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Advanced production technology of walnut

  1. 1. “Advance Production Technology of Walnut ” Submitted by Pawan Kumar Nagar M.Sc. Fruit Science Dept. of Horticulture. BACA, AAU, ANAND
  2. 2. WALNUT Overview of Walnut  Botanical Name : Juglance regia  Family : Juglandaceae  Centre of Origin : Central Asia  Chromosome No. : 2n= 32  Sex Form : Monoecious  Infloresccence : Catkin  Growth Curve : Double Sigmoid  Fruit Type : Nut  Edible Part : Cotyledon  Bearing : Axillary old Branches
  3. 3. WALNUT conti..  Propagation : Patch Budding  Type of Dichogamy : Heterostyly  Chilling Req. : 200-800 hours  Nature of fruit : Non-Climecteric  Nature of Plant : Decidous & 10-40 m. tall  Energy : 687 calory  Mode of Pollination : Cross pollination  Mechanism of Poll. : Anemophyllous (Wind)  Species-  Butter nut : J. cenaria  Heart nut : J. cordiformis  J. nigra, J. hindsi
  4. 4. WALNUT conti..  Training System : Modified Central leader  Acid Present : Ascorbic & Omega 3 F.A.  Rootstock : Paradox  Dichogamy : Prtoandry  Harvesting : Aug.-Sept.  Protien : 14-20%  Fat : 60-70%  Largest Producer is USA (70% of world)  India stands 8th in production  Wallnut have Allelopathic Effect
  5. 5. INTRODUCTION  Walnut (Juglans sp.) is the most important temperate nut fruit of the country.  It is grown in jammu and Kasmir, Uttar Pradesh and Himachal Pradesh.  There are no regular orchards of walnuts in country because the existing planting are generally of seedling origin.  The seedling trees attain giant size and start bearing nuts of variable size and shape after 10-15 years,  whereas vegetatively propagated plants are true to type and produce almost uniform sized nuts after 4-5 years. They remain within manageable size.  But the major constraint is low success in vegetative propagation. Limited availability of scion material from desired tree results in very few vegetatively propagated plants.  Most valuable Exchange Earning nut crop.
  6. 6. Species and classification Sect. Juglans. Leaves large (20-45 cm) with 5-9 broad leaflets, hairless , margins entire. Wood hard. Southeast Europe to central Asia. Juglans regia L. (J. duclouxiana Dode, J. fallax Dode, J. orientis Dode) - Persian Walnut, Carpathian, or Common Walnut Juglans sigillata Dode - Iron Walnut (doubtfully distinct from J. regia) Sect. Rhysocaryon. Leaves large (20-50 cm) with 11-23 slender leaflets, finely pubescent, margins serrated. Wood hard. North America, South America. Juglans australis Griseb. (J. boliviana Dode) - Argentine Walnut Juglans brasiliensis Dode - Brazilian Walnut Juglans californica S.Wats. - California Walnut Juglans hindsii (Jepson) R.E.Smith - Hinds' Walnut Juglans hirsuta Manning - Nuevo Leon Walnut Juglans jamaicensis C.DC. (J. insularis Griseb.) - West Indies Walnut Juglans major (Torrey) Heller (J. arizonica Dode, J. elaeopyron Dode, J. torreyi Dode) - Arizona Walnut Juglans major var. glabrata Manning Juglans microcarpa Berlandier (J. rupestris Engelm.) - Texas Walnut or Little Walnut Juglans microcarpa var. stewartii (Johnston) Manning Juglans mollis Engelm. - Mexican Walnut Juglans neotropica Diels (J. honorei Dode) - Andean Walnut Juglans nigra L. - Black Walnut Juglans olanchana Standl. & L.O.Williams - Juglans peruviana Dode - Peruvian Walnut Juglans soratensis Manning - Juglans steyermarkii Manning - Guatemalan Walnut Juglans venezuelensis Manning - Venezuela Walnut Sect. Cardiocaryon. Leaves very large (40-90 cm) with 11-19 broad leaflets, softly downy, margins serrated. Wood soft. Northeast Asia, eastern North America. Juglans ailantifolia Carr. (J. cordiformis Maxim., J. sieboldiana Maxim.) - Japanese Walnut Juglans cinerea L. - Butternut Juglans mandshurica Maxim. (J. cathayensis Dode, J. formosana Hayata, J. hopeiensis Dode, J. stenocarpa Maxim.) - Manchurian Walnut or Chinese Walnut.
