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Content Standard Performance Standard 
30 
The learner demonstrates understanding 
of concepts and underlying principles i...
At this point, you are 
heading into meaningful 
activities and learning 
encounters. Complete the 
exercises and answer t...
a. corner lot b. inside lot c. open lot d. through lot 
_____ 9. Is a lot surrounded on each side by other lots. 
a. corne...
Learning Goals and Targets: 
After reading the introduction and carefully answering the pre assessment 
skills test, you m...
After raising your awareness about the learning goals and targets that you are 
supposed to achieve, are you now ready to ...
I know how to interpret blueprint according to 
architectural layout drawing/job requirements 
following SOP and work inst...
Roof Framing Plan- a structural framing plan of the roof plan with complete 
specification. 
Section- is the view showing ...
5. Protractor - it is used in setting a line degree angle. 
6. Triangular Scale - a tool used to enlarged or reduced measu...
The importance, uses and maintenance procedure of these tools, materials 
and equipment has been discussed in the previous...
39 
excess construction lines and 
smudges in a drawing 
Used when drawing vertical and 
oblique lines 
Note: Please refer...
40 
Perspective 
A graphic representation of the view as seen by the eyes or it shows the 
appearance of the finished buil...
landscape, and other pertinent data in relation to the site. A site development plan is 
drawn using a scale not smaller t...
Sheet # 1 – Perspective View, Site Development Plan and Location Plan: 
42 
Title Block in House Plan. 
The title block in...
block following architectural drafting standards. Use the given scoring rubrics below 
for your assessment. 
Product Scori...
44 
Floor Plan 
The top view of the floor area of a house. The cutting plane line for this top 
view passes between the up...
construction.The view showing the inside part of the building or a house either in 
cross section or longitudinal section....
46
47 
Roof Plan 
Showing the outline of the roof and the major object lines indicating ridges, 
valleys, hips, and openings....
48 
C-Purlins 
Ceiling Plan 
Ceiling plan is an outline of the ceiling that shows the overhead interior surface 
of a room...
Sample Reflected Ceiling 
49 
Baluster Detail 
The detail of the vertical railing along a staircase or balcony railing. Ra...
E. Sheet # 4 - Doors and Windows Schedule, Detail of kitchen, and Detail of 
50
51 
Toilet and Bath 
Doors and Window Schedule 
A complete specification of doors and windows in terms of width, height, 
...
52 
Toilet and Bath Detail 
A drawing of toilet and bath floor plan that shows complete features. 
Sheet # 4 - Doors and W...
53
Here are the list of architectural term and their abbreviations commonly used in 
technical drafting preparations. You are...
55 
Architectural Symbols 
Knowing the architectural symbols is a prerequisite for all students in 
architecture and draft...
b. Symbols of doors and windows that are used to represent its existence on floor 
plans and elevation drawings. 
56
c. Door, window and staircase symbols that are shown in the elevation plans. 
57
D. Sheets # 5& 6 – Contains Foundation Plan, Roof Framing Plan, Truss Detail, and 
Column/Footing/Beam Schedules 
58 
Stru...
Truss Detail - A complete structural detail of a common or typical truss of a building 
either wooden or steel. 
Column/Fo...
Column, Footings and Beams 
60 
Footings 
A part of foundation directly supporting the column or post of a house. A detail...
Sheet # 5 - Foundation plan, Detail of Footings, Truss Detail, and Column/Footing/ 
61 
Beam Schedules 
Sheet # 6 - Roof F...
Plumbing Plan/Layout 
62 
Plumbing Plan 
The complete drawing detail of water and sewerage distribution. 
Water System Pla...
63 
Septic Tank 
It is the depository of human excreta and a drainage reservoir for all washing 
done in the kitchen and b...
E. Sheets # 7/8 -Water and Sewage System Plan 
64 
Electrical Plan 
A plan consists of lighting plan, power layout and spe...
Sheet # 9 –Contains the following working plans: Lighting layout, Power and 
Auxiliary layout, Location plan, Panel board ...
66 
Other Electrical Symbols 
Symbol Description Symbol Description 
Conductor/Wire 
Ammeter 
Terminal 
Voltmeter 
Switch ...
Note: You are going to evaluate your answers according to the following criteria: 
a. Identification of electrical symbols...
______2. A drawing of the lot showing the setback and development of the house in 
relation to the lot. 
