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A Brief History of Advertisement

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Credit: Tuğçe Esener http://www.linkedin.com/in/tugceesener

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A Brief History of Advertisement

  1. 1. <ul><li>“ Never write an advertisement </li></ul><ul><li>which you wouldn't want your family to read.  </li></ul><ul><li>You wouldn't tell lies to your own wife.  </li></ul><ul><li>Don't tell them to mine. ”   </li></ul>
  2. 2. Ground zero…
  3. 3. “ You Can Have Any Color As Long As It Is Black ”
  4. 4. 1900 – 1940 <ul><li>World War I and II </li></ul>
  5. 5. “ Killers versus Poets”
  6. 6. The reason why <ul><li>The writer of an unsigned 1902 editorial in Printers' Ink spoke for the majority, noting: &quot;More attractive than fine pictures, more potent than fine language, are the Why and Wherefore of the goods-the Reasons.“ </li></ul>
  7. 7. “ Killers” and “Poets” <ul><li>Hard-sell advocates frequently criticized &quot;poets&quot; for desiring personal recognition for their creativity. </li></ul><ul><li>Conversely, soft-sell advocates often criticized &quot;killers&quot; for their lack of creativity. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Copyman’s trouble <ul><li>1908, observations in Printers Ink: </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;The modern 'copy man' has to say things in a way that they have not been said before-because that is the only kind of talk that will nowadays attract attention.&quot; </li></ul>
  9. 9. A period of “experimental” discovery <ul><li>1905: the University of Pennsylvania offered a course in &quot;The Marketing of Products&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>1908: Harvard Business School opens </li></ul><ul><li>1908: Northwestern University opens its School of Commerce, which will later become the Kellogg School of Management, home to influential marketing professor Philip Kotler </li></ul>
  10. 10. 1912 1923 (Kodak) 1927
  11. 11. 1886
  12. 12. 1886 1880 1904
  13. 13. 1905 1907 1920
  14. 14. 1929 1935 1939
  15. 15. 1914 1918
  16. 16. 1919 1922
  17. 17. 1923
  18. 18. 1924 1925
  19. 19. 1927 1929
  20. 20. 1918
  21. 21. 1923 1926
  22. 22. 1918 1919
  23. 23. 1902
  24. 24. 1925 1928
  25. 25. 1925 1936
  26. 26. 1922 1926
  27. 27. 1932 1930
  28. 28. 1930
  29. 29. 1930 1932
  30. 30. 1945
  31. 31. 1937 1936
  32. 32. 1937 1946
  33. 33. 1926 1929
  34. 34. 1931 1947
  35. 35. 1950’s “ After World War II society had to settle back for a moment before it picked up the 20th century.”  Stella Blum
  36. 36. Marketing for the masses…
  37. 37. Marketing “theories” <ul><li>More of the consumer viewpoint and of economic analysis were introduced . </li></ul><ul><li>The concept of marketing was being reformulated .  </li></ul>
  38. 38. Rise of MadMan <ul><li>Leo Burnett, identified two schools of strategic thought in a Printers' Ink article: </li></ul><ul><li>1-Poster-style advertising </li></ul><ul><li>2-Reason-why advertising </li></ul>
  39. 39. Ultimate question continues… <ul><li>In the 1950s, a slim majority continued to argue that advertising's role was to sell products directly, with remarks similar to those of hard-sell advocates from forty years earlier. </li></ul>
  40. 40. “ Television is the triumph of machine over people. ”
  41. 41. The birthday of the bathroom break. <ul><li>July 1, 1941, the first day the Federal Communications Commission allowed TV stations to switch from experimental to commercial broadcasts. NBC New York affiliate WNBT becomes the first of 22 FCC licensees to air sponsored programming. </li></ul>
  42. 42. The birth of USP <ul><li>The president of N.W. Ayer and Son observed in 1941 that advertising &quot;cannot create a single point of superiority in a product or add a single virtue to its manufacturer. What advertising can do is to speed up the process of getting a good product well and favorably known.&quot; </li></ul>