  7. 7. NUTRITIONAL VALUE  Excellent source of Proteins (14-20%)  Excellent source of Fats (60-70%)  Rich in Omega 3, vitamin B and E, fibres and trace elements;  High energetic value;  Highly recommended to athletes;  Immature fruits are rich in Ascorbic acid.  There’s already a Canadian and world market for Walnuts  Walnut have high Anti-oxidant content(vitamin-E)
  8. 8. Sl.No Content Amount/100g 1 Water 3.5 % 2 Protein 14.8 g 3 Fat 64.0 g 4 Carbohydrate 15.8 g 5 Fibre 2.1 g 6 Ash 1.9 g 7 Calcium 99 mg 8 Phosphorus 380 mg 9 Iron 3.1 mg 10 Sodium 2 mg 11 Potassium 450 mg 12 Magnesium 131 mg 13 Vitamin A 30 I.U * 14 Thiamine 0.33 mg 15 Riboflavin 0.13 mg 16 Niacin 0.9 mg 17 Vitamin C 2 mg NUTRITIONAL VALUE
  9. 9. USES AND COMPOSITION  Walnut kernel (the edible portion) is very rich in protein, fat and minerals and is a concentrated source of energy.  The walnut kernels are used for dessert purposes in confectionery and for extraction of oil and as a dry fruit.  Immature fruits are used for making pickles, chutneys, marmalades, juice and syrups.  Walnut oil is used for edible purposes, artist oil colours, varnishes and soap making.  Walnut shell flour is used as ingredient in plastic pillers, battery cases, moulding resin forms, industrial tile and as insecticide spreader.  Walnut timber is used for furniture, carving and making butts of guns.
  10. 10. CLIMATE Climate  highly sensitive to the extremes of winter and summer temperatures as well as to its duration.  climate which is free from frost in spring and from extreme beat in summer.  A temperature of even 2 or 3 degree below freezing point (0oC) kills leaves, shoots and flowers and thus resulting into a crop failure.  High temperature of about 38°C causes sun-burning of hulls and shriveling of kernels resulting sometimes in empty nuts.  An annual rainfall of about 80 cm is considered sufficient for the cultivation of walnut which can be supplemented drier regions with irrigations, particularly for young plants.
  11. 11. SOIL Soil  A well drained, deep sill loam soil containing an abundance of organic matter is the most suitable for walnut cultivation.  Soil analysis of top soil and sub-soil is also essential as the walnut requires a fertile and well drained top soil and the sub-soil should be free from solid rock, impervious clay or gravel layers which restrict root growth.  A soil depth of 2-3 metres give the best results, because walnut roots penetrate up to a depth of about three metres.  It requires a soil pH of neutral range i.e. 6 to 7.
  12. 12. VARIETIES Varieties  All walnut trees in India are of seedling origin, thus no standard named varieties exist. However, a large number of cultivars have been evolved in the USA which is the main walnut exporting country of tile world. Description of some important varieties are given here.  I. Hartley  It is one of the most popular commercial cultivars of California. It is a selection from a seedling. The nuts are large with broad flat base and pointed tip. The shell is light coloured, thin and seals well. The variety is tolerant to codling moth and blight disease.  2. Payne  It is tile second leading cultivar of California which originated as a seedling. Nut is medium to small in size with a good seal. Trees are moderately vigorous, round in shape and require heavy pruning to maintain vigour.
