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3D modelling and animation using Autodesk maya

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3D modelling and animation using Autodesk maya.

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3D modelling and animation using Autodesk maya

  1. 1. IPT3002_15_EVEN_13 A Study Report On “3D Modeling and Animation using Autodesk Maya” Submitted by Parvesh Taneja Under Guidance of Mr. Nihar Ranjan Roy G D Goenka University SOHNA GURGAON ROAD, HARYANA INDIA
  2. 2. CERTIFICATE This is to certify that the Project entitled “3D Modeling and Animation using Autodesk Maya” which is being submitted by- S. No. Name Enrolment Number 1. Parvesh Taneja 130020201057 is a bonafide work done under my guidance & supervision. Mr.Nihar Ranjan Roy (Associate Professor)
  3. 3. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I would like to take this opportunity to express my profound gratitude and deep regards to my guide Mr. Nihar Ranjan Roy for his exemplary guidance, monitoring and constant encouragement throughout the course of this thesis. I am obliged to staff members of GDGU especially Mr. Dheeraj Nagpal & Mr. Smruti Ranjan for the valuable information provided by them in their respective fields. I am grateful for their cooperation during the period of my assignment.
  4. 4. PREFACE The aim of our project is to make “3D Model and Animation it using Autodesk Maya”. This report provides a brief insight into the world of 3-D modeling and animation using Autodesk Maya. I have made several objects (3-D models) in Autodesk Maya which are in mentioned in detail in this report.
  5. 5. CONTENTS 1. Chapter I Introduction to 3-D Modelling. 2. Chapter II Types of 3-D Modelling. 3. Chapter III Introduction to Animation. 4. Chapter IV Types of Animation. 5. Chapter V Introduction to Autodesk Maya. 6. Chapter VI Making of Soda Can. REFERENCES
  6. 6. IPT3002_15_EVEN_13 6 | P a g e CHAPTER-I
  7. 7. IPT3002_15_EVEN_13 7 | P a g e Introduction to 3D Modeling Modeling is the process of taking a shape and moulding it into a completed 3D mesh. The most typical means of creating a 3D model is to take a simple object, called a primitive, and extend or "grow" it into a shape that can be refined and detailed. Primitives can be anything from a single point (called a vertex), a two-dimensional line (an edge), a curve (a spline), to three dimensional objects (faces or polygons). In the world of computer design, 3D modeling is the process of developing graphics and images that appear to have three dimensions. The process is complicated, but generally involves connecting a set of points with various geometric data such as lines and curved surfaces with the goal of creating a wireframe model that represents a three-dimensional object. It is popular in gaming, motion pictures, and other entertainment ventures. Designers typically use one of four1 main modeling methods, namely-  Polygonal  Primitive,  Non-Uniform rational B-spline, or splines  Patches. Choosing one method over another is usually a matter of end goals as well as software capabilities.  This is just for the sake of information.
  8. 8. IPT3002_15_EVEN_13 8 | P a g e Representation of 3-D Models Almost all 3D models can be divided into two categories. Solid - These models define the volume of the object they represent (like a rock). These are more realistic, but more difficult to build. Solid models are mostly used for nonvisual simulations such as medical and engineering simulations, for CAD and specialized visual applications such as ray tracing and constructive solid geometry. Shell/boundary - These models represent the surface, e.g. the boundary of the object, not its volume (like an infinitesimally thin eggshell). These are easier to work with than solid models. Almost all visual models used in games and film are shell models.