  43. 43. Hierarchy of needs <ul><li>Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs model was developed between 1943-1954 , and first widely published in Motivation and Personality in 1954 . At this time the Hierarchy of Needs model comprised five needs. Maslow's most popular book is Toward a Psychology of Being (1968), in which more layers were added. </li></ul>
  44. 45. 1950 1951
  45. 46. 1951 1953
  46. 47. 1954 1954
  47. 48. 1950
  48. 49. 1951 1952
  49. 50. 1956 - 1957
  50. 51. 1955 - 1956
  51. 52. 1951 1955
  52. 53. 1954 1959
  53. 54. 1954
  54. 55. 1950 1958
  55. 56. 1954
  56. 57. 1955
  57. 58. 1956
  58. 59. 1954 - 1955
  59. 60. 1957
  60. 61. 1955 1951
  61. 62. 1957 1959
  62. 63. 60’s “ Don't trust anybody over thirty! ” Jack Weinberg
  63. 64. Question of “ethics”
  64. 65. Rise of cynicism <ul><li>“ What is the difference between unethical and ethical advertising?  Unethical advertising uses falsehoods to deceive the public; ethical advertising uses truth to deceive the public.  ” Vilhjalmur Stefansson, 1964 </li></ul>
  65. 66. First trial <ul><li>In 1968, a creative team at BBDO, New York, slips some marbles into a bowl of Campbell's vegetable soup to keep the vegetables from sinking to the bottom. This seemingly innocent effort sparks a Federal Trade Commission probe and becomes the basis for the FTC's efforts to eliminate false ads with a practice that allows it to demand &quot;corrective advertising&quot; from an advertiser that has made a false claim. </li></ul>
  66. 67. 1960
  67. 68. 1960 Mc Donalds
  68. 69. 1960 - 1961
  69. 70. 1962 - 1963
  70. 71. 1964 – 1965
  71. 72. 1966
  72. 73. 1967
  73. 74. 1968
  74. 75. 1962
  75. 76. 1968
  76. 77. 1960
  77. 78. 1961 - 1962
  78. 79. 1960 - 1961
  79. 80. 1961 - 1964
  80. 81. 1964 - 1969
  81. 82. 1960
  82. 83. 1961 - 1962
  83. 84. 1963
  84. 85. 1962 - 1965
  85. 86. 1965 - 1967
  86. 87. <ul><li>1967 - WARNER </li></ul>
  87. 88. 1966
  88. 89. 70’s “ I find your lack of faith disturbing. ”
  89. 90. “ The battle is in the consumers mind”
  90. 91. A new approach: Positioning <ul><li>Beginning in 1969 two young marketing guys, Jack Trout and Al Ries , wrote, spoke and disseminated to the advertising and PR world about a new concept in communications called positioning . </li></ul>
  91. 92. Brand image? <ul><li>Lee Clow, in 1971: &quot;Why isn't the persona of the brand considered a real difference? Is it because it's too esoteric?&quot; </li></ul>
  92. 93. Mystique? <ul><li>As one wrote in 1971, &quot;Research not only takes some of the mystique out of agency creative departments, it also gives the client more direct control over creative people.&quot; </li></ul>
  93. 94. 1976 1972 1971 1971
  94. 95. 1970
  95. 96. 1971
  96. 97. 1971
  97. 98. 1970
  98. 99. 1970
  99. 100. 1971
  100. 101. 1975
  101. 102. 1978
  102. 103. 1979 Wonderbra
  103. 104. 80’s &quot;You'll never look at music the same way again&quot;
  104. 105. The search for “cool”
  105. 106. Emotion is the king! <ul><li>Edward de Bono (1985) </li></ul><ul><li>He noted: &quot;Emotions are an essential part of our thinking ability and not just something extra that mucks up our thinking&quot; </li></ul>
  106. 107. Invention of ROI <ul><li>&quot;I know that half of my advertising budget is wasted, but I'm not sure which half.“ </li></ul><ul><li>John Wanamaker </li></ul>
  107. 108. Differentiate or die <ul><li>Hal Riney, a creative director for the BBDO agency during the &quot;creative revolution&quot; of the 1960s, stated this point very clearly in 1982: '&quot;Most of the time,' he says, 'the facts haven't done me a lot of good. It seems there's someone already using the same ones'&quot; </li></ul>
  108. 109. E mergence of relationship marketing <ul><li>CRM </li></ul><ul><li>Customer value </li></ul><ul><li>Brand loyalty </li></ul><ul><li>Long term brand investment </li></ul>
  109. 110. Consumer radar <ul><li>Introduction of “guerilla” marketing methods. </li></ul>
  110. 111. 1989
  111. 112. 1982
  112. 113. U.S. Army, 1981
  113. 114. 1989
  114. 115. Apple Computer, 1984
  115. 116. 1984
  116. 117. 1987
  117. 118. Nike 1983
  118. 119. 1987
  119. 120. 1988
  120. 121. Lee Cooper 1987
  121. 122. 90’s “ Just do it!”
