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Electricity

ppt on Electricity for Class X

Electricity

  1. 1. ElectricityElectricity Made By:Made By: Manthan Somvanshi X C
  2. 2. What is Electricity ?What is Electricity ? Electricity is the science, engineering, technology andElectricity is the science, engineering, technology and physical phenomena associated with the presence and flowphysical phenomena associated with the presence and flow of electric charges. Electricity gives a wide variety of well-of electric charges. Electricity gives a wide variety of well- known electrical effects, such as lightning, static electricity,known electrical effects, such as lightning, static electricity, electromagnetic induction and the flow of electrical currentelectromagnetic induction and the flow of electrical current in an electrical wire. In addition, electricity permits thein an electrical wire. In addition, electricity permits the creation and reception of electromagnetic radiation such ascreation and reception of electromagnetic radiation such as radio waves.radio waves.
  3. 3. Electrical Charges  What are ElectricalWhat are Electrical ChargesCharges ?? In order to understand electricity we should first know things about electricalIn order to understand electricity we should first know things about electrical charges.charges. It is a property of some subatomic particles,whichIt is a property of some subatomic particles,which determines their electromagnetic interactions. Electricallydetermines their electromagnetic interactions. Electrically charged matter is influenced by, and produces ,charged matter is influenced by, and produces , electromagnetic fields. Ex- When comb is rubbed with aelectromagnetic fields. Ex- When comb is rubbed with a dry hair ,then it gets electric charge .dry hair ,then it gets electric charge . • Positive Charges:Positive Charges: By convention , the charge acquired by a glassBy convention , the charge acquired by a glass rod (rubbed withrod (rubbed with  Types of Electric Charges:Types of Electric Charges: silk cloth) is called positive charge.silk cloth) is called positive charge. • Negative Charges:Negative Charges: Similarly, the charge acquired by an eboniteSimilarly, the charge acquired by an ebonite rod (rubbed withrod (rubbed with a woolen cloth) is called a negative charge.a woolen cloth) is called a negative charge.
  4. 4. Properties of ElectricProperties of Electric Charges:Charges: An important property of electric charge is that:An important property of electric charge is that:  Opposite charges (or unlike charges) attract each other.Opposite charges (or unlike charges) attract each other. Similar charges (or like charges) repel each other.Similar charges (or like charges) repel each other. NOTE:NOTE: The SI unit of electrical charge isThe SI unit of electrical charge is Coulomb.Coulomb. What is 1 Coulomb ?What is 1 Coulomb ? One coulomb is that quantity of electric charge which exerts a force of 9One coulomb is that quantity of electric charge which exerts a force of 9 xx 101099 newtons on an equal charge placed at a distance 1 meter from it.newtons on an equal charge placed at a distance 1 meter from it.
  5. 5. Conductors & InsulatorsConductors & Insulators • Those substances through which electricity can flowThose substances through which electricity can flow are called conductors. Ex.-All the metals like silver,are called conductors. Ex.-All the metals like silver, copper and aluminium etc. are conductors.copper and aluminium etc. are conductors. • Those substances through which electricity cannotThose substances through which electricity cannot flow are called insulators. Ex.- Glass , ebonite ,flow are called insulators. Ex.- Glass , ebonite , plastic , some rubbers etc. are insulators.plastic , some rubbers etc. are insulators. • The presence of “free electrons” in a substance makesThe presence of “free electrons” in a substance makes it a a conductor (of electricity.)it a a conductor (of electricity.) ConductorConductor InsulatorInsulator
  6. 6. Electric Potential & PotentialElectric Potential & Potential DifferenceDifference The electric potential ( or potential) at a point in anThe electric potential ( or potential) at a point in an electric field iselectric field is defined as the work done in moving a unit of positivedefined as the work done in moving a unit of positive charge fromcharge from infinity to that point.infinity to that point. Electric Potential:Electric Potential: Potential Difference:Potential Difference: The potential difference between two points in anThe potential difference between two points in an electric circuit is defined as the amount of work done inelectric circuit is defined as the amount of work done in moving a unit charge from one point to another point. Itsmoving a unit charge from one point to another point. Its formula is:formula is:
  7. 7. FORMULA OF POTENTIAL DIFFERENCEFORMULA OF POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE Potential difference=Potential difference= Work doneWork done Quantity of chargeQuantity of charge movedmoved Now, V = W/QV = W/Q Here, W = work doneHere, W = work done Q = quantity ofQ = quantity of charge movedcharge moved V= potentialV= potential differencedifference Note: The SI unit of potential differenceThe SI unit of potential difference is Volt.is Volt. Click to know further about Potential DifferenceClick to know further about Potential Difference
