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GREEN BUILDINGS
Uses less energy, water, natural resources
Generates less waste
Healthier for people living in it

Energy saved= 30-40% per day
Enhanced indoor air quality, light and ventilation
Potable water saving upto 20-30%
High productivity of occupants
Minimum generation of non-degradable waste
Lower operating costs and increase asset value




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Green buildings case study

  1. 1. CASE STUDY: GREEN BUILDINGS Presented by: Aaesha Qamar Afrin Fatima Ashutosh Singh Jalaluddin Naseem
  2. 2. GREEN BUILDINGS  Uses less energy, water, natural resources  Generates less waste  Healthier for people living in it  Energy saved= 30-40% per day  Enhanced indoor air quality, light and ventilation  Potable water saving upto 20-30%  High productivity of occupants  Minimum generation of non-degradable waste  Lower operating costs and increase asset value
  3. 3. A powerful and effective combination of modern science and traditional knowledge. The Energy and resources institute earlier known as Tata Energy Resources Institute Project details Site location : 30 km south of Delhi, in northern Haryana at GUAL PAHARI Site includes : Forestry , Micro propagation technology park (MTP) , Patchy greens, Retreat centre , Golf range , Golf Course Site area : 36 hectares Climate : Composite Building type : Institutional Architects : Sanjay Prakash and Teri Year of start/completion :1997–2000 Cost of the project Civil works : Rs 23.6 million; Electrical works - Rs 2.5 million Cost of various technologies : Rs 18.54 million "Sustainability was the back bone of the entire design concept and it was communicated to the architect that the building should incorporate all possible elements of Passive Solar Architecture and Low Energy Cooling systems" says Mili Majumdar.
  4. 4. GEOMETRY OF THE BLOCK • The north block is made slightly concave towards the front. South forms a hybrid convex surface facing the winter sun. • The point of the south block broadly falls on the surface of large imaginary cones that generated the slightly free geometry & this allow the architecture to break away the grid iron apporach normally associated with solar architecture.
  5. 5. Site and Design The linear geometry of the site with a narrow frontage and an aspect ratio of almost 1:3 dictated the strong linear axis in the design. The logical sequence of positioning the three distinct functioning zones in a hierarchy of public access to restricted entry formed the other key consideration in design development. Placing the commercial block at the front was the most logical choice in exploiting the commercial potential of the frontage of the site. The functional core also coincides with the geometric central part of the linear site. The residential zone comes up from the rear forming the last zone in the linear sequence. That the design responds to orientation and climatic factors, is but an obvious fact. The north line is at a slight angle to the linear axis of the site and the design takes full advantage of this orientation in the composition of the built and open spaces and in creating wind flows through the complex as also lighting and shading of the spaces. Site Plan and Ground Floor Layout (bottom) 1 Commercial Block, 2 Classrooms, 3, 4 Laboratories, 5,6 administrative block, 6 accounts, 7 dining hall, 8 hostel, 9, 10, courts, 11 Open Air Theatre
  6. 6. Elements of Design The Sun, Sky, Air, Water and Earth shape the nature of architecture which emerges on this site. The process of continuous dialogue between the architect and TERI and the engagement of TERI in the design process augmented the thrust on climate responsive design in a large way. Sun
  7. 7. Passive solar design is an important feature in the design of this building. The planning and orientation of spaces and building blocks ensures glare free daylight in all regularly occupied spaces. All the linear blocks are oriented in the East-West direction with shorter facades facing the sun. Most of the south west facing walls are kept blank in order to protect the building from the harsh south west solar radiations. Where the south west walls have openings, they are protected by means of pergolas or projecting balconies. The east, west and south facades of the building have minimum glazing SUN
  8. 8. Air The predominant wind direction is taken into account in designing the open spaces. The central atrium acts as an air funnel defined by the other buildings. The opening oriented in the prevailing wind direction catches the outside air and channelizes it through a narrow stretch of the block before releasing it into the central court area. The architect's experience of design in hot dry areas, particularly in earlier projects in Hyderabad made him confident of the effectiveness of this design feature in cooling the ambient temperatures of the enclosed areas. The central atrium is also proposed to be covered with an automatic adjustable louvers system (Vergola). The angle of the louvers can be adjusted to block the solar radiations during summer and to allow ample sunlight during winter. The system is further proposed to be integrated with photo voltaic panels. The louvers if kept closed can effectively prevent rain water from entering the atrium during the rainy season.