  9. 9. IPT3002_15_EVEN_13 9 | P a g e CHAPTER-II Types to 3D Modelling
  10. 10. IPT3002_15_EVEN_13 10 | P a g e Types to 3D Modelling 1. Spline or patch modelling: A spline is a curve in 3D space defined by at least two control points. The most common splines used in 3D art are bezier curves and NURBS (the software Maya has a strong NURBS modeling foundation.) Using splines to create a model is perhaps the oldest, most traditional form of 3D modeling available. A cage of splines is created to form a "skeleton" of the object you want to create. The software can then create a patch of polygons to extend between two splines, forming a 3D skin around the shape. Spline modeling is not used very often these days for character creation, due to how long it takes to create good models. The models that are produced usually aren't useful for animation without a lot of modification. Spline modeling is used primarily for the creation of hard objects, like cars, buildings, and furniture. Splines are extremely useful when creating these objects, which may be a combination of angular and curved shapes. When creating a 3D scene that requires curved shapes, spline modeling should be your first choice. Fig 2.1 Spline Modelling Fig 2.2 Patch Modelling
  11. 11. IPT3002_15_EVEN_13 11 | P a g e 2. Box modelling: Box modeling is possibly the most popular technique, and bears a lot of resemblance to traditional sculpting. In box modelling, one starts with a primitive (usually a cube) and begins adding detail by "slicing" the cube into pieces and extending faces of the cube to gradually create the form you're after. People use box modeling to create the basic shape of the model. Once practiced, the technique is very quick to get acceptable results. The downside is that the technique requires a lot of tweaking of the model along the way. Also, it is difficult to create a model that has a surface topology that lends well to animation. Box modeling is useful as a way to create organic models, like characters. Box modellers can also create hard objects like buildings, however precise curved shapes may be more difficult to create using this technique. Fig 2.3 Box Modelling 3. Poly modeling/ edge extrusion: While it's not the easiest to get started with, poly modeling is perhaps the most effective and precise technique. In poly modelling, one creates a 3D mesh point- by-point, face-by-face. Often one will start out with a single quad (a 3D object consisting of 4 points) and extrude an edge of the quad, creating a second quad attached to the first. The 3D model is created gradually in this way. While poly modeling is not as fast as box modelling, it requires less tweaking of the mesh to get it "just right," and you can plan out the topology for animation ahead of time. Poly modelers use the technique to create either organic or hard objects, though poly modeling is best suited for organic models.
  12. 12. IPT3002_15_EVEN_13 12 | P a g e CHAPTER-III Introduction to Animation
  13. 13. IPT3002_15_EVEN_13 13 | P a g e Introduction to Animation Animation is the process of displaying still images in a rapid sequence of static images that minimally differ from each other to create the illusion of movement. These images can be hand drawn, computer generated, or pictures of 3D objects. Though most people associate animation with cartoons, it also has applications in industrial and scientific research. Regardless of the type, the viewer's body plays a main role in why people see continuous movement instead of a series of quickly changing images. The illusion as in motion pictures in general is thought to rely on the phi phenomenon . Animators are artists who specialize in the creation of animation. Animation can be recorded with either analogue media, a flip book, motion picture film, video tape, digital media, including formats with animated GIF, Flash animation and digital video. To display animation, a digital camera, computer, or projector are used along with new technologies that are produced.  The phi phenomenon is the optical illusion of perceiving a series of still images, when viewed in rapid succession, as continuous motion.