  122. 123. Need for integration
  123. 124. Brand is the king <ul><li>1993 The Brand Asset Valuator of advertising agency Young & Rubicam measures Brand Value by applying four broad factors . </li></ul>
  124. 125. Integrated efforts <ul><li>Mark Tungate, the Paris-based author of Fashion Brands: Branding Style From Armani to Zara. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Advertisers today can be more subtle because they are safe in the knowledge that a single image does not have to stand alone. The Web site and the store are equally parts of the brand experience. &quot; </li></ul>
  125. 126. Long live consumerism <ul><li>“ I t is our job to make women unhappy with what they have.  ” </li></ul><ul><li>B. Earl Puckett, 1992 </li></ul>
  126. 127. The new buzz! <ul><li>Introduction of “viral” marketing </li></ul>
  127. 128. 1998 1992 1995
  128. 129. 1993
  129. 130. 1993
  130. 131. 1994
  131. 132. 1994
  132. 133. 1993
  133. 134. 1991
  134. 135. 1991
  135. 136. 1992
  136. 137. 1993
  137. 138. 1994
  138. 139. 1989
  139. 140. 1989
  140. 141. 1991
  141. 142. 1991
  142. 143. 1991
  143. 144. 1991
  144. 145. 1992
  145. 146. 1992
  146. 147. 1992
  147. 148. 1992
  148. 149. 1994
  149. 150. 1996
  150. 151. 1996
  151. 152. Apple 1997
  152. 153. 2000’s
  153. 154. And the era of “dialogue”…
  154. 155. Who is Generation Y? <ul><li>76 million people born between 1978 – 2000 </li></ul><ul><li>Millienials, Net Generation, Echo Boomers, Google Generation, iGeneration </li></ul><ul><li>Ongoing debate about where to begin and end a generation. </li></ul>
  155. 156. OLD MARKETING PRODUCT PACKAGING DISTRIBUTION CRM ADVERTISING CONSUMER What’s Next in Marketing
  156. 157. MODERN MARKETING PRODUCT PACKAGING DISTRIBUTION ADVERTISING CONSUMER CRM What’s Next in Marketing
  157. 158. <ul><li>perception </li></ul><ul><li>80% of CEO’s believe of believe their brand provides a superior customer experience </li></ul><ul><li>8 % of their customers agree </li></ul><ul><li>(Bain & Company) </li></ul>FUTURE LAB
  158. 159. 76% of consumers don’t believe that companies tell the truth in advertisements Yankelowich,2006 FUTURE LAB I AM THE MEDIA
  159. 160. ONLY 14% TRUST ADS CREATING BUZZ
  160. 161. 69 % INTERESTED IN AD BLOCKING TECHNOLOGIES CREATING BUZZ
  161. 162. LAW OF FEW 10% INFLUENCE PURCHASING BEHAVIOR OF OTHER 90% CREATING BUZZ
  162. 163. Marketing landscape
  163. 164. 2001 2007 2005 2004 1999 2006 2005
  164. 178. <ul><li>Diesel 2008 </li></ul>
  165. 179. 2008
  166. 180. <ul><li>Cadburry 2008 </li></ul>
  167. 181. <ul><li>Dove Real Beauty 2008 </li></ul>
  168. 182. <ul><li>“ I have always believed that writing advertisements is the second most profitable form of writing. The first, of course, is ransom notes...”  </li></ul><ul><li>Philip Dusenberry </li></ul>
  169. 183. References <ul><li>Articles: </li></ul><ul><li>Title: Hard-Sell &quot;Killers&quot; and Soft-Sell &quot;Poets&quot;: Modern Advertising's Enduring Message Strategy Debate Date : 10/1/2004; Publication : Journalism History; Author : Beard, Fred K </li></ul><ul><li>Title: The biggest moments in the last 75 years of advertising history. Date : 3/28/2005; Publication : Advertising Age; </li></ul><ul><li>Title: Ad Ages 50 years of image-making; evolving from the rational pitch to glossy lifestyle campaigns, men's fashion advertising over the past half-century is a window on culture and society. Date : 4/24/2006; Publication : Daily News Record; Author : Lipke, David </li></ul><ul><li>Books: </li></ul><ul><li>The Hidden Persuaders by Vance Packard and Mark Crispin Miller </li></ul><ul><li>American Social Classes in the 1950s: Selections from Vance Packard's The Status Seekers (The Bedford Series in History and Culture) by Vance Packard and Daniel Horowitz </li></ul><ul><li>The Origin of Brands by Al/ Ries, Laura Ries </li></ul><ul><li>Positioning: The Battle for Your Mind, 20th Anniversary Edition by Al Ries and Jack Trout </li></ul><ul><li>Big Brands Big Trouble: Lessons Learned the Hard Way by Jack Trout </li></ul>