  9. 9. Sky Maximum use of daylight and use of light sensors to regulate the use of artificial lighting in the interiors is another key design strategy. In areas where daylight is available, fixtures have been fitted with continuous dimming electronic ballasts. These fixtures are controlled by light sensors which respond to available light conditions and automatically regulate the connected fixtures to achieve the desired level of uniform illumination required. In areas with non- uniform illumination, occupancy sensors that can turn off the lights when the space is unoccupied have been installed. This kind of a lighting system has a potential of saving 70% lighting energy demand. Use of efficient double glazing window units help significantly reduce the heat gained through window glazing in the summers and the heat lost in the winters without compromising on the day lighting integration and the levels of visual comfort. Daylighting integration using light fixtures fitted with electronic ballasts regulating the level of illumination responding to avilable natural light and adjustable aeroscreen louvres to regulate summer and winter sunlight entry (top and centre) Double glazed facades reduce heat gain without affecting the level of illumination (bottom) Concept Poster on 'Air' by Mindspace (facing page)
  10. 10. Water Vasant Kunj being a water starved area, incorporation of water saving fixtures and rain water harvesting was an important concern in the design brief from the very beginning. Water and waste management systems are important features of the building design. All buildings in the campus have been provided with low flow fixtures such as dual flush toilets, low flow taps and sensor taps that result in 25% savings in water use. The waste water generated from the hostel block is treated through efficient biological processes using a combination of micro organisms and bio-media filter. This treatment system requires less area and low energy. The treated water meets the prescribed standards for landscape irrigation. Rainwater harvesting is also an important concept which contributes to efficient water management. The average annual rainfall of Delhi is 611mm. Rainwater run off from the roof and the site are tapped to recharge the aquifer. This enhances the sustainable yield in areas where over development has depleted the aquifer. The excess surface water is also conserved and stored for future requirements. The quality of existing ground water is also improved through dilution. D E T A I L S O F R E C H A R G E T R E N C H C U M B O R E V V E L L
  11. 11. Earth The campus is equipped with three types of cooling systems (i)Variable Refrigerant Volume system (VRV), (ii) Earth Air Tunnel (EAT) and (iii) Thermal Mass Storage The VRV system is proposed for the peripheral commercial block and the administrative block of the institute. This state-of-the-art air conditioning system, which is similar to a split AC is highly efficient under partial loading conditions and beneficial to areas with varying occupancy. It allows customized control of individual zones eliminating the use of chilled water piping, ducting and plant room. The use of Earth Air Tunnel gives an energy saving of nearly 50% as compared to the conventional system Thermal mass storage used for cooling the classrooms and labs involves storing energy when available and using it when required. Here, cooling of thermal mass is done during night. This cool thermal mass is used to cool air in day time. This system gives an energy saving of up to 40%
  12. 12. BASIC DESIGN VECTORS • To integrate functionality of building with energy applications. • To minimize energy demand in the building through architectural intervention. (eg. Passive concepts such as solar radiation, lattice work for shading, insulation and landscaping). • To meet the space conditioning and lighting demands through energy efficient system. • To meet the electric energy demands using renewable energy sources Solar lights used in gardens Solar street lights
  13. 13. Few of the south facing walls are mounted with aero screen louvers (Hunter Douglas) fixed at an angle of 35deg. This ensures that the winter sun is let in where as the summer sun is blocked. The use of louvers in front of the glazed walls also reduces the heating up of the glass facade considerably. The walls that are exposed to the harsh solar rays have a stone cladding which is fixed to the wall by channels. The air gap between the wall and the stone cladding in itself acts as an insulation layer. On the western façade, rock wool insulation is also provided in the wall. Energy efficiency is further enhanced by Vermiculite insulation in parts of the roof slab.
