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Pruning Woody Ornamentals Mike Maddox Horticulture Educator Rock County UW-Extension / Rotary Gardens Certified Arborist
Publications <ul><li>The American Horticulture Society Pruning & Training A fully illustrated plant-by-plant manual </li><...
 
Pruning Techniques <ul><li>3-point cut </li></ul><ul><li>Heading back </li></ul><ul><li>Thinning </li></ul><ul><li>Dead-he...
How does a tree grow? <ul><li>Primary growth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Taller, longer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Occurs at bra...
 
Each year, a tree grows a new ring… Trunk
Trunk tissue forms a ‘sleeve’ around the branch…
Branch Collar… …  a swelling at the branch union from the yearly addition of tissues to the branch and trunk. Branch Bark ...
 
 
 
C ompartmentalization O f D ecay I n T rees Barrier 1  is weakest - movement up and down in tree Barrier 2  is next weakes...
Trunk Wound Each year, a tree grows a new ring… … covering the wound a bit more Wound
 
 
 
Where to prune…  The Branch Collar
Where to prune…  The Branch Collar <ul><li>3 point cut </li></ul><ul><li>Under cut </li></ul><ul><li>“ Stub cut” </li></ul...
 
 
 
“ Flush Cut”
 
 
“ Stub Cut”
 
 
Why prune? <ul><li>Future Health of tree </li></ul><ul><li>Safety  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(combined with Right Tree, Right ...
When to prune <ul><li>The late dormant season is best for most pruning.   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>wounds exposed for only a ...
When to prune…
When to prune <ul><li>Oak Wilt: do not prune April 15 – June (October) </li></ul><ul><li>Spring/summer pruning increases c...
Pruning Techniques <ul><li>3 Point Cut </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Undercut </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stub cut </li></ul></ul><...
Pruning Techniques <ul><li>Heading back </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cut at lateral branch or bud </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hard...
 
Pruning Techniques <ul><li>Thinning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Removal of up to 1/3 of the stems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lar...
 
Pruning Techniques <ul><li>Dead heading </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Heading back cut to bud </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Removal o...
 
Pruning Techniques <ul><li>Shearing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Removal of the most vigorous shoots </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>G...
 
 
 
A B
Pruning Techniques <ul><li>Renewal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cut back all stems ½ to 1/3  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remove la...
 
 
Topping  is cutting straight across the branch.
 
 
 
 
 
 
What to prune… <ul><li>Remove broken, diseased, dying or dead branches. </li></ul><ul><li>Select a leader and remove compe...
Family A’s Tree -  Not Pruned  When Young At Planting 3-4 Yrs. 5-7 Yrs. 15 Years later Family B’s Tree -  Pruned When  Young
 
Scaffold branches  give shape to the tree’s canopy Spaced minimum of 12” apart Radiate around the tree Best 1/3 size of tr...
 
V  U Included Bark
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
What to prune… <ul><li>Prune less than 25% of canopy </li></ul><ul><li>Prune branches greater than 1/3 the diameter of the...
 
BEFORE AFTER
BEFORE AFTER Hackberry
No single leader  Correct if necessary Use of tree? Define lowest branch Determine temporary branches, scaffold branches
Single leader present Use of tree? Define lowest branch Determine temporary branches, scaffold branches
 
 
 
BEFORE AFTER Subordinating Cut Establish Scaffolding
Pruning Evergreens <ul><li>With few exceptions, evergreens (conifers) require little pruning.  </li></ul><ul><li>Different...
Spruce, Fir, Douglas Fir <ul><li>Growth spurt in spring </li></ul><ul><li>Hard prune in dormant season </li></ul><ul><li>L...
 
 
Pines <ul><li>Single flush of growth per season </li></ul><ul><li>Pinch 2/3 of candle in spring </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t pr...
 
Arborvitae, Yews, Hemlock, Junipers <ul><li>Grow continuously thru season </li></ul><ul><li>Shear thru mid-summer </li></u...
 
