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Transactional analysis
Transactional analysis
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Transactional analysis 1

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Transactional Analysis cab be very helpful for people to improve their Interpersonal Relations and also have effective Communication, in organizational setup or in domestic

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Transactional analysis 1

  1. 1. Transactional Analysis By – N.G.Palit
  2. 2. What is T.A?  When two people interact with each other, they engage in social transactions, in which one person responds to the other.  Study of such ”Social Transactions” is called ’Transactional Analysis’.
  3. 3. What is a Transaction?  A Transaction is an exchange of two strokes between two people. The first stroke is called ’Stimulus’, the second is called the ’Response’.
  4. 4. Transactional Analysis  Transactions are psychological in nature and relate to how people behave and how other people behave with them in response to their behaviour.
  5. 5. Transactional Analysis(cont)  To understand Transactional Analysis we must first understand EGO STATES:  EGO STATES:  Within each human being, several human beings are existing at the same time, depending upon how the person is behaving at any given time.
  6. 6. Ego state of a normal person
  7. 7. Ego Stage of a small Child PP  It has only Parent & Child ego state.  Adult not yet formed CC
  8. 8. Top Manager’s Ego State Dominant ’Parent’  Mostly critical, or giving orders  Normal ’Adult’.  Fragile ’Child’ PP AA CC
  9. 9. Comedian’s Ego State  Dominant ’Child’  Insignificant ’Parent’ PP AA CC
  10. 10. 1. Parent Ego State Set of thoughts, feelings, and behaviours learnt from parents or other care takers.  Nurturing Parent  Soft, loving and permission giving PP
  11. 11. Parent Ego State  While in the parent ego state, people treat others like children.  Critical Parent:  This is a role where people becomes authoritative; caring; controlling; and sometimes bossy.
  12. 12. Adult Ego State  Oriented towards current reality and objectivity gathering of information.  Data processing centre.  This is a role of care, concern, respect, responsibility and maturity.
  13. 13. Child Ego State  Seat of emotions , thoughts and memories from childhood.  The ’child’ ego state has the liberty of fun loving and carefree behaviour.  It is a storehouse of Creativity.
  14. 14. Ego States
  15. 15. Eric Berne’s Transactional Analysis It deals with the theory of development and is underpinned by the philosophy:  1. People can change  2. We all have a right to be in this world and be accepted Eric Berne
  16. 16. EGO STATES Each human being has three ego states: 1. Parent ego state 2.Adult ego state 3.Child ego state A C P
  17. 17. Development of Ego States
  18. 18. Parent Ego state – This pertains to behaviors, thoughts and feelings copied during the early years ( roughly , the first 5 years )
  19. 19. Parent Ego State: This pertains to behaviors, thoughts and feelings copied from parents
  20. 20. The Parent is a huge collection of recordings in the brain of imposed external events perceived in the early years(roughly the first 5 years.)
  21. 21. Every thing the Child saw the parents do and every thing he heard them say, are recorded straight without editing in his PARENT
  22. 22. There are thousands of “No”s and “Don’t”s that bombarded him. Parent data appear in “how to category”. “How to hit a nail.” “how to eat”. On the basis of these feelings the child concludes- I am not O.K-you are O.K But, sometimes parent says one thing but does another thing like parent says “don’t lie”, but tells lies himself. It is not safe for the child to question this inconsistency. He defends himself by turning off the recording.
  23. 23. CHILD EGO STATE : * It is a set of behaviors, thoughts and feelings replayed from our childhood * These are permanent recordings and can’t be erased
  24. 24. CHILD EGO STATE *The happy and pleasurable events are recorded in child. * In our Child reside creativity, curiosity and the desire to know and the urge to touch and feel. * These are O.K. recordings
  25. 25.  As in the case of Parent, the Child is a state which brings the feelings which we felt at that time  Creativity is born from curiosity in the Child, as it provides “want to” and Adult provides “how to”  In our child is a vast store of positive data. In our Child are recorded countless experience of the firsts of life
  26. 26. Gradual transition from Child stage to Adult.
  27. 27. Adult Ego State At about 8-10 months of age, the child starts creeping, crawling and walking. He starts playing with a cup and pretends to drink. At the age of 10 months, comes his own awareness and original thoughts. This is the beginning of Adult. He starts gathering and processing data. This is thought process and is different from the earlier felt concept in the child.
  28. 28. Adult during this period is very fragile. It is easily knocked down by commands from parents. The Adult is a data processing computer. The adult starts testing the Parent data and updates it. It also updates Child data. The ongoing work consists of checking out old data, validating or invalidating and refilling it for future use. Cont Adult Ego State…..