  14. 14. The Earth Air Tunnel (EAT) is used in the hostel blocks. This is a dual heating-cooling system using the heat sink property of the earth to maintain comfortable temperatures inside the building. Air which passes through the buried pipes gets cooled in summer and heated up in winter. A lot of research went in to the design of this system. Airtron, the Air-conditioning consultants for the project in collaboration with faculty of Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore simulated the system and refined it to perfection. On continuous uninterrupted use in extreme heat conditions as in Delhi, this system faces the problem of the earth around the tunnel getting heat saturated and reducing the effectiveness of cooling. A recovery time is required for the earth to dissipate the heat from the immediate surroundings. After rigorous experiments and simulations a second loop of tubes was created and the two loops used alternately to provide sufficient recovery time to the earth around and maintain the performance effectiveness of the system.
  15. 15. DESIGN FEATURES • Roof insulated with vermiculite concrete and china mosaic white finish. • Insulated walls using expanded polystyrene insulation. Vermiculite concrete China mosaic white finish polystyrene insulation • Shading devices and fenestration have been designed to cut off summer sun & let in winter sun. • Glare free day lights used through specially designed skylights. skylights
  16. 16. • Building designed as such wind direction can be redirected. • Deciduous trees used in the south to shade the building in summers. • in winters these shed their leaves thus letting in winter sun • Building oriented along east west axis so as to have maximum exposure along north-south. • South side partially sunk into ground to reduce heat gains and loses. • East and west devoid of opening are shaded
  17. 17. ENERGY EFFICIENT SYSTEM ( EAT) • Four tunnels of 70m long and 70cm diameter layed at a depth of 4m. • Four fans of 2 hp each force force the air in and solar chimney force the air out of the rooms. • Temp. remains 26 C 4m deep in gurgaon throught year. • Rooms cooled at 28 C when temp. is 40 degree during daytime in summers. • In winters temp. recorded was 22 degree when the ambient temp. was 10 degree Celsius. EARTHAIRTUNNEL(EAT Solarchimney
  18. 18. AMMONIA ABSORPTION CHILLERS • A set of eco-friendly chillers run on LPG and require minimum energy 9kw. • As LPG is non-renewable sources of energy so efforts are made to run the chillers on producer gas generated by wood burning gasifires. • For conference hall of 100 people temperature requires less than 25 degree Celsius which can be attained by these chillers.
  19. 19. ENERGY EFFICIENT LIGHTENING • Uses energy efficient compact fluorescent lamps in the residential quarters, corridors, lobby & toilets. • The conference rooms enjoy glare free daylight through skylights. • Time based controls switch off lights at present time. skylights
  20. 20. ROOT ZONE SYSTEM PHRAGMITES PLANT WATER COLLECTING SYSTEM • Waste water is recycled by ‘root zone’ technique in which the roots of phragmites plants with special capabilities of collecting the waste at the roots are used to clean the water which is used for irrigation. It cleans 5metre cube of water every day. • Water harvesting and watershed management are proposed in entire area.
  21. 21. • SOLAR HOT WATER PANELS RENEWABLE ENERGY SYSTEM • 24 hot water panel forms a part of parapet walls inclined at 70 degree instead of 45 degree. • Fulfills the daily requirement of 2000 litres daily at 65 degree celsius. • In winters gas derived from burning twigs, dry leaves etc. serves as a back up source to heat the water.
  22. 22. BIOMASS GASIFIER SYSTEM The biomass gasifier is the main source of power during the day Apart from fuelwood, the gasifier can also use straw, small twigs and branches, and other crop residue. To make such fuel easy to handle, it is chopped into small pieces which are pressed together to form compact cakes or briquettes. The 50-kilowatt gasifier runs a generator, whose diesel requirements have been cut down to 30% after appropriate modifications; the rest of the fuel comes from the gasifier in the form of producer gas. One unit of electricity produced needs 1 kg biomass and 90 ml of diesel.
