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Agriculture finance Slide 1 Agriculture finance Slide 2 Agriculture finance Slide 3 Agriculture finance Slide 4 Agriculture finance Slide 5 Agriculture finance Slide 6 Agriculture finance Slide 7 Agriculture finance Slide 8 Agriculture finance Slide 9 Agriculture finance Slide 10 Agriculture finance Slide 11 Agriculture finance Slide 12 Agriculture finance Slide 13 Agriculture finance Slide 14 Agriculture finance Slide 15 Agriculture finance Slide 16 Agriculture finance Slide 17 Agriculture finance Slide 18 Agriculture finance Slide 19 Agriculture finance Slide 20 Agriculture finance Slide 21 Agriculture finance Slide 22 Agriculture finance Slide 23 Agriculture finance Slide 24 Agriculture finance Slide 25 Agriculture finance Slide 26 Agriculture finance Slide 27 Agriculture finance Slide 28 Agriculture finance Slide 29 Agriculture finance Slide 30 Agriculture finance Slide 31 Agriculture finance Slide 32 Agriculture finance Slide 33 Agriculture finance Slide 34 Agriculture finance Slide 35 Agriculture finance Slide 36 Agriculture finance Slide 37 Agriculture finance Slide 38 Agriculture finance Slide 39 Agriculture finance Slide 40 Agriculture finance Slide 41 Agriculture finance Slide 42 Agriculture finance Slide 43 Agriculture finance Slide 44 Agriculture finance Slide 45
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Agriculture finance

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Introduction of Agriculture Finance.

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Agriculture finance

  1. 1. Agriculture Finance
  2. 2. Meaning "Agricultural finance is the study of financing and liquidity services credit provides to farm borrowers. It is also considered as the study of those financial intermediaries who provide loan funds to agriculture and the financial markets in which these intermediaries obtain their loan able funds.
  3. 3. Continue In other words It generally means studying, examining & analyzing the financial aspects pertaining to farm business  The financial aspects include money matters relating to production of agricultural products and their disposal.
  4. 4. Definitions Murray (1953) defined agricultural finance as “an economic study of borrowing funds by farmers, the organization and operation of farm lending agencies and of society's interest in credit for agriculture.”
  5. 5. Continue Tandon and Dhondyal (1962) defined agricultural finance as “a branch of agricultural economics, which deals with and financial resources related to individual farm units”.
  6. 6. Nature and Scope Agricultural finance can be dealt at both micro level and macro level  Macro Finance : Macro finance deals with different sources of raising funds for agriculture as a whole in the economy. It is also concerned with the lending procedure, rules, regulations, monitoring and controlling of different agricultural credit institutions. Hence macro-finance is related to financing of agriculture at aggregate level.
  7. 7. Continue  Micro-finance It refers to financial management of the individual farm business units. And it is concerned with the study as to how the individual farmer considers various sources of credit, quantum of credit to be borrowed from each source and how he allocates the same among the alternative uses with in the farm. It is also concerned with the future use of funds.
  8. 8. Conclusion Therefore, macro-finance deals with the aspects relating to total credit needs of the agricultural sector, the terms and conditions under which the credit is available and the method of use of total credit for the development of agriculture, while micro-finance refers to the financial management of individual farm business.
  9. 9. Significance of Agricultural Finance: 1. Agri finance assumes vital and significant importance in the agro – socio – economic development of the country both at macro and micro level. 2. It is playing a catalytic role in strengthening the farm business and augmenting the productivity of scarce resources. When newly developed potential seeds are combined with purchased inputs like fertilizers & plant protection chemicals in appropriate / requisite proportions will result in higher productivity.
  10. 10. Continue 3. Use of new technological inputs purchased through farm finance helps to increase the agricultural productivity. 4. Accretion to in farm assets and farm supporting infrastructure provided by large scale financial investment activities results in increased farm income levels leading to increased standard of living of rural masses.
  11. 11. Continue 5. Farm finance can also reduce the regional economic imbalances and is equally good at reducing the inter–farm asset and wealth variations. 6. Farm finance is like a lever with both forward and backward linkages to the economic development at micro and macro level. 7. As Rwandan agriculture is still traditional and subsistence in nature, agricultural finance is needed to create the supporting infrastructure for adoption of new technology.