  13. 13. VARIETIES conti…  3. Franquette  It is an old and leading cultivar of France. Nut is small, good shell seal and kernel is light. in colour. Tree is large and upright in nature and is known for its late bud break thus escaping injury from frost during late spring.  4. Serr  It was evolved from a cross of Payne X PI 159568. It is heavy yielding and well adapted to warm conditions. The tree is very vigorous and gives poor yield on very fertile soils. The kernel is light in colour and good in quality. It is susceptible to codling moth and blight disease.  5. Ashley  It is a high yielding, early bearing cultivar which requires heavy pruning to keep the tree vigorous. Kernel is of high quality, good in flavour and light tan in colour. This variety is unsuitable for high rainfall areas due to blight problem.
  14. 14. VARIETIES conti… 1. Hamdan 12. Sulaiman 2. CITH Walnut - 1 13. CITH Walnut - 2 3. CITH Walnut – 3 14. Walnut - 4 4. CITH Walnut – 5 15. CITH Walnut - 6 5. CITH Walnut – 7 16. CITH Walnut - 8 6. CITH Walnut – 9 17. CITH Walnut-10 7. Partap 18. Kotkhai Selection-1 8. Chakrata Selection 19. Tehama 9. Chandler 20. Sunland 10. Chico 21. Vina 11. Howard 22. Pedro
  15. 15. PROPAGATION Propagation  Walnut can be propagated either by seed or by vegetative methods. Both of these methods are described here. 1. Seed propagation- Healthy and disease free seeds should be selected for sowing. They may be sown in lines 50 cm apart and the seed to seed distance should be kept at 25 cm. Sowing is done during mid-November to mid-January depending on the altitude and temperature. it is advisable to avoid propagation by seed because the plants which are grown by this method take a very long time (10 to 12 years) to begin fruiting and the plant characteristics may also not be true to type. 2. Vegetative propagation Walnut can be propagated vegetatively by grafting, budding and stooling.
  16. 16. PROPAGATION conti.. 1. Grafting Tongue or whip grafting, cleft and veneer grafting during February and early March have given good results. Epicotyl grafting has also given encouraging success in tile propagation of walnut. The best period for grafting is January -February. For propagating tile plants through veneer grafting, 5-6 month old scion wood of 15 cm is grafted on the rootstock of same thickness. The selected scion wood should be defoliated 15 days prior to its detachment from the scion cultivars. The optimum time for veneer grafting under mid -hill condition is July -August. One year old seedlings of hard shelled walnut or black walnut can be used as rootstock. Scion for tongue grafting should always be selected from the tree which has already started fruiting.
  17. 17. PROPAGATION conti.. 2.Patch budding is generally practiced to propagate walnut plants vegetatively. The best period for budding is May -June. Scion should always be selected from the tree which has already started fruiting.
  18. 18. PLANTING & IRRIGATION Planting  Square system & Pits of 1.25 X 1.25 x 1.25 m size at a distance of 10 X 10 m should be dug during September. The pits should be filled up with orchard soil mixed with 50 kg well rotten FYM, 150 g Aldrin dust, 150 g urea, 500 g each of superphosphate and MOP. Walnut plantating in Dec.-Jan. The plant should be well fixed in the soil and the adjoining portion of scion and stock union should be at least 15 cm above the ground surface. Watering should be done soon after plantation. To protect the plant from collar rot it should be treated with Dithane Z- 78 before planting. Irrigation  Watering is very essential for the establishment of grafts and young plants.. When the trees start bearing, irrigation should be given from the time of fruit set till its maturity to reduce the fruit drop and for better filling of nuts. When the trees are grown under rainfed conditions and common irrigation systems followed are flood, furrow, sprinkler and drip irrigation.
