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Advanced production technology of wood apple



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Advanced production technology of wood apple

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Advanced production technology of wood apple

  1. 1. AN ASSIGNMENT ON “ADVANCED PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY OF WOOD APPLE” Prepared by: Pawan Kumar Nagar M.Sc. (Horti) Semester:2 Reg. No.: 04-2690-2015
  2. 2. Feronia limonia L. Family: Rutaceae Origin: India and Ceylon Chromosome no:2n=18 2
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION  Besides woodapple, it may be called elephant apple, monkey fruit, curd fruit, kath bel and other dialectal names in India. In Malaya it is gelinggai or belinggai; in Thailand, makhwit; in Cambodia, kramsang; in Laos, mafit.  In French, it is pomme d' elephant, pomme de bois, or citron des mois.  The slow growing tree is erect, with a few upward reaching branches bending outward near the summit where they are subdivided into slender branchlets drooping at the tips. 3
  4. 4.  The bark is ridged, fissured and scaly and there are sharp spines :3/4 to 2 in (25 cm) long on some of the zigzag twigs. The deciduous, alternate leaves, 3 to 5 in (7.512.5 cm) long, darkgreen, leathery, often minutely toothed, blunt or notched at the apex, are dotted with oil glands and slightly lemon scented when crushed.  Dull red or greenish flowers to 1/2 in (1.25 cm) wide are borne in small, loose, terminal or lateral panicles. They are usually bisexual. The fruit is round to oval, 2 to 5 in (512.5 cm) wide, with a hard, woody, grayish white, scurfy rind about 1/4 in (6 mm) thick.  The pulp is brown, mealy, odorous, resinous, astringent, acid or sweetish, with numerous small, white seeds scattered through it. 4
  5. 5.  Climate: The tree grows up to an elevation of 1,500 ft (450 m) in the western Himalayas. It is said to require a monsoon climate with a distinct dry season.  Soil: Throughout its range there is a diversity of soil types, but it is best adapted to light soils. 5
  6. 6.  Varieties:  There are 2 forms, 1)one with large, sweetish fruits; 2)one with small,acid fruits. Sweet fruit Acid fruit 6
  7. 7. Propogation:  The most common and simplest method of raising the wood apple plants is from seeds. Since the seedlings do not carry true-to-type characters which leads to immense variation in yield and fruit characters, hence there are very few standard varieties in wood apple.  The woodapple is generally grown from seeds though seedlings will not bear fruit until at least 15 years old. Multiplication may also be by root cuttings, air layers, or by budding onto self seedlings to induce dwarfing and precociousness.  The significance of vegetative propagation in maintenance of genetic uniformity and preservation of identity of clone or cultivar is well recognized in horticultural crops. Hence there is an immense need to find out a suitable method of vegetative propagation for quick multiplication of wood apple plants. 7
  8. 8. Field preparation and planting:  Normally wood apple is not planted in fertile or rich soils. In wasteland, if mass planting is to be done, then pit lines are drawn across the slope and pits can be dug at a spacing of 8mx8m each pit with a size of 1 mx1mx1m.  Planting should be done at the onset of monsoon after filling the pit with 20 kg FYM, sand and top soil. The basins should be formed immediately after planting in such a way that water harvesting is facilitated. 8
  9. 9. Training and Pruning Wood apple trees are allowed to grow along a central leader with well spaced branches in all direction.  The trees require no pruning except removal of crisis-cross branches. At initial stage, pruning of plants to provide a desired shape is essential  When planted as windbreak and shelter belt, the trees are allowed to grow tall. 9
  10. 10. Fruiting Period of flowering and fruiting is governed by climate and the period of moisture availability. It flowers from February to May and fruit are available in winter. A grown up tree can bear 200 to250 fruit per annum 10
  11. 11. Nutrient Management Manuring is not practiced but it will be benefitted if manures at the rate of about 25kg FYM or compost per tree the beginning of monsoon. It will help in increasing fruit size and quality. 11