  14. 14. IPT3002_15_EVEN_13 14 | P a g e CHAPTER-IV Types of Animation
  15. 15. IPT3002_15_EVEN_13 15 | P a g e Types of Animation 1. Traditional animation or Classical 2D animation Traditional animation involved animators drawing by hand for each and every frame. If you love the feel of pencils on a paper, then the traditional approach is very fascinating. Traditional animation is creating the drawings one by one on the frame. 2D animation involves creating numerous drawings then feeding into a plastic cells, hand painting them and create the animated sequence on a painted background image. Traditional Aniamtion Movies : Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs, Peter Pan, Sleeping Beauty, Aladdin. Fig 4.1 A man Making drawing Fig 4.2 Character made by hand drawing
  16. 16. IPT3002_15_EVEN_13 16 | P a g e 2. Digital 2D animation Creating animations in the 2 dimensional space with the help of digital technologies is known as digital 2d animation. You don’t need to create digital models, you just need to draw the frames. Create 100s of drawing and animating them to show some kind of movement is technically known as digital 2d animation. Using Adobe flash, animators can limit the number of drawings used, which makes them easier to create digital 2d animation. Small variations like changing the color or frame rate can be changed almost instantly, thus making it easier for the animators to work on. Fig 4.3 Character made by digital animation Fig 4.4 Character made by digital animation using software
  17. 17. IPT3002_15_EVEN_13 17 | P a g e 3. Digital 3D animation If you are interested in making the unreal characters into a realistic one, then it’s Digital 3d animation. Digital 3d animation characters are much faster to create and they are quite popular in the movie making industry. Using a computer software 3d animated images are used to create many short films, full length movies and even TV commercials and a career in digital 3d animation is highly rewarding. Comparing to 2D animation and the traditional approach, 3d animation models are highly realistic. Fig 4.5 Character made by digital 3D animation
  18. 18. IPT3002_15_EVEN_13 18 | P a g e 4. Stop-motion animation Have you ever wondered if a piece of stone can walk or talk, well anything is possible in animation? Using frame by frame animation, physical static objects are moved around and during the post-production it is shown in a fluid movement. Stop motion animation has been around ever since the evolution of puppets. There were many movies created using the stop motion method, some of the finest examples are “Fun in a bakery shop” created in 1902.Edwin Porter directed "The Teddy Bears," which was one of the earliest stop-motion animation films. The movie is a short sequence of playing teddy bears, just over a minute in length, which took over 50 hours to animate. Fig 4.6 Character made for stop motion animation
  19. 19. IPT3002_15_EVEN_13 19 | P a g e 5. Puppetry Animation Puppetry animation is created using the life like puppets instead of objects. The film ‘The Humpty Dumpty Circus’ (1908) created by J. Stuart Blackton and Albert smith receives credit as the first stop-motion animation film that features puppets. Nowadays puppet animation is most commonly used in children’s cartoons and films. An example of puppet animation used in cinema is in the film King Kong (1933).The Nightmare before Christmas (1993) is an American stop motion musical fantasy horror film directed by Henry Selick. It used 227 puppets to represent the characters in the film and also 400 heads were used to allow the expression for every possible emotion. Fig 4.7 Character made for puppetry animation
  20. 20. IPT3002_15_EVEN_13 20 | P a g e 6. Clay animation or Claymation If you like to play with clay then this is of the best forms of stop motion created in Claymation. In this Claymation, pieces of clay are moulded to create characters and based on the imagination of the animator, a story is unfolded. There are oil based and water based clays available. Sometimes the clay is moulded into free forms or filled up in a wire like structure called armature. The animated characters are kept in a set and with only short movements, the whole scene is film. Fig 4.8 Character made for clay animation / Claymation