  19. 19. Persian Walnut Planting Plan Tree spacing 28' x 28' x 40' in a triangular pattern. Area = 1.1 Acres or 0.45 ha. Gl, G2 and G3 are 3 different grafted cultivars totaling 60 trees FUTURE FOLLOW UP When trees crowd, remove the 30 trees in the even numbered walnut rows. Good trees can be tree spaded into a new planting that will begin to bear in a few short years. Gl should be a prolific variety like Lake to maximize the early year production
  20. 20. TRAINING & PRUNING  Modified central leader system is most ideal for training since it provides very good strength to its framework.  Trees should be trained on a single stem up to 1–2m, on which 5–6 scaffold branches should be retained at almost uniform distance spirally.  Excess buds should be pinched during first year. Pruning is not being practiced in our country, as almost entire plantation is of seedling origin, attaining giant size which makes pruning in later years almost impossible.  However with grafted plants, pruning is practicable which can help increase the productivity and improve the quality.  Trees of seedling origin receive some kind of pruning while harvesting by thrashing the limbs with wooden poles.  It is however a crude method which needs to be modified.
  21. 21. MANURES & FERTILIZERS Use the following guide below as a indicative amount of NPK for the walnut  in the absent of plant and soil nutrients analysis information:  Year N Dose (g/tree) Location: circle around the tree (m)  1 100 0.5  2 200 1.0  3 300 1.5  4 400 2.0  5-7 500 2.5  7-9 600 3.0  >10 900 3.0  • In the first five years, place small amounts (about 100 g) of P and K per tree.  From fifth year up to full production, apply 40-80 kg/ha of P and 60-100kg/ha of K based on soil fertility and plant vigour.
  22. 22. FLOWERING  Imperfect flower separate pistillate (female) & staminate(male)  Monoecious
  23. 23. BEARING  Self – fertile, but dichogamous Pollen release from male flowers dosen’t coincide with bloom of female flowers Pollinizer needed  Age to commercial bearing 6-10 yrs  Tree density at full production 30-50 trees/ acre  Peaches often interplanted for first 10-15 years
  24. 24. A green husk surrounds the nut of the English Walnut. The husk naturally splits at the time of ripening to release the nut
  25. 25. Persian Walnut, Juglans regia
  26. 26. The shells of walnuts
  27. 27. Juglans regia walnuts.
  28. 28. Mature walnut fruit closeup English walnut leaf
  29. 29. Inside of a Persian Walnut nut with green outer layer visible in the top left corner
  30. 30. The shell of the English walnut is light brown, hard, and bumpy. It is roughly oval and tapers at the bottom. The shell has an vertical seam dividing it into two halves.
  31. 31. Walnut meats have a lobbed and wrinkled appearance. The outside is golden brown and the inside white to light brown. Inside each shell are two nuts, separated by a thin, paper-like layer. Each nut meat resembles a butterfly or wings, with two flared lobes joined by a smaller centre section. Walnuts can be confused with pecans, but pecans look more like a brain than wings
  32. 32. English walnut trees grow 40 to 60 feet in height and width and have an rounded to spreading shape to their canopy.
  33. 33. English walnut leaves are compound and arranged alternately along the stem
  34. 34. The leaf is composed of 5 to 9 leaflets, each reaching a length of 2 to 5 inches.
  35. 35. English walnut and Black walnut differ in the number of leaflets, the shape of the leaflets, and the leaflet margin. black walnut leaves have a greater number of leaflets (15-23) than English walnuts (5-9). English walnut leaflets have more oval shaped leaves while black walnut leaves are generally smaller and narrower in shape. Black Walnut leaflets have toothed margins while English walnut leaflet margins are entire.
  36. 36. English walnut and Butternut have the same general leaf shape. They differ in the number of leaflets, butternut has 11-19 leaflets, while English walnut has only 5-9. Also, butternut has a toothed margin, while the leaf margin of the English walnut is entire.
