Ipsilateral loss of proprioception due to posterior column
Contrlateral loss of pain and temperature due to involvement
of lateral spinothalamic tract.
ipsilateral spastic weakness due to descending corticospinal
LMN signs at the level of lesion
CENTRAL CORD SYNDROME
Results from damage to the gray matter nerve cells and
crossing spinothalamic tracts near the central canal.
Hyperextension injuries of neck
Arnold chiari syndrome type 1 and type 2
Dandy walker malformation
Dissociated sensory loss
Loss of pain and temperature sense over shoulders, lower
neck and upper trunk in contrast to preservation of light
touch, joint position and vibration sense
Arm weakness out of proportion to leg weakness
ANTERIOR CORD SYNDROME
Area supplied by anterior spinal artery is affected
Extensive bilateral tissue destruction with
sparing of posterior column
Acute disc herniation or ischemia from anterior spinal artery
Motor sensory and autonomic functions are lost below the
level of lesion
Vibration and position sense are retained.
With both complete and incomplete paralysis, overall
management of the patient is important.
Patient transported with great care to prevent further damage
Skin: every 2 hrs patient is gently rolled to side and back is
washed, dried and powdered to prevent pressure sores
Bladder and bowel: bladder catheterised, bag is changed twice
weekly to prevent urethral and bladder complications , catheter
blockage and infection. bladder training as early as possible. If
there is high residual urine after bladder emptying, cystography
and cystometry is done.After 3 mths of bladder training,
transurethral resection of the bladder neck or sphincterotomy
may be done
Muscles and joints:
passive movement of joints through their full range twice daily to
prevent flexion contractures. Callipers used to keep knees
straight and feet plantigrade.
If flexion contracture develops, tenotomies are necessary.
Painful flexion spasms are relieved by tenotomies, neurectomies,
rhizotomies or intrathecal injection of alcohol.
Heterotopic ossification if interferes with function are excised once
it is mature.
Some function of the UL can be regained.
If only deltoid and biceps are working(c5,c6) , a posterior deltoid
to triceps transfer using interposition tendon will replace elbow
If brachioradialis(c6) is working, it can be transferred to become a
wrist extensor.on active extension of the wrist, the basal joint of
the thumb is passively flexed.
If extensor carpi radialis longus and brevis( c7) are both available,
one can be transferred into the flexor pollicis longus to provide
active thumb flexion(c8).
Constant enthusiasm and encouragement by doctors,
physiotherapists and nurses is essential.