  170. 184. References <ul><li>Websites </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.wk.com/#/clients/15/ </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.advertisingarchives.co.uk/gallery_1900s.php </li></ul><ul><li>http://graphic-design.tjs-labs.com/gallery-view?span=15&start=30 </li></ul><ul><li>http://adage.com/century/timeline/index.html </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.rareads.com/rareads/webauto.html </li></ul><ul><li>http://donttellmymum.com/2008/10/23/10-pieces-of-content-that-define-todays-marketing-reality/ </li></ul><ul><li>http://adage.com/century/campaigns.html </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.logoorange.com/logodesign-A.php </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.adclassix.com/sitemap.htm#1900 </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.toxel.com/inspiration/2008/06/28/24-unforgettable-advertisements/ </li></ul><ul><li>Presentations </li></ul><ul><li>Whats next in Marketing Paul Isakson http://www.slideshare.net/paulisakson/whats-next-in-marketing-advertising-318143 : </li></ul><ul><li>Futurelab I am the media http://www.slideshare.net/alainthys/i-am-the-media </li></ul><ul><li>Kameran Ahari Creating Buz http://gotastrategy.typepad.com </li></ul>
  171. 185. Thank you Tuğçe Esener http://www.linkedin.com/in/tugceesener

Editor's Notes

  • 1921 – Henry Ford
  • 1914 I Dünya savaşı başladı. 1918 I Dünya savaşı bitti. 1922 Mussolini, başbakan oldu. Albert Einstein Nobel Fizik Ödülü&apos;nü kazandı. 1923 Adolf Hitler&apos;in yapmak istediği darbe engellendi ve Hitler tutuklandı. 1925 Adolf Hitler, Mein Kampf&apos;ı (Kavgam) yayımladı. Pilsoudski, Polonya&apos;da darbe yaptı. Portekiz Cumhuriyeti, askeri darbeyle devrildi. Almanya, Milletler Cemiyeti&apos;ne kabul edildi. 1927 ABD&apos;de ilk uzun metrajlı sözlü filmler, gösterime girdi. Amerikalı pilot Charles Lindbergh, Atlas Okyanusu&apos;nu tek başına ve kesintisiz geçti. Fransız Jules Rimet&apos;in önerisiyle, Dünya Futbol Şampiyonası düzenlenmesi kararlaştırıldı. 1928 Ulusal politikanın bir aracı olarak savaşı yasaklamayı amaçlayan Kellog-Briand Paktı, 60 ülke tarafından imzalandı. 1929 Hollywood&apos;da ilk Oscar Ödül Töreni yapıldı. 1931 Japonya, Mançurya&apos;yı işgal etti. Uzakdoğu Savaşı başladı. 1932 Irak, bağımsızlığını ilan etti. 1933 Alman Ulusal Sosyalist Parti lideri Hitler, başbakan oldu. Naziler, Dachau&apos;da ilk toplama kampını açtılar. Almanya&apos;da Nazi Partisi, yahudileri boykot etme kararı aldı. Nazilere bağlı gizli polis örgütü Gestapo kuruldu. Naziler, Alman ırkını canlandırmak için halkı güçsüzlerden temizleme kararı aldı. 1934 Almanya&apos;da Devlet Başkanı&apos;nın ölmesi üzerine Adolf Hitler, ülkenin mutlak lideri oldu ve başbakanlık, devlet başkanlığı yetkilerini elde etti. 1935 Nuremberg Yasaları olarak bilinen ırkçı yasalar resmen ilan edildi. İtalya, Etiyopya&apos;yı işgal etti. 1937 Naziler, Buchenwald Toplama Kampı&apos;nı açtılar. Japonya, Çin&apos;i savaş ilan etmeksizin işgal etti. Milliyetçi Çin&apos;in başkenti Nanking&apos;de 250.000 Çinli, Japonlar tarafından katledildi. 1938 Alman birlikleri, Avusturya&apos;ya girdi. 1939 İtalyan birlikleri, Arnavutluk&apos;u işgal etti. Almanya ve Sovyetler Birliği arasında, saldırmazlık anlaşması imzalandı. Almanya, Polonya&apos;yı işgal etti ve 2. Dünya Savaşı başladı. İngiltere ve Fransa, Almanya&apos;ya savaş ilan ettiler. Sovyetler Birliği, Ribbentrop-Molotov Antlaşması&apos;nın gizli bir maddesi gereğince Polonya&apos;ya saldırdı. Hitler ve Stalin, Polonya&apos;yı paylaştılar. 