 
 
BEFORE AFTER
 
 
 
 
 
Plant Growth Regulators <ul><li>Utilization of chemical products to mimic naturally occurring plant hormones to control pl...
Pruning Summary <ul><li>Have a reason </li></ul><ul><li>Best to prune when plant is dormant (note exceptions) </li></ul><u...
THANK YOU! <ul><li>Mike Maddox </li></ul><ul><li>Horticulture Educator  </li></ul><ul><li>Rock UW-Extension @ Rotary Garde...
Miscellaneous
Watering <ul><li>Depending on soil type and weather conditions… </li></ul><ul><li>1” per week for trees </li></ul><ul><ul>...
Fertilization <ul><li>Essential Elements (16 elements) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Metabolism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Necessa...
16 Essential Elements <ul><li>Essential </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon (C), Oxygen (O), Hydrogen (H) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>...
Effects of soil pH on the availability of soil nutrients to plants The width of the bar indicates the relative availabilit...
Complete Fertilizer <ul><li>Contains Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(N-P-K) 10-6-4, 20-20-20 </li>...
Timing <ul><li>Spring and Fall best </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Moisture content high in soil </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Periods...
Rates <ul><li>Depends on: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>vigor of tree </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>form of fertilizer </li></ul></ul...
Fertilization Techniques
Fertilization Techniques
Fertilization Techniques
Fertilization Techniques <ul><li>Foliar application </li></ul><ul><li>Corrects minor element deficiencies  </li></ul><ul><...
Fertilization Techniques
Chlorosis
Fertilization Summary <ul><li>Fertilize only if deficiency </li></ul><ul><li>If you fertilize your lawn, you may not need ...
 
Tree Care Summary <ul><li>Do less work!!! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t dig big holes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make small ...
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Mgv Tree Pruning