______3. The top ...
5. Double Door 
10.Arched Opening 
4.DGive at least 2 specification found in the roof plan, 4 features in sections, and 2 ...
Skills in Preparing and Setting-up Tools and 
70 
Materials for Drawing 
Not Much A little A lot 
I know how to observe Oc...
5. Technical Pens/G-Tech pen/Pilot pen – (From point: 0.0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.5, 
71 
0.6, 0.8, 1.0) 
6. Mechanical pencil –...
72 
Suggested Activity 1 
Direction.Identify the drawing tools, materials and equipment needed in performing 
the differen...
1. Select the tools, materials and equipment which are needed in performing the 
73 
assigned task. 
2. Properly set up th...
1.4 Use tools and equipment properly. 
2. Observe punctuality in attendance. 
3. Avoid quarreling with your co-students. 
...
C. Cite the steps in setting-up drafting tools, materials and equipment observing 
occupational health and safety procedur...
4. Trace all the labels in title block and index using technical pen point 0.3 – 0.6. 
5. Trace first all vertical lines u...
Congratulations! You have done a great job!! 
After gaining knowledge from previous activities, you are about to learn new...
Master plan- is the designer’s house or building design based on the needs and 
wants of his clients. 
Corner lot- is a lo...
Site Development Plan is the outline and measurements of the proposed 
building and its placement on the property. This sh...
 DISTRIBUTION. Refers to the placement, location and arrangement of each 
room unit in relation with each other as to fun...
and ventilation is very costly to those who cannot afford, others prefer it for 
maximum comfort regardless of costs. 
Rul...
82 
Setback- refers to the distance 
at how far a building can be 
built within the property lines. 
Zoning - refers to th...
One of the first thing an architect must do before designing a building is to 
read the building codes. The intended use o...
84 
Suggested Activity 1 
Below are sample shapes for your guide in drawing. Provide yourself with ½ 
sheets of manila pap...
85 
easy access. 
3. Your output will be evaluated according to the following criteria. If it is group 
activity, each gro...
______7. The distance at how far a building can be built within the property lines. 
______8. Space requirement of walls w...
87 
Limits of Lot Occupancy: 
1. Domestic building on inside lot - 70% 
2. Domestic building on corner lot- 90% 
3. Non-Do...
88 
Procedures in lot plotting: 
1. NORTH is always to be pointed vertical up with respect to the paper. 
2. Bearing is re...
7. Scale is indicated under the NORTH symbol for non-documentary work and 
proper position for documentary Plotting Paper....
90 
Suggested Activity 4 
Direction:Draw the following bearing magnitude with corresponding distance using 
ruler and prot...
1. Draw the lot area using the given dimensions. 
91 
1.1 Given: 12.25 m. x 16.75 m. 
1.2 Bearing magnitude: 
a. Point 1, ...
92 
2. Work Values: 
a. work attitude/behavior 
b. safe work habits 
c. housekeeping and maintenance 
d. time management 
...
b. safe work habits 
c. housekeeping and maintenance 
d. time management 
Congratulations! You have done a great job! 
Wel...
Technical Terms Encountered In Drafting Floor Plans 
Bathroom- is where the toilet and tub or shower are separated for eas...
4. Darken the object lines with an F pencil. 
5. Add door and window symbols with 2H pencil. 
6. Add symbols for stairwell...
96
97 
Area Planning 
In developing any architectural design, the designer should progress logically 
follow step by step the...
Sleeping Area. The primary function of the sleeping areais to provide facilities for 
sleeping and taking rest of the fami...
Sample Bedroom 
Service Area. The service area includes the kitchen, laundry, garage workshops 
storage room and utility r...
Sample Kitchen 
100 
The Work Triangle 
From the work sequences described above, it will be observe that there are 
three ...
101 
B. L-Shaped Type:
102 
C. Corridor Type:
Dining Area. This is the area where greatly depend on eating habits of the 
occupants. This should be located between the ...
104 
Sample Dining Area 
Bathroom. Bathroom is where the toilet and tub or shower is located to save 
economically in plum...
Entrances. Entrance is divided into several different types; the main 
entrance,theserviceentrance, and the special- purpo...
should also provides access to parts of the service area like the garage, laundry or 
workshop. 
The special-purpose entra...
107 
Suggested Activity 1 
A. Directions:Read each item carefully. Choose the letter of the answer and write 
it on a sepa...
2. Can toilet and bath be considered as sleeping area? 
Use of Appropriate Scale in Drawing a Floor Plan 
108 
Drafting Sc...