  23. 23. Solar water heater taps the suns energy directly, a series of photovoltaic panels capture the energy and store it by charging a bank of batteries. A number of panels, each measuring 1.1 by 1.2 metres, are joined and form an integral part of the roof of the building. The panels can generate up to 10.7 kilowatts peak of energy, which is fed into a 900 ampere-hour/240 volt battery bank. Independent panels power most of the lights located outside the building. Each such light has a pair of small photovoltaic panels (roughly a metre wide and half a metre tall) and is thus a self- sufficient stand-alone unit. The sun is the powering force of RETREAT, where solar panels are used to form a 'solar roof' Photovoltaic panels Photovoltaic panels also run a water pump
  24. 24. THE ENERGY RESEARCH INSTITUTE BANGALORE PRESENTED BY: AFRIN FATIMA
  25. 25.  LOCATION : 12.97O N 77.56 E  ALTITUDE : 920 M  GREEN COVER : 40%  CLIMATE : Moderate  TEMPERATURE : MEAN MAX MEAN MIN SUMMER 35 C 20 C WINTER 28 C 14 C
  26. 26. INTRODUCTION TO TERI:  Established in 1974.  Designed by: Ar. Sanjay Mohe  Total no of floors: G+2  Total builtup area: 26663 sq.ft  Project is designed to house an office block with workstations and a small guest house attatched to it.  Concerned with effective utiization of energy, sustainable uses of natural resources, large scale adoptation of renewable energy technology.  The design displays an interplay of five basic natural elements (sun, air, earth, water, sky) with the built form to meet the requirements of thermal, visual, and aural comfort.
  27. 27. LOCATION:  The site is located at domlur, about 3km from bangalore airport.  It is a long and narrow site with roads on eastern and northern sides, the former being the major road.  The western side is an open ground and on the southern side is an open drain about 9m wide. Schematic layout showing the surrounding roads and the drain.
  28. 28. 1. Natural wind flowing through south (high pressure zone). 2. Heat from solar rays falling on the south west wall. 3. Convectional currents moving upwards due to heating of air in cavity wall (low pressure zone). 4. Cool wind drawn in by convectional current system to equalize pressure. Double cavity wall clad with KADAPA stone ORIENTATION:  The primary winds blow from south to north.  The building was oriented along the east-west axis so as to have maximum exposure along north and south.  The building opens towards the northern side, taking advantage of glare- free light.  South wall is a double wall to provide insulation from southern sun. Site Plan showing longer sides facing North-South
  29. 29. PASSIVE STRATEGIES
  30. 30.  By creating atrium spaces with skylights, the section of the building is such that natural light enters into the building, considerably reducing the dependence on artificial lighting.  Intelligent systems like energy efficient lamps, luminaries, and control devices further reduce the lighting load.  Abundant natural light inside due to intelligently designed fenestrations.  Openings have been designed such that requirement of artificial lighting is minimal throughout the day when the building is under maximum usage. Heating Electricity generation Daylighting Greenhouse effect Solar chimneys BASIC ENERGY SORCES IN THE ECO-FRIENDLY BUILDING COMPLEX Day lighting Heat sink Roof ponds Fountains for Humidification Rainwater harvesting Roof gardens Earth berms for insulation Ventilation Heat sink SKY EARTHAIRSUN WATER Numerous skylights minimize the lighting load Liberal fenestration enhances daylighting
  31. 31. Photo voltaic cells are used to capture the suns energy thus generating electrical energy for the various stations. These photovoltaic cells have been arranged in line with the primary orbit of the sun the panel are integrated with dynamic truss to optimize the generation of energy. The suns energy is further used in the form of solar heaters which is used to generate all the hot water in the guest house. Heating Electricity generation Daylighting Greenhouse effect Solar chimneys BASIC ENERGY SORCES IN THE ECO-FRIENDLY BUILDING COMPLEX Day lighting Heat sink Roof ponds Fountains for Humidification Rainwater harvesting Roof gardens Earth berms for insulation Ventilation Heat sink SKY EARTHAIRSUN WATER
  32. 32.  Ventilation is enhanced by the use of solar chimneys and vents.  Allows breeze to flow over building.  Creates negative pressure setting up convectional currents. Unhygenic foul breeze flowing from south  Generates reverse wind circulation.  Starts pulling fresh air flow at body level to provide thermal comfort.  Hot air rises towards the top on southern façade Cool breeze down in by convectional current system to equalise pressure Heating Electricity generation Daylighting Greenhouse effect Solar chimneys BASIC ENERGY SORCES IN THE ECO-FRIENDLY BUILDING COMPLEX Day lighting Heat sink Roof ponds Fountains for Humidification Rainwater harvesting Roof gardens Earth berms for insulation Ventilation Heat sink SKY EARTHAIRSUN WATER The primary winds blow from the south to north over the nallah, hence the building needs to react to this if,the foul unhygienic air has to be prevented from entering the building . The blank wall carries a system of cudappa. The colour black was deliberately chosen because of its heat absorptive power.
