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Water by prof najeeb Memon

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Water by prof najeeb Memon

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Water by prof najeeb Memon

  1. 1. By: Community Medicine Deptt: BMC, LUMHS Jamshoro, Sind, Pakistan e mail mnajeeb80@gmail .com LIAQUAT MEDICAL UNIVERSITY
  2. 2. Water FRESH WATER
  3. 3. Two thirds (2/3) of our planet is covered by water. 97.5% of the water is saltwater. The majority of freshwater is beyond our reach, locked into polar snow and ice.
  4. 4. 66% of the human body is made up of water. At just 2% dehydration your performance decreases by around 20%. We should drink at least 1½ litres of water a day.
  5. 5. The number of people with access to clean water has doubled in the last 20 years. 1.1 billion people in the world still do not have access to safe water. This is nearly 20% of the population.
  6. 6. 1. Safe water (Potable Water)  Free from foreign materials including bacterias.  Cleansing to Eyes.  Delicious to taste. 2. Polluted water  Contain harmful substances of all types (Physical, chemicals)  Including pathogenic organisms. 3. Contaminated water  Contain harmful pathogenic organisms (fecal matter)
  7. 7. Sources of Water  1. Rain  2. Surface water  3. Ground water / Sub surface water
  8. 8. Sources of Water  1. Rain ( Prime source of all water )
  9. 9. 2. Surface water  2. Surface water ( sources)  River & streams Lake, ponds, tanks Impounding Reservoirs
  10. 10.  3. Ground water Springs Shallow Deep Seasonal Thermal Mineral Wells  Shallow  Deep  Artesian
  11. 11. Wells Deep Artesian well Shallow well
  12. 12. Sanitary well
  13. 13. Insanitary well
  14. 14. Springs Shallow Deep Seasonal Thermal Mineral
  15. 15. Uses of water  1. Domestic use 8%  2. public purpose -  3. Industrial & Emergency sector use 22%  4. Agricultural use 70%
  16. 16. 22% 8% 70% 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Agriculture Domestic Industry Water uses %oftotalwaterused
  17. 17. 1. Domestic use
  18. 18. Rough estimation of per animal /day 5 – 30 1 35 35 40-60 50- 70 50-70 75- 90 liters
  19. 19. Hydrological (Water) Cycle
  20. 20. The hydrologic (Water) cycle is the process, powered by the sun's energy, which moves water between the oceans, the sky, and the land. It can be studied by starting at any of the following processes: evaporation, condensation, precipitation, interception, infiltration, percolation, transpiration, runoff, and storage.
  21. 21. Water pollution  1. Dissolved gases ( CO2, SO2, H2S, NH3)  2. Agricultural Pollutants ( Fertilizer )  3. Industrial wastes  4. Sewage ( decomposing organic water & pathogenic agents)  5. Sub – soil geology
  22. 22. Hazards of polluted water  1. Biological hazards  A. Bacterial: Typhoid, Cholera, Bac: Dysent:  B. Viral: Polio, Hepatitis A & E  C. Protozoal: Amoebiasis, giardiasis
  23. 23.  D. Helminthic: Round worm, Whip worm, Hydrated disease  E. Leptospiral : Weil’s Disease  F. Cyclops : Guinea worm
  24. 24.  2. Other hazards:  GIT disturbances ( due to Na, Mg & Ca ions) E.g:- MgSo4, Lead to Diarrhoea  Lead poisoning  Iodine Deficiency  Fluorine Deficiency  Hardness of water  Infant met haemoglobinemia
  25. 25. WHO Criteria for water Purification
  26. 26. Criteria for water Quality  1. Physical Qualities  2. Chemical Qualities  3. Bacteriological Indicators  4. Radiological standards
  27. 27. 1. Physical Qualities  Turbidity : Must be free from turbidity ( < 5 NTU)  Color : Must be free from color  Odor : No odor ( Non objectionable / Acceptable)  Taste : Must be palatable ( Non objectionable / Acceptable)
  28. 28. Turbidity measurement Nephelometric Turbidity Units (NTU’s)?
  29. 29. 2. Chemical Qualities( cont:) Essential Inorganic mg/Litre Antimony (Sb) <0.005 Cadmium 0.01 mg / L Arsenic (As) 0.05 mg / L Chromium (Cr) 0.05 Copper (Cu) 0.06 Aluminium (Al) <0.2 Boron (B) 0.3 Barium (Ba) 1.0 Chloride: 200 mg / L
  30. 30. Toxic Inorganic mg/L Mercury 0.002 mg / L or less Selenium 0.01 mg / L or less Lead 0.05 mg / L or less Magnese 0.05 mg / L or less cyanide 0.05 mg / L Free saline & Ammonia: 0.05 mg / L or less Fluoride 1.4 – 2.4 mg/L Hydrocarbons 0.01 mg / L or less Total Hardness: 2mEq /L Total solids 500 mg / L
  31. 31.  Nitrites : 3  Zinc (Zn) 5  Nitrates: 45 mg / L or less  Residual chlorine 0.2-0.5 at consumer end 0.5-1.5 at source.  Dissolve O2 Not less than 5 mg / L  O2 absorbed at 370C in 4 hrs: should not be > 1 mg / L
  32. 32. 3. Bacteriological Indicators 1. No sample should contain E. coli in 100 ml of water. 2. No sample should contain > 3 coliform / 100 ml of water. 3. Not > 5% of samples throughout the year should have coliform in 100 ml. 4. No two consecutive samples should have coliform in 100 ml.

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