  37. 37. Black walnut fruit is usually between two and three inches in diameter. The husk (shown here) is rough and light green in color and forms the outer layer of protection for the nut
  38. 38. Black walnuts grow in clusters amidst the pinnately compound leaves
  39. 39. Walnuts are usually harvested when hull colour changes from green to yellowish with cracks or when splitting starts at suture from pedicel end. Nuts should be harvested at PTB stage (when packing tissue turns brown). For better nut recovery, the orchard floor should be cleaned and tarpaulin or polythene sheets may be spread on the floor beneath trees prior to knocking of the nuts. After harvesting, nuts should be properly dehulled, washed and dried. In case nuts are not dried properly there is every apprehension of mould development which impairs the quality of the fruit. In Himachal Pradesh harvesting commences from August and extends up to last week of September, whereas in Kashmir walnuts are harvested in September. HARVESTING AND POST HARVESTMANAGEMENT
  40. 40. The shell is brown and wrinkled in appearance and and is the second layer of protection for the nut. The nut is found inside the shell.
  41. 41. Black walnut trees are very large, ranging from 50 to 75 feet in height and width.
  42. 42. Walnut shoot cut longitudinally to show chambered pith. Scale in mm
  43. 43. Black walnut kernels are often used in the manufacturing of ice cream, commercial baking, and candy making
  44. 44. WALNUT PLANT PROTECTION
  45. 45. 1. Anthracnose FUNGUS (Gnomonia leptostyla) SYMPTOMS Brown to black lesions on leaves, petioles, shoots and/or husks which fade toward the center and may be surrounded by a chlorotic halo; spots may coalesce to form large necrotic patches, usually located close to leaf margins; lesions on shoots, petioles and leaf midribs become elongated and sunken COMMENTS Disease affects English walnut and is widespread in Europe; disease is also known to occur in the Pacific Northwest of the United States MANAGEMENT Control of anthracnose in pistachio relies on the application of appropriate fungicide sprays; cultural practices can help to reduce the severity of the disease and include: removing leaf debris from around plants, avoiding wetting foliage when irrigating, spacing trees adequately to increase air circulation and applications of nitrogen fertilizer in Spring to delay leaf maturity and reduce the development of lesions Diseases
  46. 46. Diseases
  47. 47. 2. Armillaria root rot (Oak root fungus) FUNGUS (Armillaria mellea) SYMPTOMS- Small, discolored leaves which drop early; death of branches; death of plant; clusters of honey-colored mushrooms may sprout at base of plant COMMENTS- Fungus survives on dead roots in soil MANAGEMENT- Armillaria root rot cannot be effectively controlled once it has become established in an orchard; diseased or dead plants should be uprooted and removed; planting resistant rootstocks is the most effective method of preventing the disease 3. Blackline disease VIRUS Cherry leaf roll virus (CLRV-W) SYMPTOMS- Gradual reduction in tree vigor; leaves are yellow and drooping; defoliation occurs prematurely and is followed by dieback of terminal shoots; small holes or cracks may be present at the graft union and underlying tissue may be dis colored COMMENTS- Virus may be introduced from infected graft wood or infected pollen MANAGEMENT-Introduction of the disease to un-infested areas can be prevented by using virus-free graft and bud wood from English walnut; in areas where the disease is uncommon, immediate removal of trees identified as being infected can prevent spread. Diseases
  48. 48. Diseases
  49. 49. 3.Crown gall BACTERIUM (Agrobacterium tumefaciens) SYMPTOMS Galls of various sizes on roots and root crown below the soil line; galls may occasionally grow on the trunk; galls are initially light colored bulges which grow larger and darken; galls may be soft and spongy or hard; if galling is severe and girdles the trunk then young trees are weakened due to constricted vascular tissue; trees may be stunted and rarely die COMMENTS The bacterium enters host plants through wounds and causes plant cells to proliferate and cells to be undifferentiated, leading to the formation of a gall MANAGEMENT Only plant disease-free nursery stock; plant trees in well- draining soils; avoid wounding the plants as much as possible; fresh wounds can be treated with a biocontrol agent (Agrobacterium tumefaciensK84), if available, to prevent the bacterium colonizing Diseases