1940 Sovyetler Birliği, Finlandiya&apos;ya saldırdı. Saldırı, tarihe &apos;&apos;Kış Savaşı&apos;&apos; olarak girdi. 1946 Winston Churchill, Missouri&apos;deki Fulton&apos;da, ilk kez &amp;quot;demir perde&amp;quot; den söz etti. 1947 Al Capone öldü. Avrupa Kalkınma Programı açıklandı. SSCB, atom bombası yapabildiğini açıkladı. 1949 İngiliz yazar George Orwell, &apos;&apos;1984&apos;&apos;ü yazdı. SSCB&apos;de ilk atom patlaması oldu. 1950 Kore Savaşı başladı. ABD Kore&apos;ye çıkarma yaptı. 29 Eylül&apos;de Seul işgal edildi.
  • 1952 Marshall Adaları&apos;nda, ABD tarafından yapılan ilk hidrojen bombası patladı. İlk bilgisayar IBM-701 piyasaya çıktı. Fransa&apos;yla İngiltere arasında ilk uluslararası televizyon bağlantısı kuruldu. 1955 İlk fast-food lokanta, McDonald&apos;s, ABD&apos;de açıldı. Bebek patlaması kuşağı - 1946 ile 1974 arasında doğmuş olanlar. Bebek Patlaması kuşağı, önceki erişkin kuşaklarına göre yeni deneyimlere ve markalara çok daha açık olan dinamik bir grup oluşturuyor. Pazarlama uzmanlarının, Bebek Patlaması kuşağının ne kadar yaşlı olduklarına bakmak yerine, ne yaptıklarına bakarak hedeflerini belirlemeleri gerekiyor. Bebek Patlaması kuşağındakiler, çok döngüsel yaşamlar sürüyorlar. 40’lı ya da 50’li yaşlarında üniversiteye dönüyor olabilirler, yalnız yaşıyor olabilirler ya da ikinci kez evlenmiş, çocuk yetiştiriyor olabilirler.
  • “ All of us who professionally use the mass media are the shapers of society. We can vulgerize that society. We can brutalize it. Or we can help lift it onto a higher level.” William Bernbach quotes (American advertising executive, 1911-1982)
  • One of the most influential message strategists of the second half of the twentieth century, 1-Poster-style advertising which depends on its simplicity and its manner plus a cogent selling thought expressed with a rigid economy of words. 2-Reason-why advertising which takes the reader by the hand, emotionalizes the results of the product, and rationalizes it with pertinent information and persuasive argument.
  • Fred Allen (1894 – 1956 )
  • By 1955, however, more than 900 marketers have begun advertising on TV and expenditures have surpassed both magazines and radio to become the leading marketing medium in the U.S., with revenue topping $1 billion. By 2004, more than 200 million sets are in use in the U.S., and TV ad spending tops $50 billion. The first ad takes the form of a &amp;quot;time signal&amp;quot; featuring the face of a ticking watch, sponsored by Bulova Watch Co. Procter &amp; Gamble Co., Lever Bros. and Sun Oil join Bulova as TV&apos;s first sponsors, paying $100-including time and studio costs-for the privilege of branding quarter-hours of programming that reach fewer than 5,000 households in the New York metropolitan area.
  • 1960 Doğum kontrol hapı, ABD&apos;de satışa sunuldu. 1961 Yahudilerin katledilmesiyle suçlanan eski SS lideri Adolf Eichmann hakkında dava açıldı. Arjantin&apos;e sığınan Eichmann, İsrail İstihbarat Servisi tarafından kaçırıldı. 15 Aralık&apos;ta ölüme mahkum edildi, 31 Mayıs 1962&apos;de idam edildi. J.F Kennedy, ABD Ordusu&apos;nun Vietnam&apos;a müdahale programına onay verdi. 1962 Ünlü müzik topluluğu Beatles, ilk plağının kaydını yaptı. Ünlü modacı Yves Saint Laurent, ilk defilesini sundu. 1964 ABD Vietnam&apos;a girdi. Çin, ilk nükleer bombasını patlattı. 1967 Küba Devrimi&apos;nin önderlerinden Ernesto &apos;&apos;Che&apos;&apos;Guevara öldü. 1968 Fransa&apos;da &apos;&apos;68 kuşağı&apos;&apos;öğrenci hareketleri başladı. ABD&apos;de yurttaş hakları hareketine öncülük eden siyah din adamı Martin Luther King, 39 yaşında öldürüldü.
