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SKIN - INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM

  1. 1. DR NILESH KATE MBBS,MD PROFESSOR ESIC MEDICAL COLLEGE, GULBARGA. DEPT. OF PHYSIOLOGY SKIN
  2. 2. OBJECTIVES.  Introduction  Functions  Layers  Colours  Appendages  Glands  Disorders  Tumors & its role in temperature regulation.
  3. 3. The Integumentary System  Integument is skin  Skin and its appendages make up the Integumentary system  A fatty layer (hypodermis) lies deep to it  Two distinct regions  Epidermis  Dermis
  4. 4. Functions of skin  Protection  Cushions and insulates and is waterproof  Protects from chemicals, heat, cold, bacteria  Screens UV  Synthesizes vitamin D with UV  Regulates body heat  Prevents unnecessary water loss  Sensory reception (nerve endings)
  5. 5. Epidermis  Keratinized stratified squamous epithelium  Four types of cells  Keratinocytes – deepest, produce keratin (tough fibrous protein)  Melanocytes - make dark skin pigment melanin  Merkel cells – associated with sensory nerve endings  Langerhans cells – Macrophage-like dendritic cells (see figure on next slide)
  6. 6. Epidermis  Layers (from deep to superficial)  Stratum basale or germinativum – single row of cells attached to dermis; youngest cells  Stratum spinosum – spinyness is artifactual; tonofilaments (bundles of protein) resist tension  Stratum granulosum – layers of flattened keratinocytes producing keratin (hair and nails made of it also)  Stratum lucidum (only on palms and soles)  Stratum corneum – horny layer (cells dead, many layers thick) Friday, May 10, 2019
  7. 7. Epithelium: layers (on left) and cell types (on right)
  8. 8. Remember…  Four basic types of tissue  Epithelium – epidermis just discussed  Connective tissue - dermis  Muscle tissue  Nervous tissue
  9. 9. Dermis  Strong, flexible connective tissue  Cells: fibroblasts, macrophages, mast cells, WBCs  Fiber types: collagen, elastic, reticular.  Rich supply of nerves and vessels  Critical role in Temperature regulation (the vessels)
  10. 10. Dermis  Two layers  Papillary – areolar connective tissue; includes dermal papillae  Reticular – “reticulum” (network) of collagen and reticular fibers Friday, May 10, 2019
  11. 11. Fingerprints, palmprints, footprints  Dermal papillae lie atop dermal ridges  Elevate the overlying epidermis into epidermal ridges  Are “sweat films” because of sweat pores  Genetically determined The dermis is the receptive site for the pigment of tattoos
  12. 12. Fingerprints, palmprints, footprints Flexion creases  Deep dermis, from continual folding Fibers  Collagen: strength and resilience  Elastic fibers: stretch-recoil  Striae: stretch marks  Tension lines  The direction the bundles of fibers are directed Friday, May 10, 2019
  13. 13. Hypodermis  “Hypodermis” (Gk) = below the skin  “Subcutaneous” (Latin) = below the skin  Also called “superficial fascia” “fascia” (Latin) =band; in anatomy: sheet of connective tissue  Fatty tissue which stores fat and anchors skin (areolar tissue and adipose cells)  Different patterns of accumulation (male/female)
  14. 14. Skin color  Three skin pigments  Melanin: the most important  Carotene: from carrots and yellow vegies  Hemoglobin: the pink of light skin  Melanin in granules passes from melanocytes (same number in all races) to keratinocytes in stratum basale  Digested by lysosomes  Variations in color  Protection from UV light vs vitamin D?
