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Vegetables A To Z

by Phyllis Both, Sauk County UW-Extension

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Vegetables A To Z

  1. 1. Vegetables A to Z Presented by: Phyllis Both Sauk County UW Extension Horticulture Educator
  2. 2. Asparagus <ul><li>Well prepared bed </li></ul><ul><li>Trench 8 inches deep </li></ul><ul><li>1 – 2 cups complete fertilizer – 10 foot row </li></ul><ul><li>Compost or well rotted manure </li></ul><ul><li>Backfill </li></ul><ul><li>Plant crowns 10 – 15 inches apart </li></ul><ul><li>Fall care: mulch </li></ul><ul><li>Harvest after second year </li></ul><ul><li>Ferns feed roots </li></ul><ul><li>Cut when brown and compost </li></ul><ul><li>Diseases </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rust </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fusarium wilt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stem and Crown rot </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Insects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Asparagus beetle </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rotenone - Pyrethrin </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. DIAGRAM OF PROPER ASPARAGUS PLANTING
  4. 4. Beans <ul><li>Soil temp: 60° - 85° F </li></ul><ul><li>1 inch apart – NO THINNING </li></ul><ul><li>pH: 5.5 to 6.5 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mildly acidic </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Very light feeders – excess nitrogen produces large plants, but no fruit </li></ul><ul><li>Mulch to conserve moisture </li></ul><ul><li>Harvest 2 weeks after bloom </li></ul><ul><li>Diseases – many </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid wetting foliage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4 year rotation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Insects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mexican bean beetles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bean weevils </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Optimum soil conditions; fast growth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hand pick </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rotenone - Pyrethrin </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Pole Beans <ul><li>Same culture as bush beans </li></ul><ul><li>Need support </li></ul><ul><li>6 seeds per pole </li></ul>
  6. 6. Peas <ul><li>Cool season crop </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Soil temp: 40° - 75° F </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Plant 1 inch apart </li></ul><ul><li>Plant 1 – 1-1/2 inches deep </li></ul><ul><li>No thinning </li></ul><ul><li>Fertilizer: side dress </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 cup complete fertilizer and 1 cup bone meal per 10 foot row </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mulch roots </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bush peas ripen at the same time </li></ul><ul><li>Pole peas need support and ripen over a longer period of time </li></ul><ul><li>Diseases </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fusarium wilt (pea rot) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Crop rotation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disease resistant cultivars </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Insects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pea aphid </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Soapy water spray </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rotenone - Pyrethrin </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Other Legumes <ul><li>Lima Beans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>75 to 85 days </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Edamame Beans (soy) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>85 days </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Yard Long </li></ul><ul><ul><li>85 days </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Harcots (french filet) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Very tender; highest quality </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Shelling Beans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Field dry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Freeze for 2 weeks to eliminate bean weevils </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fava Beans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Heavy soil/manure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Harvest young or dry </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Runner Beans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Need pollination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Edible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decorative </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Legumes, continued <ul><li>Legumes are important for sustainable gardening </li></ul><ul><li>Legumes form a symbiotic relationship from the air to create nitrogen nodules on their roots called nitrogen fixing (Rhizobial bacteria) </li></ul><ul><li>To insure Rhizobial bacteria, use a legume inoculant </li></ul><ul><li>Less fertilizer in the future </li></ul><ul><li>Turn legumes back into the soil or compost the tops – leave the roots </li></ul>
  9. 9. NITROGEN FIXING BACTERIA NODULES SOIL LEVEL LEGUME PLANT
  10. 10. Brassica/Cole Crops <ul><li>All cool season crops </li></ul><ul><li>They include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Brussels sprouts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cabbage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Broccoli </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cauliflower </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kale </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kohlrabi </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chinese cabbage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Turnips </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rutabagas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pak choi </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Brussels Sprouts <ul><li>Harvest after two frosts; cold sweetens sprouts </li></ul><ul><li>pH: 6.0; slightly acid </li></ul><ul><li>Very little nitrogen </li></ul><ul><li>Loose heads </li></ul><ul><li>Maturity = Date of Transplant </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Add 25 – 35 days if direct seeding </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Harvest: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not remove leaves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bottom to top </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Break off leaves under harvested sprouts only </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Once over harvest – pinch out growing tip when sprouts are ½ to ¾ inch in diameter </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disease </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rotate crops </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Insects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cabbage worms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maggots </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>B.T. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Broccoli <ul><li>Trouble-free </li></ul><ul><li>Early planting important </li></ul><ul><li>pH: 6.0 – 6.8 </li></ul><ul><li>Soil temp: 55° - 75° F for transplants; direct sow in April </li></ul><ul><li>Plant 18 – 36 inches apart </li></ul><ul><li>Fertilizer: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>¼ - ½ cup complete fertilizer per plant OR </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>½ cup bloodmeal OR </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>½ cup composted chicken manure </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disease: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rotate crop </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Insects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cabbage worm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Loopers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Root maggots </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Prevention: Row covers </li></ul><ul><li>Control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>B.T. & I.T. molasses and wheat bran around the base of the plant </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Cauliflower <ul><li>Transplants best after danger of frost </li></ul><ul><li>Soil pH: 6.5 – 7.0; sweet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rich soil </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compost and complete fertilizer ¼ to ½ cup per plant </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stressed plants will not produce a head </li></ul><ul><li>Too much nitrogen or not enough boron produce hollow stems </li></ul><ul><li>Blanching: some self wrap </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tie inner leaves around curd when it’s forming </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Flowerets begin to separate at maturity </li></ul><ul><li>Disease – same as all brassicas </li></ul><ul><li>Insects – same as all brassicas </li></ul><ul><li>Varieties: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Yellow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cream </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Burgundy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>White </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pink </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Cabbage <ul><li>Cool and moist </li></ul><ul><li>Soil pH: 6.5 </li></ul><ul><li>Fertilizer: Relatively high </li></ul><ul><ul><li>½ cup complete fertilizer per plant </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Types: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Early </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cabbage mature fast and tend to split if not harvested early </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mid-Season & Winter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Slow growing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hold much longer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Several months </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Tips: Start with a good cultivar </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Early: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Green - Charmant (66 day) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Green - Parel </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Late: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Red – Ruby Ball (78 day) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Green – Stein’s Late Flat (95 day) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Corn <ul><li>Isolate your varieties </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plant varieties at least 25 feet apart OR </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plant with a 10 day maturation difference </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Soil temp: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Treated seed: 55° F </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Untreated seed: 65° F </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fertilizer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pre-planting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High phosphate starter </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Seed bed: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Smooth, uniform depth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shallow; ¾ to 1 inch </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Half silk date: Note date </li></ul><ul><li>Harvest: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>18 to 24 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Warm weather favors earlier maturity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Refrigerate: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cool in ice water to remove heat </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Vine Crops do NOT like to be transplanted! Cucumbers <ul><li>Direct seed </li></ul><ul><li>Soil temp: 70° F – will not germinate in soil below 50° F </li></ul><ul><li>Mulch after soil is warm </li></ul><ul><li>Harvest: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pick daily </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disease </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Choose resistant varieties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide good growing conditions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Insects </li></ul><ul><li>Control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide row covers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rotenone – Pyrethrin when flowers are closed for the evening </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Summer Squash <ul><li>Direct seed </li></ul><ul><li>Soil temp: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>62° F for treated seed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>70° F for untreated seed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Harvest: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pick 2 – 3 times per week </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disease </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Same as for cucumbers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Insects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Squash Vine Borers – worst pest </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Floating row covers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rotenone – Pyrethrin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cover base of plant OR </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teaspoon of carbaryl to the base of the plant when very young </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Winter Squash & Pumpkins <ul><li>Direct seed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plant in hills or rows </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Soil temp: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>62° F for treated seed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>70° F for untreated seed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Harvest: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pick before heavy frost </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cure in a frost-free area to harden – 5 to 7 days </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Store at 50° - 55° F </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disease – same as cucumbers </li></ul><ul><li>Insects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Squash bugs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Squash Vine Borers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kill Squash bugs at nymph stage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Check under leaves for egg masses </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Spray nymphs with carbaryl or rotenone after blossoms are closed at night </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Squash vine borers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Carbaryl - 1 teaspoon at base of plant and 1 teaspoon at each node that roots along the vine </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>NOTE: Squash vine borers do not affect Butternut Squash </li></ul>
  19. 19. Tomatoes <ul><li>Start indoors or buy seedlings </li></ul><ul><li>Plant deep – roots form along stem </li></ul><ul><li>Plants do not need to be protected if night temps are above 45° F; cover if frost is predicted </li></ul><ul><li>Fertilizer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Very little nitrogen, abundant phosphorus </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Types: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Determinate varieties grow to a certain height and stop; no pruning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Indeterminate will grow until frost; prune for best results </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disease </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plant healthy plants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid overhead watering, especially in evenings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use fungicide for vegetable crops </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not use tobacco products near tomatoes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Insects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tomato Hornworm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Potato Beetles </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hornworms: hand pick or Dipel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Beetles: B.T. for larvae </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rotenone – Pyrethrin </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Blossom End Rot </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Even supply of moisture – mulch </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Soil test for calcium </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Peppers – Seed Tomatoes <ul><li>Soil temp: 70° F – Important! </li></ul><ul><li>Plant after June 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Black plastic mulch will keep soil warm </li></ul><ul><li>Fertilizer: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Very little nitrogen </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disease </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Drip irrigate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Well drained soil </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Insects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cutworms </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use a collar for cutworms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rotenone – Pyrethrin for other insects </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Problems: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hot or cold extremes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sunscald – not enough foliage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blossom End Rot – irregular moisture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bacterial spot – seed-born </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Onions <ul><li>Plant in early spring </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seed in April; indoor in February </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Plant no deeper than 1 inch </li></ul><ul><li>Plant 4 inches apart </li></ul><ul><li>Soil pH: 6.2 to 6.8 </li></ul><ul><li>Soil: Rich, highly organic, muck, sandy soil </li></ul><ul><li>Temp: cool season </li></ul><ul><li>Fertilizer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ammonium sulphate (21-0-0) every 2 weeks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stop when onions begin to bulb </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Very important to weed onions </li></ul><ul><li>Types: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hard Storage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Short Storage – sweet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Long Day </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Short Day (southern growers) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dry onions in the sun for 2 days </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To prevent sunscald, cover lightly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Once onions are dry, cut top back to 1 inch and clip roots </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Onions continued on next slide </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Onions continued <ul><li>Disease </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many onions diseases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Set grown onions are more prone to disease </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Insects: Few </li></ul><ul><li>Control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use a vegetable fungicide early </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rotate crops </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Garlic <ul><li>Culture: same as onions and leeks </li></ul><ul><li>For best garlic, plant in the fall (October) </li></ul><ul><li>Very winter hardy </li></ul><ul><li>Larger the clove, the larger the garlic </li></ul><ul><li>Types: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stiffneck </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Recommended </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Large cloves </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stiff center </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Produces scapes – can be used in stir fry </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Softneck </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Garlic mostly used on the west coast </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Elephant garlic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Not a garlic </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Belongs to the shallot family </li></ul></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Leeks <ul><li>Easy to grow </li></ul><ul><li>Soil temp: 55° - 75° F </li></ul><ul><li>Soil: Rich </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use guidelines for onions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Plant using handle of shovel </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Make holes 6 to 8 inches deep so leaf just protrudes above the soil </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water to settle soil </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Storage: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Store at 32°F for 2 – 3 months </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Freeze </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disease: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Same as onions </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Leafy Vegetables <ul><li>Chard </li></ul><ul><li>Best vegetable for a crop all summer </li></ul><ul><li>Any soil </li></ul><ul><li>Nitrogen fertilizer or bloodmeal </li></ul><ul><li>Belongs to the beet family </li></ul><ul><li>Lettuce </li></ul><ul><li>Easy cool season crop </li></ul><ul><li>Important to thin seedlings </li></ul><ul><li>Good for fall crop </li></ul><ul><li>Head Lettuce </li></ul><ul><li>Start seeds indoors in March or buy nursery plants </li></ul><ul><li>Well drained soil or plant on small hill </li></ul><ul><li>Tends to rot at base </li></ul><ul><li>Spinach </li></ul><ul><li>Very cool weather crop </li></ul><ul><li>Good fall crop </li></ul><ul><li>Start mid-March as soon as soil can be worked </li></ul><ul><li>Bolts in warm weather </li></ul><ul><li>New Zealand Spinach </li></ul><ul><li>Warmer season crop </li></ul><ul><li>Similar to spinach </li></ul><ul><li>Tolerates warm weather </li></ul>
  26. 26. Root Crops <ul><li>Soil: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Loose, sandy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fertilizer: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Super phosphate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bonemeal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low nitrogen </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Be ruthless about thinning </li></ul><ul><li>For carrots – must have moist soil to germinate, sprinkle soil lightly daily </li></ul><ul><li>Disease </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Blights </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Insects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wireworms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leafminers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Copper fungicide for blight </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Row covers for insects </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Potatoes <ul><li>Light, sunny location </li></ul><ul><li>Soil: well drained </li></ul><ul><li>pH: 4.8 to 6.5 (acidic) </li></ul><ul><li>Temperature: cool </li></ul><ul><li>Moisture: uniform </li></ul><ul><li>Planting: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cut seed potatoes in pieces and let dry for about one week in a warm area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plant 12 inches apart and rows 24 inches apart </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plant seed in spring about April 1 st for early potatoes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Late potatoes keep well in winter </li></ul><ul><li>Fertilizer: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fertilize as you would onions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Blood meal/lawn fertilizer (1 st feeding) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nitrogen early, then potassium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bone meal/super phosphate (later feedings) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Disease </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nitrogen deficiency (yellow leaves) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Insects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Potato beetles (major problem) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbaryl </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Cover Crops <ul><li>Why? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prevent erosion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prevent weeds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Catch crop to use nutrients that would otherwise leach into groundwater </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase soil fertility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aerate soil </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use as mulch </li></ul></ul><ul><li>No till gardens </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Annual oats </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Field peas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Soybeans </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Perennial cover crops </li></ul><ul><ul><li>White clover </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alfalfa </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Crimson clover </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rye </li></ul></ul>
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by Phyllis Both, Sauk County UW-Extension

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