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The Reverse Evolution of Media Through Citizen Journalism



Timeline: Citizen Journalism

Factors that gave rise to citizen journalism, including the development and proliferation of mobile technology. The presentation also lists some watershed moments in the history of citizen journalism,

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Timeline: Citizen Journalism

  1. 1. Timeline: Citizen Journalism
  2. 2. 9/11/2001 <ul><li>According to the Pew Internet Project, the terrorist attacks of Sept. 11, 2001, generated the most traffic to traditional news sites in the history of the Web. </li></ul>
  3. 3. September 11, 2001. <ul><li>Immense demand for immediate news about the terror attacks had people turning to e-mail, weblogs and forums “as conduits for information, commentary and action.” </li></ul><ul><li>The response on the Internet gave rise to a new proliferation of “ do-it-yourself journalism ” including eyewitness accounts, photo galleries, commentary and personal storytelling. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Feb. 2, 2003 National Weather Service radar detects debris from the Space Shuttle Columbia, which broke up on atmospheric re-entry.
  5. 5. Feb. 2, 2003 <ul><li>Following the Columbia Space Shuttle disaster , news and government organizations, including NASA and the Dallas Morning News, called upon the public to submit eyewitness accounts and photographs that might lead to clues to the cause of the spacecraft’s disintegration. </li></ul>
  6. 6. February 18, 2003 <ul><li>In response to the massive worldwide demonstration organized to protest the start of the Iraq war , BBC News asked readers to send in images of the anti-war demonstrations around the world. </li></ul>
  7. 7. February 18, 2003 <ul><li>The BBC asked specifically for protest images taken with digital cameras and cell phones with built-in cameras . </li></ul><ul><li>It published the best photos on its web site . </li></ul>
  8. 8. Sunday, December 26, 2004 <ul><li>A 9.1-magnitude underwater earthquake caused a huge tsunami in Banda Aceh, Indonesia. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Sunday, December 26, 2004 <ul><li>More than 225,000 people in 11 countries died as a result of the tsunami. </li></ul><ul><li>News footage taken by witnesses armed with mobile communication devices was widely disseminated, stirring a worldwide humanitarian effort. </li></ul>
  10. 10. May 27, 2005. <ul><li>‘ American Idol’ TV watchers send 41.5 million text messages , training Americans to send SMS. </li></ul>
  11. 11. July 7, 2005.   <ul><li>Terrorists blow up three underground trains and a double-decker bus in London , killing scores and injuring hundreds. </li></ul>
  12. 12. July 7, 2005 <ul><li>The use of camera and video phones by passengers provided on-scene news photos of the terrible event in London. </li></ul>
  13. 13. May 2006. <ul><li>‘ American Idol’ sets another SMS record, generating 64.5 million text messages on Cingular, breaking the previous record of 41.5 million messages. </li></ul>
  14. 14. March 9-18, 2007. <ul><li>Twitter gains attention from news organizations during the South by Southwest Music Festival in Austin, Texas. </li></ul><ul><li>It is named the best blogging tool by attendees to share news and opinion, and to arrange tweet-ups at parties.   </li></ul>
  15. 15. April 16, 2007. <ul><li>The Virginia Tech massacre. The perpetrator, Seung-Hui Cho, kills 32 people and wounds many others before committing suicide. </li></ul>
  16. 16. April 16, 2007. The video clips were then broadcast widely by CNN and other media. VT student Jamal Albarghouti used his cell phone to capture video of the shootings in progress and sent them to CNN’s iReport citizen journalism website.
  17. 17. August 1, 2007. Minneapolis Bridge Collapse
  18. 18. August 2007 . Minneapolis Bridge Collapse <ul><li>Citizen journalists using mobile devices captured some of the first images of the devastation and posted them to CNN’s iReport website, which were then broadcast widely. </li></ul><ul><li>Citizen journalist witnesses also helped to describe the disaster to CNN anchors on air. </li></ul>
  19. 19. September 2007. Protests in Burma Citizen protests in Burma were largely reported to the world through photos and video captured on mobile phones.
  20. 20. September 2007. Protests in Burma <ul><li>Immediacy: Images of monks being attacked in Burma (Myanmar) reached a global online public in a matter of hours , rather than days, quickly moving the world to action. </li></ul>
  21. 21. October 2007. California wildfires Traditional media outlets solicit submissions from people capturing news about the fires with cell phone cameras and posting the information on blogs, Twitter, Flickr and YouTube.
  22. 22. October 2007. California wildfires <ul><li>Multimedia platform Veeker, which signed a deal with NBC to handle viewer uploads in 10 major cities, said that NBC San Diego received more than 2000 submissions of pictures and video related to the wildfires. </li></ul>
  23. 23. October 2007. Nokia and Reuters announce partnership to create the Mobile Journalism Toolkit : Nokia N95 cell phone, keyboard, small tripod, solar charger — technologies used by amateurs to capture local news.
  24. 24. May 2008 ‘Idol’ strikes again <ul><li>AT&T announces that more than 78 million messages have been sent for the latest season of ‘Idol’ — the most popular show on television. </li></ul><ul><li>Some argue that “American Idol” voting has significantly helped the  adoption of SMS among the masses in the United States. </li></ul>
  25. 25. September 2008. <ul><li>The AP breaks a story with videos taken with mobile phones about Afghan children killed by US military forces. </li></ul>
  26. 26. September 2008. Kashmir’s mobile phone chroniclers <ul><li>Citizens using mobile phones document atrocities during demonstrations, then post footage on YouTube. </li></ul>
  27. 27. 2007-2008. U.S. Presidential Election Journalists and many others use their mobile devices and Twitter to “microblog.” Thousands of individuals, as well as major news organizations, post 140-character news updates and opinion using Twitter.
  28. 28. Bloggers: Global phenomenon <ul><li>Bloggers have been at it an average of four years and are collectively creating more than a millon posts a day. </li></ul><ul><li>Blogs have representation in top-10 website lists across all key categories, and have become integral to the media ecosystem. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Bloggers
  30. 30. June 2009. Iranian elections Twitter proves significant in keeping Iranians and the world advised as to happenings in Iran -- where open Internet and cell phone communication has been thwarted.
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Factors that gave rise to citizen journalism, including the development and proliferation of mobile technology. The presentation also lists some watershed moments in the history of citizen journalism,


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