109 
Architectural Use of Metric System 
Always remember that the smallest the number used in metric scale, the bigger 
th...
110 
Suggested Activity 2 
A. Direction: Choose the letter of the best answer and write it on a separate sheet 
of paper. ...
Architectural Drafting Design Standards 
111 
Legal provisions: 
• Section 806 of the National Building Code (NBC). Size a...
3. Since most of the time is spent by the members of a family in the 
bedrooms at home, these rooms must be located far fr...
• Plastering of CHB wall should not be less than 0.015 mm. or not more than 
113 
to 0.05 cm in thickness. 
Note: 
In lay ...
5. It is a minimum area of kitchen. 
a. 4.00 sq.m. b. 3.00 sq.m. c. 5.00 sq.m. d. 7.00 sq.m. 
B.Direction: Draw the symbol...
115 
Suggested Activity 4 
Directions: Draw a floorplan by following the steps and the given requirements and 
specificati...
- housekeeping and maintenance 
- time management 
How did you find doing the activity? It is challenging? At this point, ...
117 
Time Management Finish the task 
ahead of the given 
time/date 
Finish the task on 
the given time/date 
Unable to fi...
Skills in Drafting Roof Plans 
Not Much 
A little 
A lot 
I can indicate the dimensions of the roof plan based on 
the flo...
Hip rafter- is the diagonal rafter that extends from the plate to the ridge to form the 
hip. 
Hip roof- is a roof with fo...
Hip Roof Gable Roof Shed Roof 
Saltbox Roof Gambrel Roof Gullwing Roof 
Half-Hip Roof Mansard Roof Dormer Roof 
120 
Roof ...
1. Gable Roof - has a pitch on two sides but no pitch on the gable ends. This type 
of roof is used extensively on Philipp...
4. Shed-Type Roofs- are higher at one end than the other. They may be used 
effectively when two levels exist where additi...
These five roofing system are commonly used in the construction sector. 
However, there are other types of roofs that are ...
d. Eaves line or gutter line is shown in the form of imaginary line to indicate 
124 
the gutter line. 
Different Types of...
SAMPLE ROOFING MATERIALS AND ITS SIZE 
Types of Roofing Sheets 
125
Sample of Roofing Materials Showing Width and Length 
126 
Roof Framing Plans 
The following are the types of roof frame a...
 Valley Rafter – placed diagonally from the plate or girts at the intersection of 
gable extension with the main roof. 
...
 Is a design of a series of triangles used to distribute load, stiffen the structure 
and flexibility for the interior sp...
6. If hip roof types will be used, project a 45 degree angle in all corners of eave 
Linesintersecting the center line to ...
a. Pitch b. Slope c. Valley d. Truss 
_____5. A roof with four sloping sides. 
a. Shed b. Hip c. Gable d. Mansard 
_____6....
Don’t feel bad if you checked “Not Much” in all of the skills. Keep in mind that this is 
being administered to determine ...
Module 3   module 1 architecural layout & details
Module 3   module 1 architecural layout & details
Module 3   module 1 architecural layout & details
Module 3   module 1 architecural layout & details
Module 3   module 1 architecural layout & details
Module 3   module 1 architecural layout & details
Module 3   module 1 architecural layout & details
Module 3   module 1 architecural layout & details
Module 3   module 1 architecural layout & details
Module 3   module 1 architecural layout & details
Module 3   module 1 architecural layout & details
Module 3   module 1 architecural layout & details
Module 3   module 1 architecural layout & details
Module 3   module 1 architecural layout & details
Module 3   module 1 architecural layout & details
Module 3   module 1 architecural layout & details
Module 3   module 1 architecural layout & details
Module 3   module 1 architecural layout & details
Module 3   module 1 architecural layout & details
Module 3   module 1 architecural layout & details
Module 3   module 1 architecural layout & details
Module 3   module 1 architecural layout & details
Module 3   module 1 architecural layout & details
Module 3   module 1 architecural layout & details
Module 3   module 1 architecural layout & details
Module 3   module 1 architecural layout & details
Module 3   module 1 architecural layout & details
Module 3   module 1 architecural layout & details
Module 3   module 1 architecural layout & details
Module 3   module 1 architecural layout & details
Module 3   module 1 architecural layout & details
Module 3   module 1 architecural layout & details
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Grade 9 TLE-ICT Technical Drafting Architectural Layout and Details

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Module 3 module 1 architecural layout & details