  33. 33. DETAILS OF THE SOLAR CHIMNEY IN THE BUILDING WORKING  The sun’s rays heat the black south wall increasing the temperature of the immediate environment around.  This causes the air in the cavity to rise upwards naturally.  These convectional currents are blown away by the winds blowing south to north.  This creates a vacuum at the at the top core structure.  To fill this vacuum, air from inside is drawn up.  This system of hot air rising and drawing in of cool fresh air is a continuous process.
  34. 34. As thermal capacity of earth is high, and annual temperature fluctuations keep decreasing with increasing depth of earth. At depth of 4m below ground, temperature remains constant and equal to annual average temperature Earth berm is created to retain the heat. The building has been designed with landscaped at various levels. These courts help to enliven the working environment as well as enhance the micro climate within the structure. The various levels of terraces also have been landscaped which reduces the heat exchanges and heat flow between the structure and the outside environment hence act as good inslation device. Heating Electricity generation Daylighting Greenhouse effect Solar chimneys BASIC ENERGY SORCES IN THE ECO-FRIENDLY BUILDING COMPLEX Day lighting Heat sink Roof ponds Fountains for Humidification Rainwater harvesting Roof gardens Earth berms for insulation Ventilation Heat sink SKY EARTHAIRSUN WATER
  35. 35.  The central court houses an amphitheater that acts as an informal gathering.  But more importantly it holds within it the rainwater harvesting sump for the whole complex.  An efficient rainwater harvesting system preserves water to the maximum possible extent.  Water run-off from the roof and from the paved area is collected and stored in the collection sump below the amphitheatre.  This collected water is used for landscaping & in toilet. Heating Electricity generation Daylighting Greenhouse effect Solar chimneys BASIC ENERGY SORCES IN THE ECO-FRIENDLY BUILDING COMPLEX Day lighting Heat sink Roof ponds Fountains for Humidification Rainwater harvesting Roof gardens Earth berms for insulation Ventilation Heat sink SKY EARTHAIRSUN WATER
  36. 36. INDOOR ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENHANCEMENT  Indoor Environmental quality is very well achieved with the help of non Voc Paints and local flooring material with less embodied energy.  Indoor air quality is very well maintained with effective technique and Use of cavity wall in south.  Plants are used in the interior common connecting spaces for refreshment and air Circulation .  Proper maintenance is taken care of in the interior to make an HYGNIC living  North lighting is provided for glare less lighting system and its made to be used in the workspace areas.  Solar Chimney plays an major role in maintain constant air flow in the interior
  37. 37.  The thermal comfort levels are mainted by the use of filler slabs which provides insulation between the inside and the outside of the building.  Filler slabs are designed with alternate panel of concrete and hollow blocks.  The holow blocks help in reducing the transimission of heat from outside to inside of the building.  Use of double glazed windows with coating.  Use of cavity wall construction with kadappa stone which is a heat retentive material. Locally available kadappa stone used to clad the southern wall Trombe wall helps in insulating the hostels Abundant natural light is available in the work spaces Use of double glazed windows with coating
  38. 38. CONCLUSION BUILDING CONVEYS SKILLFUL INTERPLAY OF NATURAL ELEMENTS WITH THE BUILDING FORM TO REDUCE ENERGY DEMAND
  39. 39. CII – SOHRABJI GODREJ GREEN BUSINESS CENTRE PRESENTED BY: AAESHA QAMAR