  12. 12. Continue 8. Massive investment is needed to carry out major and minor irrigation projects, rural electrification, installation of fertilizer and pesticide plants, execution of agricultural promotional programmes and poverty alleviation programmes in the country.
  13. 13. Meaning of Credit  The word “credit” comes from the Latin word “Credo” which means “I believe”. Hence credit is based up on belief, confidence, trust and faith. Credit is otherwise called as loan.  Credit / loan is certain amount of money provided for certain purpose on certain conditions with some interest, which can be repaid sooner (or) later.
  14. 14. Definition  According to Professor Galbraith “credit is the temporary transfer of asset from one who has to other who has not”
  15. 15. Credit needs in Agriculture Agricultural credit is one of the most crucial inputs in all agricultural development programmes. For a long time, the major source of agricultural credit was private moneylenders. But this source of credit was inadequate, highly expensive and exploitative. To curtail this, a multi- agency approach consisting of cooperatives, commercial banks ands regional rural banks credit has been adopted to provide cheaper, timely and adequate credit to farmers.
  16. 16. The financial requirements of the Rwandan farmers are for, 1. Buying agricultural inputs like seeds, fertilizers, plant protection chemicals, feed and fodder for cattle etc. 2. Supporting their families in those years when the crops have not been good. 3. Buying additional land, to make improvements on the existing land, to clear old debt and purchase costly agricultural machinery.
  17. 17. Continue 4. Increasing the farm efficiency as against limiting resources i.e. hiring of irrigation water lifting devices, labor and machinery.
  18. 18. Classification of Credit /Finance
  19. 19. On the basis of time Short- Term :  These loans are to be repaid within a period of 6 to 15 months  All crop loans are said to be short–term loans, but the length of the repayment period varies according to the duration of crop harvest.  This type of loan is required to meet expenses like seed, feed, fertilizers, hired labour, sowing, plant protection measures, payment of wages to casual laborers, pesticides, weedicides and hired machinery charges etc.
  20. 20. Medium-Term (from 15 months up to 5 years)  Repayment period for such type of loan is from 15 months to 5 years.  These loans are required for purchasing machinery, diesel engine, wells, irrigation structure, threshers, shelters, crushers, draught and mulch animals, dairy/poultry sheds, etc.
  21. 21. Long-Term (above 5 Years)  These loans fall due for repayment over a long time ranging from 5 years to more than 20 years  These loans are required to the long life assets such as heavy machinery, land and its reclamation, errection of farm buildings, leveling, reclamation of land, construction of permanent- drainage, purchase of tractors, raising of orchards or irrigation system, etc.
  22. 22. Based on Purpose Production loans:  These loans refer to the credit given to the farmers for crop production • They are also called as seasonal agricultural operations (SAO) loans or short – term loans or crop loans Investment loans: • These are loans given for purchase of equipment the productivity of which is distributed over more than one year • Loans given for tractors, pump sets, tube wells, etc.
  23. 23. Continue Marketing loans: • These loans are meant to help the farmers in overcoming the distress sales and to market the produce in a better way. • Regulated markets and commercial banks, based on the warehouse receipt are lending in the form of marketing loans by advancing 75 per cent of the value of the produce
  24. 24. Continue Consumption loans: Any loan advanced for some purpose other than production is broadly categorized as consumption loan. These loans seem to be unproductive but indirectly assist in more productive use of the crop loans i.e. with out diverting then to other purposes. Consumption loans are not very widely advanced and restricted to the areas which are hit by natural calamities.
  25. 25. Based on Security The secured loans are advanced as against the security of some tangible personal property such as land, livestock and other capital assets, etc the borrower are termed as secured loans They are different kinds: Personal Security Collateral Security Mortgage Unsecured Loans
  26. 26. Personal security  Under this, borrower himself stands as the guarantor  Loan is advanced on the farmer’s promissory note  Third party guarantee may or may not be insisted upon (i.e. based on the understanding between the lender and the borrower).
  27. 27. Collateral Security The property is pledged to secure a loan. The movable properties of the individuals like LIC bonds, fixed deposit bonds, warehouse receipts, machinery, livestock etc, are offered as security.