  1. 1. Content Standard Performance Standard 30 The learner demonstrates understanding of concepts and underlying principles in the preparation of architectural layout and details. The learner independently prepares architectural layout and details based on established industry and/or job requirements. Quarter I Time Allotment: 32 hrs. Quarter II Time Allotment: 40 hrs. Module 3 DRAFTING ARCHITECTURAL LAYOUT AND DETAILS Introduction Technology and Livelihood Education (TLE) of the K to 12 Basic Education Program (BEP) is composed of four components namely: Agri-Fishery Arts, Home Economics, Industrial Arts and Information and Communications Technology (ICT). In this module, the focus is on ICT - Architectural Layout and Details. This course introduces the different learning activities that will prepare you to be skillful before you take the plunge into the world of work as draftsman and to feel more confident while providing support where needed. This module is specifically crafted to focus on Process and Delivery enriched with hands-on activities that will assess your level in terms of skills and knowledge. Learning procedures are divided into different sections such as: What to Know, What to Process, What to Reflect and Understand and What to Transfer So, explore and experience the lessons in Architectural Layout and Details and be a step closer to being a draftsman. Objectives: At the end of this module, you are expected to:  plan and prepare for work  prepare and set up tools and materials for drawing  draft site development plan  draft floor plans  draft roof plans  draft ceiling plans  draft elevations and sections  perform presentation drawings
  2. 2. At this point, you are heading into meaningful activities and learning encounters. Complete the exercises and answer the suggested worksheets to experience lifelong, practical learning that awaits at the end of this module. ENJOY YOUR JOURNEY! 31 ***** Pre- assessment: You will be challenged to dig deeper into your prior knowledge and previous experiences about Technical Drafting. This phase will guide you in assessing yourself by answering the questions below before you further explore the basics of architectural layout and details. Direction: Choose the letter of the correct answer. Write your answer in the space provided before each number. _____ 1.A drawing tool used to draw horizontal lines and serves as guide for triangles. a. protractor b. ruler c. trianglesd. T-square _____ 2. An instrument used for drawing vertical and oblique lines. a. protractor b. ruler c. tape rule d. triangles _____ 3. The best instrument used for dividing lines or distance into equal parts. a. compass b. divider c. protractor d. ruler _____ 4. A flat piece of plastic with standard symbols and used as guide for drawing images on plans. a. French curve b. templates c. triangles d. T-square _____ 5. It is used in setting a line degree angle. a. compass b. divider c. protractor d. ruler _____ 6. An area of land for construction or the lot on which a building is constructed. a. corner lot b. open lot c. site d. through lot _____ 7. Is a lot bounded on all sides by streets or pathways. a. corner lot b. inside lot c. open lot d. through lot _____ 8. Is a lot with at least two adjacent sides meeting on a corner of two sides.
  3. 3. a. corner lot b. inside lot c. open lot d. through lot _____ 9. Is a lot surrounded on each side by other lots. a. corner lot b. inside lot c. open lot d. through lot _____10. Refers to the restrictions on size, location, and type of structures to be built on a designated area. a. building code b. set back c. site d. zoning _____11. The top view of the site or lot where the proposed house will be built. a. floor plan b. foundation plan c. location plan d. roof plan _____12. Shows the design of the house, height dimension, material finish and complete information and specification. a. elevation b. perspective c. roof d. section _____13. Shows the outline of the roof and the major object lines indicating ridges, valleys, hips, and openings. a. ceiling plan b. floor plan c. foundation plan d. roof plan _____14. The structural excavation plan of footings and walls of the building. a. ceiling plan b. floor plan c. foundation plan d. roof plan _____15. A part of foundation directly supporting the column or post of a house. a. beams b. footings c. lintels d. roofs _____16. This room is generally located between the bedrooms. a. bathroom b. dining area c. kitchen d. foyer _____17. Is the center of the living area in most home. a. bed room b. dining room c. kitchen room d. living room _____18. They are overhang roof lines in the form of hidden lines in a floor plan. a. canopy b. dormer c. eave line d. shed line _____19. The drawing of flow of water in the house from the main source. a. plumbingplan c. water system plan b. sewage system plan d. water and sewage system plan _____20. A plan that shows the flow of house lightings. a. auxiliary layout c. electrical plan b. lighting layout d. power layout 32
  4. 4. Learning Goals and Targets: After reading the introduction and carefully answering the pre assessment skills test, you might have ideas of what to expect in this module. Now prepare to set your goals and targets for this module by completing the activity below.Write your answer in your notebook. 33 My goals are: My targets are: Goal 4 Goal 3 Goal 2 Goal 1 Target 1 Target 2 Target 3
