conflict resolution and peace making. E.g. the case of Ambon Conflict and Aceh.
  12. 12. THE RISKS OF HUMAN SECURITY 1. The majority of Literature mentions threats with short term or long term impacts-such as pandemic disease, environmental degradation, nuclear weapon, population displacement, terrorism. 2. Global Risks 2007 reports 23 types of Human insecurity – energy scarcity, natural disaster, terrorism, war, pandemic. Etc. 3. State Failure – Government inability to control its territory, to provide basic services or to prevent civil war between social groups.
  13. 13. THE RISKS OF HUMAN SECURITY 4. Organized violence – caused by social and economic inequality, by group aspiration for being dominant or by incapability to maintain collective consensus. 5. Relative poverty – a condition in which some groups are perceived as relative better than other. This creates collective frustration which lead to collective violence.
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