  8. 8. POINTS TO REMEMBER:  Voltage is the other name for potentialVoltage is the other name for potential difference.difference.  The potential difference between twoThe potential difference between two points is said to be 1 volt if 1 joule of workpoints is said to be 1 volt if 1 joule of work is done in moving 1 coulomb of chargeis done in moving 1 coulomb of charge from one point to another.from one point to another. Instrument’sInstrument’s Corner:Corner: The potential difference is measured by means of an instrument called voltmeter. Its symbol is
  9. 9. Electric Current What is an Electric Current?What is an Electric Current? It is the potential difference between the ends ofIt is the potential difference between the ends of wire which makes the electric charges (or current) towire which makes the electric charges (or current) to flow in the wire.flow in the wire.Note: Amount of charge is shown by “q” or “Q” & Current isNote: Amount of charge is shown by “q” or “Q” & Current is shown by “I”.shown by “I”. Formula: I =I = qqNote: SI unit of current is Ampere (A)Note: SI unit of current is Ampere (A) What is 1 ampere ? When 1 Coulomb of charge flows through any cross-When 1 Coulomb of charge flows through any cross- section of a conductor in 1 second , the electric currentsection of a conductor in 1 second , the electric current flowing through it is said to be 1ampere.flowing through it is said to be 1ampere. I = q / t If , t = 1 secI = q / t If , t = 1 sec Instrument’s Corner:Instrument’s Corner: Current is measured by an instrument called ammeter. Its symbol is:
  10. 10. The conventional direction of electric current is from positiveThe conventional direction of electric current is from positive terminal of a cell (or battery) to the negative terminal , throughterminal of a cell (or battery) to the negative terminal , through the outer circuit .the outer circuit . Direction Of Electric Current:Direction Of Electric Current:
  11. 11. Electric Circuits & Circuit SymbolsElectric Circuits & Circuit Symbols What is a circuit ?What is a circuit ? A continuous conducting path consisting of wires andA continuous conducting path consisting of wires and other resistances ( like electric bulb ,etc) and a switchother resistances ( like electric bulb ,etc) and a switch between the two terminals of a cell or battery alongbetween the two terminals of a cell or battery along which an electric current flows , is called a circuit.which an electric current flows , is called a circuit.
  12. 12. Circuit Symbols:Circuit Symbols:
  13. 13. Circuit Diagram A diagram which indicatesA diagram which indicates how different components inhow different components in a circuit have beena circuit have been connected by usingconnected by using electrical symbols for theelectrical symbols for the components is calledcomponents is called circuit diagram.circuit diagram.
  14. 14. Ohm’s Law At constant temperature , the current flowingAt constant temperature , the current flowing through a conductor is directly proportional to thethrough a conductor is directly proportional to the potential difference across its ends.potential difference across its ends. If I is the current flowing through a conductor andIf I is the current flowing through a conductor and V is the potential difference across its end, thenV is the potential difference across its end, then according to Ohm’s law:according to Ohm’s law: I ∝V (at constant temperature or V I or V= R∝ x I Here , R= “resistance” We can also write : R=V/IR=V/I Here, R=resistance , V= Potential difference and I
  15. 15. Graphical Representation of Ohm’sGraphical Representation of Ohm’s Law:Law: If a graph is drawn between potential difference readings (V) and corresponding current values (I) , the graph is found to be a straight line.
  16. 16. Resistance:Resistance: Resistance The property of a conductor due to which it opposes the flow of current through it is called resistance. Formula:Formula: R=V/IR=V/I Here, R= resistance ,V= potential difference ,I=Here, R= resistance ,V= potential difference ,I= currentcurrentFactors Affecting Resistance Of a ConductorFactors Affecting Resistance Of a Conductor Length of a conductor.Length of a conductor. Cross-sectional area of a conductorCross-sectional area of a conductor Nature of material of a conductorNature of material of a conductor TemperatureTemperature
  17. 17. Resistivity It has been found by experiment that:It has been found by experiment that: Resistance of a conductor :Resistance of a conductor : RR l (length of a conductor)∝ l (length of a conductor)∝ Also, R 1/A (X-sectional area)∝Also, R 1/A (X-sectional area)∝ 0r, R l/A∝0r, R l/A∝ Or R=Or R= l/aϱl/aϱ HereHere ϱϱ is a constant for a particular material and at a certainis a constant for a particular material and at a certain temperature.temperature. Note :Note : Resitivity of alloys is more than theResitivity of alloys is more than the conductors or pureconductors or pure materials.materials.
  18. 18. Thank You
  • Bijaydash

    Jul. 31, 2021
  • nadoz1

    Mar. 21, 2021
  • jazzdaweyur

    Jan. 10, 2016

ppt on Electricity for Class X

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