  5. 5. After raising your awareness about the learning goals and targets that you are supposed to achieve, are you now ready to move on with this module? This will include topics on the preparation of architectural job requirements, preparing and setting-up tools and materials, drafting different plans such as: site development plan, floor plan, roof plan, ceiling plan, drafting elevations and sections and performing presentation drawings. Well, have some fun in reading prepared lessons, the activities and enrichment activities for your reflection and better understanding of the lesson. Challenge yourself by performing related activities to determine if you have attained the required knowledge and skills in a particular learning outcome. Enjoy reading… Lesson 1.Prepare Architectural Job Requirements This lesson is designed in order that the student may be able to prepare and familiarize with the different things needed in preparing the requirements of a simple residential house plan. 34 Skills Assessment Direction: Listed below are some of the most important skills that you must gain in order to draft a quality floor plan. On the right side of the matrix lists the skills expected of you to master. Rate yourself by checking “Not much”, if you are not so familiar yet, “A little” and/or “A lot”, if you are already familiar with the skills. Don’t feel bad if you checked “Not Much” in all of the skills. Keep in mind that this is being administered to determine your pre-entry knowledge of and skills on the lesson to be presented. Skills in Architectural Job Requirements Not Much A little A lot I can prepare tools, materials and equipment in technical drawing. I can select drawing tools, materials and equipment in accordance with the SOP. I know how to assess architectural job requirements based on SOP.
  6. 6. I know how to interpret blueprint according to architectural layout drawing/job requirements following SOP and work instructions. Technical Terms Encountered in Preparing Architectural Job Requirements Baluster Detail- is the detail of the vertical railing along a staircase or balcony railing. Column/Footing/Beam Schedule- a complete specification of column, footings, and beam in terms of sizes, materials and quantity. Construction Notes- a sub-complete detail of wall footings, lintels, beams, and other required structural features to present in the plan. Electrical Plan- a plan consists of lighting plan, power layout and specification details of the house. Foundation Plan- a structural excavation plan of footings and walls of a building. Floor Plan- is the top view of the floor area of a house. Footings- a part of foundation directly supporting the column or post of a house. General Notes- a complete specification and legend of structural features presented in the plan. Lighting layout - an electrical plan that shows the flow of house lightings. Location Plan- is the top view of the site or lot where the proposed house will built. Perspective- is a drawing angle from which an object or structure is viewed. Power & Auxiliary layout- an electrical plan that shows the location of the convenienceoutlet and other auxiliary outlet in the floor plan. Reflected Ceiling Plan- is the complete plan design of house ceiling. Roof Plan- is one showing the outline of the roof and the major object. 35
  7. 7. Roof Framing Plan- a structural framing plan of the roof plan with complete specification. Section- is the view showing the inside part of the building either in cross-section 36 or longitudinal section. Site Development Plan or Lot Plan- refers to the position and the location of the building with property line, setbacks, approaches, grade contours, landscape and other pertinent data in relation to the site. Septic Tank- it is the depository of human excreta and a drainage reservoir for all washing done in the kitchen and bathroom. Storm Drainage System- shows the flow of water waste from the lavatory, floor drain, and downspout from the roof to storm drainage. Truss Detail- a complete structural detail of a common or typical truss of a building. Architectural Drafting Tools, Materials and Equipment, Their Uses and Care Most architectural drafting works generally consist of freehand and mechanical drawings. In this module, you will learn how to prepare all drafting tools, materials, and equipment needed for the job. It is presumed that all students like you are already aware of the tools and materials needed in drafting works considering your learning in the previous year level. However, it is still necessary that you will review the past lesson to help you prepare for higher drafting activity. Architectural drafting tools, materials and equipment A. Tools: 1. T-square - used to draw horizontal lines and serves as guides for triangles. 2. Triangle - an instrument used for drawing vertical and oblique lines. 3. Drawing Pencil - one of the most important tool of a draftsman in drawing. 4. Erasing shield - a thin sheet of metal used when erasing pencil and inked lines to protect other drawing lines.