  1. 1. Pruning Woody Ornamentals Mike Maddox Horticulture Educator Rock County UW-Extension / Rotary Gardens Certified Arborist
  2. 2. Publications <ul><li>The American Horticulture Society Pruning & Training A fully illustrated plant-by-plant manual </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Christopher Brickell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>David Joyce </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ISBN 1-56458-331-7 </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 4. Pruning Techniques <ul><li>3-point cut </li></ul><ul><li>Heading back </li></ul><ul><li>Thinning </li></ul><ul><li>Dead-heading </li></ul><ul><li>Shearing </li></ul><ul><li>Renewal </li></ul><ul><li>Deciduous trees </li></ul><ul><li>Deciduous shrubs </li></ul><ul><li>Coniferous trees </li></ul><ul><li>Coniferous shrubs </li></ul><ul><li>“ Hard pruning” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Light pruning” </li></ul>
  4. 5. How does a tree grow? <ul><li>Primary growth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Taller, longer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Occurs at branch tips </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nodes, Internodes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Secondary growth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wider </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Occurs at cambium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Xylem rings </li></ul></ul>
  5. 7. Each year, a tree grows a new ring… Trunk
  6. 8. Trunk tissue forms a ‘sleeve’ around the branch…
  7. 9. Branch Collar… … a swelling at the branch union from the yearly addition of tissues to the branch and trunk. Branch Bark Ridge forms where trunk tissue contacts branch tissue
  8. 13. C ompartmentalization O f D ecay I n T rees Barrier 1 is weakest - movement up and down in tree Barrier 2 is next weakest - movement toward center of tree Barrier 3 is stronger - movement laterally around Barrier 4 is strongest - movement into new wood formed after injury 3 3 4 4 4 4 2 1
  9. 14. Trunk Wound Each year, a tree grows a new ring… … covering the wound a bit more Wound
  10. 18. Where to prune… The Branch Collar
  11. 19. Where to prune… The Branch Collar <ul><li>3 point cut </li></ul><ul><li>Under cut </li></ul><ul><li>“ Stub cut” </li></ul><ul><li>Final cut at branch collar </li></ul>
  12. 23. “ Flush Cut”
  13. 26. “ Stub Cut”
  14. 29. Why prune? <ul><li>Future Health of tree </li></ul><ul><li>Safety </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(combined with Right Tree, Right Place) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Aesthetics </li></ul>
  15. 30. When to prune <ul><li>The late dormant season is best for most pruning. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>wounds exposed for only a short length of time before new growth begins the wound sealing process. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>easier to make pruning decisions without leaves obscuring plant branch structure. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>avoid certain disease and physiological problems: </li></ul></ul>
  16. 31. When to prune…
  17. 32. When to prune <ul><li>Oak Wilt: do not prune April 15 – June (October) </li></ul><ul><li>Spring/summer pruning increases chances of fireblight on Malus, Sorbus, Crataegus, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Bleeders” with spring pruning: Maples, Birches </li></ul>
  18. 33. Pruning Techniques <ul><li>3 Point Cut </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Undercut </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stub cut </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cut at branch collar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Best in dormant season </li></ul></ul>
  19. 34. Pruning Techniques <ul><li>Heading back </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cut at lateral branch or bud </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hard prune in dormant season </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Light prune thru mid-Summer </li></ul></ul>
  20. 36. Pruning Techniques <ul><li>Thinning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Removal of up to 1/3 of the stems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Largest / oldest stems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Best in dormant season </li></ul></ul>
  21. 38. Pruning Techniques <ul><li>Dead heading </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Heading back cut to bud </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Removal of spent inflorescences within 2-weeks of flower-fade </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plants that bloom on wood from previous season </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spring blooming woody ornamentals </li></ul></ul>
  22. 40. Pruning Techniques <ul><li>Shearing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Removal of the most vigorous shoots </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Growing season thru late summer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Formal appearance </li></ul></ul>
  23. 44. A B
  24. 45. Pruning Techniques <ul><li>Renewal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cut back all stems ½ to 1/3 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remove largest stems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hard prune </li></ul></ul>
  25. 48. Topping is cutting straight across the branch.
  26. 55. What to prune… <ul><li>Remove broken, diseased, dying or dead branches. </li></ul><ul><li>Select a leader and remove competing leaders. </li></ul><ul><li>Select the lowest permanent branch </li></ul><ul><li>Select scaffold branches and cut back or remove competing branches. </li></ul><ul><li>Select temporary branches below the lowest permanent branch </li></ul>
  27. 56. Family A’s Tree - Not Pruned When Young At Planting 3-4 Yrs. 5-7 Yrs. 15 Years later Family B’s Tree - Pruned When Young
  28. 58. Scaffold branches give shape to the tree’s canopy Spaced minimum of 12” apart Radiate around the tree Best 1/3 size of trunk No more than 2 at any point
  29. 60. V U Included Bark
  30. 68. What to prune… <ul><li>Prune less than 25% of canopy </li></ul><ul><li>Prune branches greater than 1/3 the diameter of the trunk at the point of attachment </li></ul><ul><li>Double leaders </li></ul><ul><li>Poor branch unions “V” vs “U” </li></ul>
  31. 70. BEFORE AFTER
  32. 71. BEFORE AFTER Hackberry
  33. 72. No single leader Correct if necessary Use of tree? Define lowest branch Determine temporary branches, scaffold branches