  40. 40. PRESENTED BY: AAESHA QAMAR CII – SOHRABJI GODREJ GREEN BUSINESS CENTRE  INTRODUCTION :  The Confederation of Indian industry(CII)– Sohrabi Godrej green buisness centre in Hyderabad is the first LEED Platinum rated building in India,  It’s an Office building which consists of Offices, Research labs and Conference rooms.  GENERAL DESCRIPTIONS :  Location : Hyderabad ,  Site area : 4.5 acres ,  Built up area : 1,858 sq. M ,  Type : Office building ,  Architect : Karan Grover ,  Landscape Architect : Md. Shaheer ,  Ratings : Awarded the LEED Platinum rating by the U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC) in November 2003.  THERE ARE TOTAL 5 FACTORS WHICH AFFECT THE SUSTAINABILTY OF GREEN BUILDING :
  41. 41. PRESENTED BY: AAESHA QAMAR  SUSTAINABLE SITE  INTRODUCTION :  Easily accessble from Main Road, Surrounded by medium sized commercial buildings,  It has natural vegetations & water bodies,  Less prone to pollution,  Sloped in North-West direction.  ENERGY EFFICIENCY  ORIENTATION :  South – East direction  The climate of Hyderabad remains fairly warm most of the year,  Receive less rainfall in the monsoon.  ELECTRICITY :  Use of Solar photovoltaic cells on the rooftop grid provides about 24KW or 16 % of the building's electricity needs.  Placed appropriately on the roof facing South and West to capture maximum heat gain
  42. 42. PRESENTED BY: AAESHA QAMAR  LIGHTING : GLAZING  North facades are fully glazed for efficient natural lights,  Low heat transmitting glass used,  Double glass to further reduce heat gain JAALI WALLS  Jaali walls which are good source of light has been used in the passage of washroom,  Shading from trees are provided adjacent to wall as sunlight directly enter the wall,  Open courtyard provide natural light.  LANDSCAPE : GROUND HUGGING  Building(G+1) is kept ground hugging gives a sense of being close to nature. GREEN ROOF  Roof Gardens cover 55 % of the exposed roof area of the building – high reduction of heat gain
  43. 43. PRESENTED BY: AAESHA QAMAR
  44. 44. PRESENTED BY: AAESHA QAMAR  WATER EFFICIENCY  Rain Water Harvest :  Some rainwater goes into the soil by the use of grid pavers used on roads for easy drainage of water,  The remaining rainwater follows existing flow patterns and is collected in the water pond.  WASTE WATER TREATMENT :  All wastewater generated - recycled by "root zone treatment“,  The treated water is used for landscaping.  INDOOR ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY  WIND TOWERS  Fresh air is also drawn into the building through Wind towers.  LOW VOC  The use of low volatile organic compound (VOC) paints and coatings to enhance the Indoor air quality.  COURTYARD  The courtyard provides the ventilations inside the building.  JAALI WALLS  The Jaali walls provides the ventilations inside the building.
  45. 45. PRESENTED BY: AAESHA QAMAR  MATERIALS & RESOURCES  FLY ASH BRICKS  65% walls are constructed with Fly ash bricks.  Features :  Costs 20% less than traditional clay brick manufacturing,  Lighter than clay bricks,  High strength, practically no breakage during transport,  High recycled content.  BAGASSE BOARD  A byproduct of sugarcane industry,  Low cost, durable,  It has wide usage for making partitions, furniture etc.  INDUSTRIAL WASTE  Broken glass, broken tiles, broken stones, recycled paper, recycled aluminum.  A waste management plan ensured that 95 % of construction waste was recycled. The lawn trays are entirely made of recycled plastic waste The floor tiles is used from broken tiles, clay, paper. Recycled Iron is used in the corridor.
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GREEN BUILDINGS Uses less energy, water, natural resources Generates less waste Healthier for people living in it Energy saved= 30-40% per day Enhanced indoor air quality, light and ventilation Potable water saving upto 20-30% High productivity of occupants Minimum generation of non-degradable waste Lower operating costs and increase asset value

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