  21. 21. IPT3002_15_EVEN_13 21 | P a g e 7. Cut-out animation Cut – Out animation is probably one of the oldest forms of stop motion animations in the history of animation. The first cut-out animation was created by Lotte Reiniger in 1926 and it was named “The Adventures of Prince Achmed”. She used quite detailed paper silhouettes to convey a beautiful story. In this method paper cut outs are moved under the camera lens to say a story. Ever since the evolution of computers, it was much easier to introduce the computerized cut images in a queue. Fig 4.9 Character made for cut-out animation
  22. 22. IPT3002_15_EVEN_13 22 | P a g e 8. Zoetrope Animation The zoetrope is one of several animation toys which were invented in the 19th century, as people experimented with ways to make moving pictures. It was invented in 1834 by William George Horner, and is one of the early forms of animations. Some still images are drawn on a drum and when turned in a circular way, you have an illusion of movement. The visual effect created by a zoetrope is still used today to create animated GIFs. Fig 4.10 Zoetrope animation
  23. 23. IPT3002_15_EVEN_13 23 | P a g e CHAPTER-V Introduction to Autodesk Maya
  24. 24. IPT3002_15_EVEN_13 24 | P a g e Introduction to Autodesk Maya Maya is 3D computer animation software with powerful modelling, rendering, simulation, texturing and animation tools for vfx artists, modellers and animators. Maya helps artists tell their story with one fast, creative toolset Maya is the premier application for creating compelling 3D digital content, including models, animation, visual effects, games, and simulations. The work you do in Maya generally falls into these categories: Creating models. Polygons, NURBS, and subdivision surfaces are different object types with different ways of modeling. Each has its own strengths, and different artists prefer working with different types.  Polygons let you model a surface by building up and reshaping a number of simple surface facets.  NURBS let you easily create smooth, curving surfaces with high-level control.  Subdivision surfaces let you edit surfaces at a high level with minimum overhead data, while still letting you work with subsections of the surface as if they were made from polygons.  Character rigging. Most animations involve “characters,” articulated models such as a person, an animal, robot, or anything else that moves by articulation. Maya lets you define internal skeletons for characters and bind skin to them to create realistic movement with deformation.  Animation. Just about everything you can think of in Maya is key able or able to be animated.  Dynamics, fluids, and other simulated effects. Maya includes a comprehensive suite of tools for simulating real world effects such as fire explosions, fluids, hair and fur, the physics of colliding objects, and more.  Painting and paint effects. Maya includes an incredible system for using a graphics tablet (or the mouse) to paint 2D canvases, paint directly on 3D models, paint to create geometry, scriptable paint, and virtually limitless other possibilities.
  25. 25. IPT3002_15_EVEN_13 25 | P a g e  Lighting, Shading, and Rendering. When you want to render a still image or movie of your scene or animation, you can create them using your choice of renderers.
  26. 26. IPT3002_15_EVEN_13 26 | P a g e System requirements for Autodesk Maya 2015 The Table below shows all the requirement for Autodesk Maya2015 - Software Operating System  Microsoft® Windows® 7 (SP1), Windows® 8 and Windows® 8.1 Professional operating system  Apple® Mac OS® X 10.8.5 and 10.9.x operating system  Red Hat® Enterprise Linux® 6.2 WS operating system  Fedora™ 14 Linux operating system  CentOS 6.2 Linux operating system Browser Autodesk recommends the latest version of the following web browsers for access to online supplemental content:  Apple® Safari® web browser  Google Chrome™ web browser  Microsoft® Internet Explorer® web browser  Mozilla® Firefox® web browser Hardware CPU 64-bit Intel® or AMD® multi-core processor RAM 4 GB of RAM (8GB recommended) Disk Space 4GB of free disk space for install Pointing Device Three-button mouse
  27. 27. IPT3002_15_EVEN_13 27 | P a g e CHAPTER-VI Making a 3-D model of Soda-Can in Autodesk Maya Fig 6.1 Soda Can
  28. 28. IPT3002_15_EVEN_13 28 | P a g e Making a 3-D model of Soda-Can Step by Step Step 1: 1. Go to Create 2. Select Polygon Primitive 3. Select Cylinder Fig 6.2 Step 2: Press R to scale and scale accordingly by grabbing handles (Blue, Red & Green as shown in figure below). Fig 6.3