  8. 8. 5. Protractor - it is used in setting a line degree angle. 6. Triangular Scale - a tool used to enlarged or reduced measurement and distances to a regular proportion in the drawing paper. 7. French curve - a flat drafting instrument with curved edges and several scroll shaped cutouts, used as a guide in drawing irregular curves when constructing graphs or making technical drawings. 8. Penknife or Pencil Sharpener – shapes long pencil lead into a conical shape points. 9. Compass - used to draw arcs and circles. 10. Dusting brush – a tool used for dusting and cleaning drawings with dust and crumbs. 11. Technical Pen - a pen used for inking lines in drawing. It comes in different points/sizes. 12. Templates - a flat piece of plastic with standard symbols and used as guide for drawing architectural images on plans. 13. Ruler - it is the most popular type of tool for measuring sizes and short distances. 14. Divider - an instrument used when transferring measurements, dividing lines, arcs into the desired number of equal parts. 37 B. Materials: 1. Tracing paper - thin transparent paper used for reproduction in blueprint. 2. Masking tape - used to hold and fasten drawing paper on the drawing board. 3. Eraser - used to remove smears of pencil and ink lines 4. Sandpaper Block - serves as substitute instrument in sharpening a pencil into desired points. C. Equipment: 1. Drawing board/table – a board made of soft wood but with cleats of hard wood where the drawing paper is fastened with a draftsman’s tape. 2. Drawing stool - a basic tool in drafting use is to give some height for the drafting table on the user when drawing. 3. Drafting machine - a high technology machine for drawing purposes. How did you find the given information? Which among the architectural drafting tools, materials, and equipment matters to you most? Well, you are just starting, move forward to enrich your understanding. Enjoy this simple activity. Have fun!
  9. 9. The importance, uses and maintenance procedure of these tools, materials and equipment has been discussed in the previous module (Exploratory Phase). It is presumed therefore, that you are now ready for a series of drafting activities. 38 Suggested Activity 1 Directions:Below are sample pictures of different drafting tools, materials and equipmentrequired in the preparation of architectural layout and details. Name the tool, materials or equipment based on the specific tasks by writing it on the space provided for. Tasks/Uses Drafting Tool Equipment Used when drawing horizontal lines and support triangles when drawing vertical lines Used to enlarged or reduced measurement and distances to a regular proportion in the drawing paper A flat piece of plastic with standard symbols used as guide for drawing architectural images on plans Used in drawing arcs and circles Used when removing/cleaning
  10. 10. 39 excess construction lines and smudges in a drawing Used when drawing vertical and oblique lines Note: Please refer your answer on the answer key. How did you find the given activities? Did you enjoy doing it? Did you find it hard? Challenge yourself by giving your best in each activity. Be patient, Persevere! Architectural Working Drawings The architectural working drawings together with the specifications are the most important parts of a working plans. Information on the designs, locations, and dimensions of the elements of a building is found on the architectural working drawings while information on the quality of materials and sizes is found in the specifications. A good architectural working drawing gives the contractor the exact information he needs. Therefore, it must be made clear, simple, orderly arranged, and accurately drawn so that scaled measurements will match with the actual structure. The finished drawings made by the architect, or a draftsman and used by the contractor are called architectural working drawings. The architectural working drawings, together with the specifications and the general conditions, form the legal contract between the owner and the contractor. Since working drawings are the major portion of the contract documents, they should be accurately drawn. As beginner, it is important that you should be able to understand, identify tools and materials used in working drawings and fully understand the standard procedure in lay-outing and detailing architectural working plans and drawings. Elements of Architectural Working Drawing 1. Architectural sheets: A. Sheet # 1 - Title page and index (Exterior Perspective, Site Development Plan or Plot Plan, and Vicinity Map or Location Plan is often included in the plan).