  34. 73. Single leader present Use of tree? Define lowest branch Determine temporary branches, scaffold branches
  35. 77. BEFORE AFTER Subordinating Cut Establish Scaffolding
  36. 78. Pruning Evergreens <ul><li>With few exceptions, evergreens (conifers) require little pruning. </li></ul><ul><li>Different types of evergreens should be pruned according to their varied growth habits. </li></ul><ul><li>Natural forms are often desired. </li></ul>
  37. 79. Spruce, Fir, Douglas Fir <ul><li>Growth spurt in spring </li></ul><ul><li>Hard prune in dormant season </li></ul><ul><li>Light prune thru mid-spring </li></ul><ul><li>Will set lateral buds </li></ul>
  38. 82. Pines <ul><li>Single flush of growth per season </li></ul><ul><li>Pinch 2/3 of candle in spring </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t prune further back than current year’s growth </li></ul>
  39. 84. Arborvitae, Yews, Hemlock, Junipers <ul><li>Grow continuously thru season </li></ul><ul><li>Shear thru mid-summer </li></ul><ul><li>May develop green shell / brown interior </li></ul><ul><li>Bud break best from young wood </li></ul>
  40. 88. BEFORE AFTER
  41. 94. Plant Growth Regulators <ul><li>Utilization of chemical products to mimic naturally occurring plant hormones to control plant size. </li></ul><ul><li>Paclobutrazol containing products are being used by utility arborists to slow the growth of trees near utility lines. Can be useful in helping trees overcome root injury. </li></ul>
  42. 95. Pruning Summary <ul><li>Have a reason </li></ul><ul><li>Best to prune when plant is dormant (note exceptions) </li></ul><ul><li>Remove less than 25% </li></ul><ul><li>Make cuts at branch collar </li></ul><ul><li>NEVER use pruning paint, EXCEPT… </li></ul><ul><li>Use correct tools, disinfect </li></ul>
  43. 96. THANK YOU! <ul><li>Mike Maddox </li></ul><ul><li>Horticulture Educator </li></ul><ul><li>Rock UW-Extension @ Rotary Gardens </li></ul><ul><li>(608) 752 3885 </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul>
  44. 97. Miscellaneous
  45. 98. Watering <ul><li>Depending on soil type and weather conditions… </li></ul><ul><li>1” per week for trees </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Soaker hose, sprinkler </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Under drip line </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Very important on newly planted trees </li></ul><ul><li>Reduces stress in all trees </li></ul><ul><li>Can be minimized with mulch </li></ul>
  46. 99. Fertilization <ul><li>Essential Elements (16 elements) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Metabolism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Necessary to complete life cycle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May be limiting in urban landscapes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fertilization can: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase growth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce susceptibility to disease and insects </li></ul></ul>
  47. 100. 16 Essential Elements <ul><li>Essential </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon (C), Oxygen (O), Hydrogen (H) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Macronutrients </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nitrogen (N), Phosphorus (P), Potassium (K) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Calcium (Ca), Magnesium (Mg), Sulfur (S) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>C HOPKNS CaFe Mg </li></ul><ul><li>Micronutrients </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Boron (B), Chlorine (Cl), Copper (Cu), Iron (Fe), Manganese (Mn), Molybdenum (Mo), Zinc (Zn) </li></ul></ul>
  48. 101. Effects of soil pH on the availability of soil nutrients to plants The width of the bar indicates the relative availability of each element with a change in soil reaction (pH).
  49. 102. Complete Fertilizer <ul><li>Contains Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(N-P-K) 10-6-4, 20-20-20 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>For trees, complete fertilizers are not always necessary </li></ul><ul><li>Inorganic Fertilizers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dissolve quickly in water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ slow release’ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Organic Fertilizers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Manure, bone meal, compost, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Provides nutrients </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Improves soil structure </li></ul></ul></ul>
  50. 103. Timing <ul><li>Spring and Fall best </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Moisture content high in soil </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Periods of active root growth </li></ul></ul>
  51. 104. Rates <ul><li>Depends on: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>vigor of tree </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>form of fertilizer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>method of application </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Generally, 2 to 4 lbs per 1000 feet 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Techniques </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Broadcast </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drill hole / liquid injection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Foliar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Implants </li></ul></ul>
  52. 105. Fertilization Techniques
  53. 106. Fertilization Techniques
  54. 107. Fertilization Techniques
  55. 108. Fertilization Techniques <ul><li>Foliar application </li></ul><ul><li>Corrects minor element deficiencies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(iron chlorosis) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Temporary </li></ul><ul><li>Run-off into soil and absorbed by roots </li></ul>
  56. 109. Fertilization Techniques
  57. 110. Chlorosis
  58. 111. Fertilization Summary <ul><li>Fertilize only if deficiency </li></ul><ul><li>If you fertilize your lawn, you may not need to fertilize your tree </li></ul><ul><li>Best to fertilize in fall or early spring </li></ul>
  59. 113. Tree Care Summary <ul><li>Do less work!!! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t dig big holes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make small cuts on small trees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fertilize only if needed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid working in hot weather </li></ul></ul>                                                                                                             
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