  29. 29. IPT3002_15_EVEN_13 29 | P a g e Step 3: Go to Edit Mesh option and click Insert Edge Loop Tool and insert edges appropriately. Fig 6.4 After Inserting Edge Loops, it will look as shown in figure below. Fig 6.5
  30. 30. IPT3002_15_EVEN_13 30 | P a g e Step 4: Again Press R and scale some of the edges to make it look like a soda can. Fig 6.6 Step 5: Press W to grab the edge loop and further shape the model. Fig 6.7
  31. 31. IPT3002_15_EVEN_13 31 | P a g e Step 6: Insert more Edge Loops by clicking G. Fig 6.8 After inserting more edge loops it will look like as shown below. Fig 6.9
  32. 32. IPT3002_15_EVEN_13 32 | P a g e Step 7: Press R and grab the top are and shape it. Fig 6.10 Do same with bottom of the cylinder (press W key to move edge loops). Fig 6.11
  33. 33. IPT3002_15_EVEN_13 33 | P a g e Step 8: Right- click a polygon mesh and select Face from the marking menu. Fig 6.12 Step 9: Go to Edit Mesh option and click Extrude (Make sure the top surface is selected). Fig 6.13
  34. 34. IPT3002_15_EVEN_13 34 | P a g e Step 10: Press R to scale, then press G to extrude and scale at same time. Fig 6.14 Step 11: Go to Rendering Editors and select Hypershade. Fig 6.15
  35. 35. IPT3002_15_EVEN_13 35 | P a g e Step 12: Select Blinn and close the window. Fig 6.16 Step 13: Go to Common Material Attributes in Attribute Editor and increase or decrease the values of different properties according to your desired colour. Fig 6.17
  36. 36. IPT3002_15_EVEN_13 36 | P a g e Various Options (Zoomed view of Fig 6.17) in Common Material Attributes. Fig 6.18 Step 14: Select the top area as done in step 8, Press Shift and ‘.’(Full Stop Key) simultaneously. Fig 6.19
  37. 37. IPT3002_15_EVEN_13 37 | P a g e Step 15: Now go to Assign Existing Material and select blinn1. Fig 6.20 Step 16: Do same as in previous step to the bottom of the can. Fig 6.21
  38. 38. IPT3002_15_EVEN_13 38 | P a g e Step 17: Again go to Rendering Editors and select Hypershade. Fig 6.22 Step 18: Select Blinn again. Fig 6.23
  39. 39. IPT3002_15_EVEN_13 39 | P a g e Step 19: Go to Common Material Attributes and Specular Shading in Attribute Editor and increase or decrease the values of different properties according to your desired colour. Fig 6.24 Step 20: Click on color a new window pops up. Fig 6.25
  40. 40. IPT3002_15_EVEN_13 40 | P a g e Step 21: Select File (new window pops up). Fig 6.26 Step 22: Click on the folder in front Image Name and select the file. Fig 6.27
  41. 41. IPT3002_15_EVEN_13 41 | P a g e Step 23: An Open window pops up now select the image file you want to apply (Here I have selected the Logo). Close the window now. Fig 6.28 Step 24: Select the Faces where you want to apply the image. Fig 6.29
  42. 42. IPT3002_15_EVEN_13 42 | P a g e Step 25: Click Assign Existing Material and select blinn2. Fig 6.30 After doing this it will look like as show in the figure below (Your might look different depending on the values you selected previously in Attribute Editor). Fig 6.31
  43. 43. IPT3002_15_EVEN_13 43 | P a g e Step 26: Click numeric key 6 Fig 6.32 Step 27: Now click on Create UVs and select Cylindrical Mapping. Fig 6.33
  44. 44. IPT3002_15_EVEN_13 44 | P a g e Step 28: Modelling of soda can is now finished, save the file by simply going to File menu and clicking save. Fig 6.34
  45. 45. IPT3002_15_EVEN_13 45 | P a g e REFERENCE 1. http://www.animationarena.com/introduction-to-3d-modelling.html 2. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Animation 3. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phi_phenomenon 4. http://webneel.com/different-types-of-animation-styles 5. http://www.expertrating.com/courseware/MAYACourse/Maya-Transforms-1.asp 6. http://cgi.tutsplus.com/tutorials/learning-autodesk-maya-a-beginners-introduction-to-the- software-part-1--cg-21009 7. 7 . http://www.worldofleveldesign.com/categories/3d_modeling/maya-tutorial-for-beginners-03- how-to-create-custom-shelf.php 8. 8 . http://download.autodesk.com/global/docs/maya2014/en_us/index.html?url=files/GUID- 6B531DDB-3440-4216-A322-FB6CD1EA83A1.htm,topicNumber=d30e13026 9. 9 . http://www.arch.cuhk.edu.hk/server1/staff1/marcaurel/desc9019/tutorials/Readings/mayaDocs/ Basics.pdf 10. http://www.gamedesigning.org/animation/different-types/ 11. http://webneel.com/different-types-of-animation-styles 12. http://www.animationcareerreview.com/articles/10-types-3d-animation-software-worth- knowing 13. http://www.autodesk.in/products/maya/overview

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