  50. 50. 4. Phytophthora root and crown rot OOMYCETE(Phytophthora spp.) SYMPTOMS Slow growing trees with reduced vigor; leaves of tree turning yellow and wilting; shoots and branches dying back; if tree is girdled at the trunk or root crown then death occurs, usually within one growing season; infected tree roots are necrotic and discolored black or brown; most roots eventually die; trees with crown rot may exhibit cankers of the root crown which extend above the soil line; cankers are visible as discolored bark and possess a zonate appearance when the bark is removed COMMENTS Disease emergence favored by water saturated soils; disease is usually introduced to orchards through contaminated soil, water and plants MANAGEMENT Control should focus on minimizing soil wetness and saturation by planting trees in well-draining soils; drainage can be improved by levelling soil or installing drainage systems; avoid wetting tree trunks when irrigating; ensure graft union is several centimeters above the soil line when planting trees Diseases
  51. 51. 5. Walnut blight BACTERIUM(Xanthomonas campestris) SYMPTOMS Small, water-soaked spots on immature fruit which darken and rapidly enlarge; bacterial exudate may be present during wet weather; if infection occurs prior to shell hardening then the kernels shrivel; infections which occur later may cause kernel discoloration but the fungus does not usually invade the kernel; catkins which become infected are are dark and shrivelled; new shoots may also be attacked and lesions may girdle the stem, killing the shoot above; lesions may form on tree bark and may also extend into the pith causing cankers to form; lesions on leaves are brown with a green-yellow perimeter; leaf lesions may coalesce to form large necrotic areas COMMENTS Bacteria overwinter in dormant buds; following bud break the following year, bacteria infect surrounding leaves and young fruit; emergence of walnut blight is favored by periods of wet weather MANAGEMENT The primary method of controlling walnut blight is the application of copper containing bactericides such as Bordeaux mixture; bactericides should be applied weekly to protect new growth during periods of wet weather Diseases
  52. 52. 6. Powdery mildew FUNGUS (Phyllactinia guttata) SYMPTOMS Small, powdery white spots on leaves and fruit; spots spread to cover entire leaf; small black fungal fruiting bodies may be visible in the white growth; young leaflets may crinkle as they mature COMMENTS Disease emergence favored by moderate temperature, poor air circulation around plant and shady conditions MANAGEMENT Disease is not severe enough on walnut to warrant control Diseases
  53. 53. 1. WALNUT HUSK FLY- (Rhagoletis completa), infests walnuts in most California walnut-growing areas. It feeds on black walnut and on all varieties of English walnut, but some early maturing varieties can escape infestations in most years. IDENTIFICATION- The walnut husk fly is about the size of a housefly and very colorful. It has a yellow spot just below the areas where the wings are attached and iridescent, greenish eyes. The wings have three prominent dark bands, one of which extends around the wing to form a V-shape (Fig. 1). The banded wings distinguish it from other flies found in the walnut orchard. DAMAGE The primary damage from the husk fly is nutshell staining, which is a problem in commercial orchards where nuts are grown for in-shell sale; however, this can be tolerated in backyard situations. Feeding by the husk fly maggots also causes the damaged husks to stick to the shell, making them difficult to remove. An early season husk fly infestation (June to mid-August) can result in shriveled, moldy kernels. MANAGEMENT Most home orchardists ignore the walnut husk fly, because generally it doesn’t affect the nutmeats. Since the husks can be difficult to remove, home orchardists can place the damaged nuts in a damp burlap bag for a few days before attempting to remove the hull. Be sure to dispose of infested husks in a tightly sealed bag. Pests
  54. 54. pests Husk fly Damages
  55. 55. 2. Walnut codling Moth- 3. Walnut Mite- 4. Walnut Nematode- pests

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