  15. 15. Skin appendages  Derived from epidermis but extend into dermis  Include  Hair and hair follicles  Sebaceous (oil) glands  Sweat (sudoiferous) glands  Nails
  16. 16. Nails  Of hard keratin  Corresponds to hooves and claws  Grows from nail matrix
  17. 17. Hair and hair follicles: complex  Derived from epidermis and dermis Everywhere but palms, soles, nipples, parts of genitalia
  18. 18. Hair and hair follicles: complex  Functions of hair  Warmth – less in man than other mammals  Sense light touch of the skin  Protection - scalp  Parts  Root imbedded in skin  Shaft projecting above skin surface
  19. 19. Hair and hair follicles: complex  Make up of hair – hard keratin  Three concentric layers  Medulla (core)  Cortex (surrounds medulla)  Cuticle (single layers, overlapping) Friday, May 10, 2019
  20. 20. Hair and hair follicles: complex  Types of hair  Vellus: fine, short hairs  Intermediate hairs  Terminal: longer, courser hair  Hair growth: averages 2 mm/week  Active: growing  Resting phase then shed
  21. 21. Hair and hair follicles: complex  Hair loss  Thinning – age related  Male pattern baldness  Hair color  Amount of melanin for black or brown; distinct form of melanin for red  White: decreased melanin and air bubbles in the medulla  Genetically determined though influenced by hormones and environment. Friday, May 10, 2019
  22. 22. Sebaceous (oil) glands  Entire body except palms and soles  Produce sebum by holocrine secretion  Oils and lubricates
  23. 23. Sweat glands  Entire skin surface except nipples and part of external genitalia  Prevent overheating
  24. 24. Sweat glands  500 cc to 12 l/day! (is mostly water)  Humans most efficient (only mammals have)  Produced in response to stress as well as heat Friday, May 10, 2019
  25. 25. Types of sweat glands  Eccrine or merocrine  Most numerous  True sweat: 99% water, some salts, traces of waste  Open through pores
  26. 26. Types of sweat glands  Apocrine  Axillary, anal and genital areas only  Ducts open into hair follices  The organic molecules in it decompose with time - odor  Modified apocrine glands  Ceruminous – secrete earwax  Mammary – secrete milk
  27. 27. Disorders of the integumentary system  Burns  Threat to life  Catastrophic loss of body fluids  Dehydration and fatal circulatory shock  Infection  Types  First degree – epidermis: redness (e.g. sunburn)  Second degree – epidermis and upper dermis: blister  Third degree - full thickness  Infections  Skin cancer
  28. 28. Burns First-degree (epidermis only; redness) Second-degree (epidermis and dermis, with blistering) Third-degree (full thickness, destroying epidermis, dermis, often part of hypodermis)
  29. 29. Critical burns.  Over 10% of the body has third-degree burns  25 % of the body has second-degree burns  Third-degree burns on face, hands, or feet Estimate by “rule of 9’s”
  30. 30. Tumors of the skin  Benign, e.g. warts  Cancer – associated with UV exposure (also skin aging)  Aktinic keratosis - premalignant  Basal cell - cells of stratum basale  Squamous cell - keratinocytes  Melanoma – melanocytes: most dangerous; recognition:  A - Asymmetry  B - Border irregularity  C - Colors  D - Diameter larger than 6 mm
  31. 31. Basal cell carcinoma Sqaumous cell carcinoma Melanoma Skin Cancer
  32. 32. Why? • All organisms are limited by their ability to survive in different temperatures • Some, like reptiles and amphibia are poikilothermic • Others like humans are homeothermic
  33. 33. How? • The actual body temperature is a consequence of the balance between the amount of heat produced and the amount of heat lost. The balance may be altered • physiologically or • behaviourally
  34. 34. Basal metabolic rate Muscle activity Shivering Vasomotor Sweating Piloerection Conduction Convection Radiation Evaporation Body Skin Environment Balance
  35. 35. Core Temperature
  36. 36. Reference Response Controlled system Feedback Set-pointSet-point hypothesishypothesis So how is it regulated?
  37. 37. Response Controlled system Feedback Balance hypothesisBalance hypothesis Feedback warmcool
  38. 38. Inputs Outputs Hypothalamus Central thermosensors warm cool Peripheral thermosensors warm cool Neural sweating shivering vasoconstriction vasodilation Hormonal adrenaline TRH
  39. 39. Babies • Babies (and hamsters) have an extra mechanism • Brown fat. • Suprascapular deposits • Rich in mitochondria
  40. 40. Normal body temperature • Depends where and when you measure it • tympanic> oral > axillary by 0.5o C • can be affected by • exercise • emotion • time of day
  41. 41. Rectal temp O C 37.4 36.8 36.2 12 18 624 12 Time Postovulatory Preovulatory And the menstrual cycle (o- p+)
  42. 42. Fever • Monocytes and phagocytes release endogenous pyrogen (Interleukin-1, IL-1). • The anterior hypothalamus is sensitive to IL-1 • Hypothalamic sensitivity to temperature is altered.
  43. 43. So… • The body temperature then becomes regulated at a new, higher level. • There is some evidence that the raised body temperature enables the fight against the infection.
  44. 44. But... • Every 1O C rise in temperature increases basal metabolic rate and oxygen consumption by about 13%, • In acute infection, the ability to mobilise fat stores is inhibited.
  45. 45. Consequently • Skeletal muscle is broken down and the amino acids are used in gluconeogenesis. • This can be debilitating.
  46. 46. And even worse • In addition to the increased demand for energy • Temperatures (above 42O C) damage nerve cells • impair thermoregulation • have more serious consequences.
  47. 47. THANK YOU
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SKIN - INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM

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