  12. 12. Nutritional Value of Wood Apple  According to the National Institute of Nutrition’s book, “Nutritive Value of Indian Foods,” wood apples contain the following values per 100g: 64.2g Moisture 7.1g Protein 3.7g Fat 1.9g Minerals 5g Fiber 18.1g Carbohydrates 61IU Carotene 3mg Vitamin C .04mg Thiamin .17mg Riboflavin .8mg Niacin 130mg Calcium 110mg Phosphorous .48g Iron 41mg Magnesium .21mg Chromium .18mg Manganese .10mg Zinc 12
  13. 13. Irrigation It is a crop of dry region and once the plants had established, they hardly need any irrigation. Nevertheless, conservation of runoff rain water in rhizosphere will enhance the productivity of this crop. 13
  14. 14. Season:  In Malaya, the leaves are shed in January, flowering occurs in February and March, and the fruit matures in October and November. In India, the fruit ripens from early October through March. 14
  15. 15. Pest:  Fruit borer: Deudorix isocrates  Citrus butterfly: Papilio demolious 1.Fruit borer: Deudorix Isocrates Symptoms of damage  Caterpillar bores into young fruits and feeds on internal contents (pulp and seeds)  Fruit rotting and dropping Identification of pest  Larvae: Dark brown, short and stout, covered with short hairs  Adult: Bluish brown butterfly, female has V shaped patch on forewing 15
  16. 16.  Management  ETL: 5 eggs/plant  Collect and destroy damaged fruits  Clean cultivation as weed plants serve as alternate hosts  Endemic areas grow  less susceptible varieties  Cover the fruit with polythene bags when the fruits are up to 5 cm  Use light trap @ 1/ ha to monitor the activity of adults  Malathion 50 EC 0.1% or two rounds, one at flower formation and next at fruit set  Flowering stage spray  NSKE 5% or neem formulations 2 ml/l  Apply dimethoate 30 EC 1.5 ml/l 16
  17. 17. 2. Citrus butterfly: Papilio demolious Symptoms of damage:  Caterpillar feed on the leaves  Defoliation Identification of pest:  Larvae: Early stage larva resembles bird dropping. Grown up larva –  cylindrical, stout, green and brown lateral bond  Adult: Dark brown swallowtail butterfly with numerous yellow marking Management:  Hand pick the larvae and destroy  Early stage spray  2 ml of methyl parathion per litre of water  Field release of parasitoids Trichogramme evanescens and Telenomus sp on  Eggs of Brachymeria sp on larvae and Pterolus sp. on Pupae 17
  18. 18. Uses: Pectin: The pectin has potential for multiple uses in pectin short India, but it is reddish and requires purification. Rind: The fruit shell is fashioned into snuffboxes and other small containers. Gum: The trunk and branches exude a white, transparent gum especially following the rainy season. It is utilized as a substitute for, or adulterant of, gum arabic, and is also used in making artists' watercolors, ink, dyes and varnish. It consists of 35.5% arabinose and xylose, 42.7% dgalactose, and traces of rhamnose and glucuronic acid. Wood: The wood is yellow gray or whitish, hard, heavy, durable, and valued for construction, pattern making, agricultural implements, rollers for mills, carving, rulers, and other products. It also serves as fuel. 18
  19. 19. Medicinal Uses: The fruit is much used in India as a liver and cardiac tonic, and, when unripe, as an astringent means of halting diarrhea and dysentery and effective treatment for cough, sore throat and diseases of the gums. The pulp is poulticed onto bites and stings of venomous insects, as is the powdered rind. 19
  20. 20. Harvesting  The fruit is tested for maturity by dropping onto a hard surface from a height of 1 ft (30 cm). Immature fruits bounce, while mature fruits do not.  After harvest, the fruit is kept in the sun for 2 weeks to fully ripen. Budded plants come to bearing 3-4 years after planting. But to reach optimum productivity it will take about 10 years.  The crop flowers in February to May depending on the climatic conditions of a locality and fruits will be available from July to December depending on the flowering month. A well grown tree will give 200-250 fruits/year. 20
  21. 21.  According to analyses made in India The pulp represents 36% of the whole fruit. The pectin content of the pulp is 3 to 5% (16% yield on dry-weight basis). The seeds contain a bland, non-bitter, oil high in unsaturated fatty acids. 21