  28. 28. Mortgage:  As against to collateral security, immovable properties are presented for security purpose  For example, land, farm buildings, etc.  The person who is creating the charge of mortgage is called mortgagor (borrower) and the person in whose favor it is created is known as the mortgagee (banker)
  29. 29. Mortgages are of two types 1. Simple mortgage: When the mortgaged property is ancestrally inherited property of borrower then simple mortgage holds good. Here, the farmer borrower has to register his property in the name of the banking institution as a security for the loan he obtains. The registration charges are to be borne by the borrower.
  30. 30. 2. Equitable mortgage When the mortgaged property is self- acquired property of the borrower, then equitable mortgage is applicable. In this no such registration is required, because the ownership rights are clearly specified in the title deeds in the name of farmer-borrower.
  31. 31. Unsecured loans  Just based on the confidence between the borrower and lender, the loan transactions take place  No security is kept against the loan amount
  32. 32. Lender’s Classification Institutional credit:  Loans are advanced by the institutional agencies like cooperative loans, commercial bank loans and government loans. Non-Institutional Credit :  the individual persons will lend the loans. For example, professional and agricultural money lenders, traders and commission agents, relatives and friends etc.
  33. 33. Borrower’s Classification  Based on the business activity : like farmers, dairy farmers, poultry farmers, pisciculture Farmer, rural artisans etc.  Based on size of the farm: agricultural laborers, marginal farmers, small farmers , medium farmers , large farmers  Based on location : hill farmers (or) tribal farmers
  34. 34. Sources of Agricultural Finance Two sources of Agricultural Finance 1.Non-institutional Credit Agencies 2. Institutional Credit Agencies
  35. 35. 1.Non-institutional Credit Agencies Traders and Commission Agents : Traders and commission agents advance loans to agriculturists for productive purposes against their crop without completing legal formalities. It often becomes obligatory for farmers to buy inputs and sell outputs through them. They charge a hefty rate of interest on the loan and a commission on all the sales and purchases, making it exploitative in nature.
  36. 36.  Landlords : Mostly small farmers and tenants depend on landlords for meeting their production and day to day financial requirements. Money lenders Money lenders are of two types, agriculturist money lenders who combine their money lending jobs with farming and professional money lenders whose sole job is money lending. Continue
  37. 37. Reasons of popularity of money lenders they meet demand for productive as well as unproductive requirements they are easily approachable even at odd hours; and they require very low paper work and advances are given against promissory notes or land.
  38. 38. Money lenders charge a huge rate of interest as they take advantage of the urgency of the situation. Over the years a need for regulation of money lending has been felt. But lack of institutional credit access to certain sections and areas have facilitated unhindered operation of money lending.
  39. 39. 2. Institutional Credit Agencies Government: The government sector banks extend both short term as well as long-term loans. They are generally advanced in times of natural calamities. The rate of interest is low and it is not a major source of agricultural finance.
  40. 40.  Cooperative Credit Societies :  These are organized at the village level.  These societies generally advance loans only for productive purposes.  The main objective of a cooperatives is to raise capital for the purpose of giving loans.  And supporting the essential activities such as supply of agricultural inputs at cheap price, improving irrigation on land owned by members, encourage various income-augmenting activities such as horticulture, animal husbandry, poultry etc.
  41. 41. Commercial banks :  Commercial banks are providing finance both directly and indirectly  Direct finance is for agricultural operation for short and medium periods.  Indirect finance refers to advance for distribution of fertilization and other inputs
  42. 42.  Micro financing : Micro-financing through Self Help Groups (SHG) is a group of rural poor who volunteer to organize themselves into a group for eradication of poverty of the members. They agree to save regularly and convert their savings into a common fund known as the Group corpus. As soon as the SHG is formed and a couple of group meetings are held, an SHG can open a Savings Bank account with the nearest Commercial or Regional Rural Bank or a Cooperative Bank.
  43. 43. Weaknesses in Rural Credit Structure  Multiplicity of Institutions  Lack of Motivation  High Interest Rates  Procedural Delays  Poor recoveries
  44. 44. Suggestions for Improving Institutional Rural Credit System  Financial Discipline to Improve Recovery  Revamping the Cooperative Credit Structure  Better Physical, Social and Economic Infrastructure  Financial cum Consultancy Approach  Greater involvement of Micro Finance Organizations  Technological Up Gradation  Information Dissemination to Rural Poor
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Introduction of Agriculture Finance.


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