  • Bernbach
  • 1973 ABD ile Vietnam arasında, ateşkes anlaşması imzalandı, son ABD Kuvvetleri Vietnam&apos;ı 29 Mart&apos;ta terketti. 1976 Steve Jobs ve Steve Wozmiac, ilk kişisel bilgisayar Apple&apos;i gerçekleştirdiler.
  • &amp;quot;positioning is not what you do to a product. Positioning is what you do to the mind of the prospect. That is, you position (place) the product in the mind of the prospect&amp;quot;.
  • In June 1971, Davidson presented a number of design options to Knight and other BRS executives, and they ultimately selected the mark now known globally as the Swoosh. Davidson submitted a bill for $35 for her work. (In 1983, Knight gave Davidson a gold Swoosh ring and an envelope filled with Nike stock to express his gratitude.)
  • 1980 Yeni bir hastalık belirlendi: AIDS. 1981 MTV kuruldu. 1987 ABD, SSCB&apos;nin önerisini kabul etti, Asya ve Avrupa&apos;da konuşlandırılmış ve menzili 500-5 bin 500 kilometre olan bütün füzeler imha edildi. Nükleer dönemin ilk gerçek silahsızlanma anlaşması olan Washington Antlaşması imzalandı. 1988 George Bush, ABD Başkanı oldu. 1989 Berlin Duvarı yıkıldı. 1991 Körfez Savaşı başladı, 28 Şubat&apos;ta Irak&apos;ın yenilgisiyle sona erdi. İlk canlı yayın savaş görüntüleri… 1992 Bill Clinton, ABD Başkanlığı&apos;na seçildi.
  • The Six Thinking Hats technique of Edward de Bono is a model that can be used for exploring different perspectives towards a complex situation or challenge . Seeing things in various ways is often a good idea in strategy formation or complex decision-making processes.
  • Robert Sobel (1974). &amp;quot;John Wanamaker: The Triumph of Content Over Form&amp;quot;, chapter 3 in The Entrepreneurs: Explorations Within the American Business Tradition (Weybright &amp; Talley), ISBN 0-679-40064-8
  • feminism , environmentalism , racial equality and technology . Diana, Princess of Wales dies after a car crash in a Paris road tunnel. The Iraqi invasion of Kuwait in August 2, 1990 and the subsequent Gulf War in 1991. The German reunification in October 3, 1990 as a result of the fall of the Berlin Wall The breakup of Yugoslavia beginning on June 25, 1991 after the republics of Croatia and Slovenia declared independence from Yugoslavia which was followed by the subsequent Yugoslav wars . The World Wide Web becomes the first publicly available service on the internet on August 6, 1991, beginning the eventual expansion of public use of the internet. The Rwandan Genocide which began on April 6, 1994 until mid-July 1994 results in serious criticism of the United Nations and major countries for failing to stop the genocide. The first cloned mammal, Dolly the sheep is confirmed and reported by global media on February 26, 1997. The adoption of the Kyoto Protocol by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change on December 11, 1997 1993 World Trade Center bombing and marked the beginning of a series of attempted terrorist attacks by Al Qaeda against the U.S. that would continue into the 2000s.
  • All about pushing things out at people. A one way process. Shove, shout, sell.
  • Instead of using marketing to shove things out and yell, it’s about creating things that draw people in. Things that make them want to come learn/see/engage more.
  • Dusenberry was well-known for his work with one of his major clients, the soft drink giant Pepsi . He devised the advertising slogan &amp;quot;The Choice of a New Generation&amp;quot;, and was instrumental in casting celebrities in Pepsi&apos;s high-profile advertisements, including Lionel Richie , Don Johnson , Madonna and Michael J. Fox . Dusenberry was overseeing the production of an infamous Pepsi commercial starring Michael Jackson in which Jackson&apos;s hair accidentally caught fire when a smoke effect misfired
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