  29. 29. LIFE POSITIONS T.A has four possible life positions: I am O.K You are O.K You are O.K I am not O.K I am O.K You are not O.K I am not O.K You are not O.K You are O.K You are not O.K I am O. K I am not O. K
  30. 30. Life Positions T . A. has four possible life positions
  31. 31. ‘I am not O.K – You are O.K’: This is a feeling of inferiority. ‘I am not O.K – You are not O.K’: By the end of first year the child starts walking. He is no longer picked up. Mother’s stroking stops entirely. The life which was comfortable in the first year becomes difficult. Punishment comes harder. The child concludes ‘I am not O.K – You are not O.K’. Cont…..
  32. 32. I am O.K – You are not O.K: The child who is brutalized long enough by parents will switch over to this position of I am O.K – You are not O.K • I am O.K – You are O.K: The earlier three positions have been based on childhood feelings, but this fourth position is based on “Thought and Faith”. It is a decision we make. The Adult can comprehend. We have the presence of old recordings, but we can choose to turn them off. Cont…..
  33. 33. Psychological Positions
  34. 34. Complementary Transactions
  35. 35. A) PARENT-PARENT TRANSACTION 1. Stimulus: Her duty is at home with children.  Response: She has no sense of duty TRANSACTIONS P P A C A C
  36. 36.  2. Stimulus: Kids now-a-days are lazy. Response: It is a sign of the present generation.  3. Stimulus: She married him only for his money. Response: Well, that’s all she got. Cont…..
  37. 37. B) ADULT-ADULT TRANSACTIONS  1. Stimulus: What’s the time? Response: Exactly 4 pm by my watch. P P A C A C
  38. 38. 2. Stimulus : Please pass the sugar Response : Here it is 3. Stimulus : I am tired Response : Let us go to bed
  39. 39. 4.Stimulus: This is a nice dress, you are wearing Response: Thank you, Cont…..
  40. 40. Adult to Adult Transaction
  41. 41. C) CHILD-CHILD TRANSACTIONS 1. Girl child(1): I will be the mamma and you the little girls. Girl child(2): I always have to be the little girl. Girl child(1): Well, let us take turns, you be the mamma first and next time I will be the mama. 2. Little boy(child): My daddy has two buildings. Little girl(child): That is nothing. My daddy has five buildings.
  42. 42. C) CHILD-CHILD TRANSACTIONS P P A C A C
  43. 43. D) PARENT –CHILD TRANSACTION Sick husband(child): I am feeling so sick. Nurturing wife ( Good mamma): Don’t worry, you will be all right. I am taking care of you. P P A C A C P P A C A C
  44. 44. Adult to Child Transaction
  45. 45. CROSSED TRANSACTIONS The crossed transactions cause trouble, 1. Husband (Adult stimulus, seeking information) : Where is my scooter key? Wife(parent) : Where you left it. The stimulus was Adult but the wife replied from the parent. When stimulus and response cross on P.A.C Transaction diagram, communication stops.
  46. 46. Crossed Transactions
  47. 47. HUSBAND WIFE RULE OF T.A: When stimulus and response cross on the P-A-C transactions diagram, communication stops. P P A C A C Cont…..
  48. 48. 2. Mother (parent): Go clear your room. Daughter (parent) : you can’t tell me what to do. You are not my boss. MOTHER DAUGHTER P P A C A C
  49. 49. 3. Son (Adult): I have to finish my report tonight. Father (parent) : Why do you always keep things for the last minute.? FATHER S SON P P A C A C
  50. 50. Crossed Transaction
  51. 51. Three Rules of Communication 1. Complementary Transactions: - communication remains open. 2. Crossed Transactions: - communication stops.  3. Complex Transactions: - outcome is predicted only at the psychological level
  52. 52. ”I’m O.K.- You’re O.K”  This is the best known expression of the purpose of Transactional Analysis, which is:  1. To reinforce the position that recognizes the value and worth of every person.  2. Transactional Analysits regard people as basically ”O.K”and thus capable of change, growth,and healthy interactions.
  53. 53. Stroking & Life Positions  Physically one strokes others by shaking hands, clapping, hugging, smiling. Countless physical strokes are exchanged between people everyday and each stroke stimulates its own physical response.  Psychological strokes deal with recognizing others with words, gestures and behaviour.
  54. 54. Stroking & Life Positions  Psychological strokes are A RECOGNITION OF OTHERS and can be positive or negative in nature.  Respecting, praising and thanking people are positive strokes, while criticizing and ignoring them are some negative strokes.
  55. 55. Advantages of T.A  Improves Interpersonal Communication  Simple to learn  Applicable to Motivation.  Helps in Organizational Development.  Can be used at home as well as in office.
  56. 56. Advantages Transactional Analysis can be effectively used to understand the secrets of human behavior and often works better in improving relationships.
  57. 57. CONCLUSION Transactional Analysis is a rational and easy to understand method of clarifying and managing human relationships and behaviours.
  58. 58. For More Information  Books to be read: 1. Games People Play  2. I am OK, You are OK
  59. 59. Questions?
  60. 60. Thank You By – N.G.Palit

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