  11. 11. 40 Perspective A graphic representation of the view as seen by the eyes or it shows the appearance of the finished building. This drawing represents the actual, in three-dimensional form of the proposed building. (See sample perspective below). Site Development Plan Site Development Plan is the outline and measurements of the proposed building and its placement on the property. This shows the position and the location of the building with property line, setbacks, approaches, grade contours,
  12. 12. landscape, and other pertinent data in relation to the site. A site development plan is drawn using a scale not smaller than 1:200 meters so that other features found in the plan will not be greatly affected. Location Plan The top view of the site or lot where the proposed house will be built. It shows the position of the house inside the lot, the number of the adjacent lots, streets or lanes before or beside the lot, and the North sign. The location plan is usually located near the title block. The main line symbol of the North sign is generally parallel to the side border line of the drawing paper and points upward. 41
  13. 13. Sheet # 1 – Perspective View, Site Development Plan and Location Plan: 42 Title Block in House Plan. The title block in house plans includes the following information: 1. Owner’s name 2. Location or address of the proposed house 3. Lot and block numbers 4. Signature of architect or civil engineer who approves the plan 5. Draftsman’s name or initials 6. Date when plan was drawn or completed 7. Table of Contents 8. Scale as shown (See title block in sheet #1) Suggested Activity 2 Directions: Given a drawing paper (as provided by the teacher), draw simple proposed Location Plan and Site Development Plan. Observe boarder line and title
  14. 14. block following architectural drafting standards. Use the given scoring rubrics below for your assessment. Product Scoring Rubrics Name: _________________ Date: ________________ Year & Section: __________ Teacher: _____________ Directions: Below is a tool for evaluating your finished drawing of location plan and site development plan. Assess yourself using the criteria and rating scalelisted below for grading purposes. Criteria 5 points 3 points 1 point 43 Accuracy The pictorial view was drawn according to standard The pictorial view was somehow drawn according to standard The pictorial view was NOT drawn according to standard Line Technique/ Application Application of (all) various lines was appropriately done At least three lines were used inappropriately More than three lines were used inappropriately Neatness Finished output was neatly done, no erasures/ smudges Erasures/ smudges are observable on the finished output Finished output has so many erasures/ smudges Time Management Finished the task 10 minute before the given time Finished the task on time Unable to finished the given task Rating Scale: Points Earned Numerical Rating Descriptive Rating 12 – 15 91 – 100 Very Good 8 – 11 86 – 90 Good 4 – 7 81 – 85 Fair 1 - 3 75 - 80 Needs Improvement Teacher’s Comments: Teacher’s Signature: _____________________ Date: _____________
  15. 15. 44 Floor Plan The top view of the floor area of a house. The cutting plane line for this top view passes between the upper and lower window sills. It represents the arrangement of rooms, doors, windows and other features located in the floor plan. Elevation The front or side view of a building. It shows the design of the house, height dimension; materials finish and complete information on specification. Section Section drawings are prepared for interior details needed to guide
  16. 16. construction.The view showing the inside part of the building or a house either in cross section or longitudinal section. Refer to the floor plan belowthe path indicated by the cutting plane line the location of the sectional portion of the house. Sample Longitudinal Section (Section “A-A”) 45 Sample Cross Section (Section “B-B”) A B B A
  17. 17. 46
  18. 18. 47 Roof Plan Showing the outline of the roof and the major object lines indicating ridges, valleys, hips, and openings. Facia Board
  19. 19. 48 C-Purlins Ceiling Plan Ceiling plan is an outline of the ceiling that shows the overhead interior surface of a room.
  20. 20. Sample Reflected Ceiling 49 Baluster Detail The detail of the vertical railing along a staircase or balcony railing. Railing can either made of steel baluster, ceramic baluster, free-cast baluster, wooden baluster etc. D. Sheet # 3 - Sections, Details, Roof Plan and Reflected Ceiling Plan
  21. 21. E. Sheet # 4 - Doors and Windows Schedule, Detail of kitchen, and Detail of 50
  22. 22. 51 Toilet and Bath Doors and Window Schedule A complete specification of doors and windows in terms of width, height, types, materials and quantity. Kitchen Detail A drawing of kitchen floor plan with complete specifications.
  23. 23. 52 Toilet and Bath Detail A drawing of toilet and bath floor plan that shows complete features. Sheet # 4 - Doors and Windows Schedule, Staircase Details and Stairways Elevation.
  24. 24. 53
  25. 25. Here are the list of architectural term and their abbreviations commonly used in technical drafting preparations. You are going to come across these terms so familiarize each. 54 Architectural Abbreviations: Abbrev. Terms Abbrev. Terms Abbrev. Terms @ At CORR CORRUGATED LAV LAVATORY BALC BALCONY DR DINING ROOM LR LIVING ROOM B BATHROOM DN DOWN MBR MASTER BEDROOM BR BEDROOM DS DOWN SPOUT M METER B.W. BOTH WAYS ELEV. ELEVATION MM MILIMETER BLDG BUILDING FFL FINISH FLOOR LINE NTS NOT TO SCALE BLT-IN BUILT-IN FGL FINISH GROUND LINE OC ON CENTER CAB CABINET FLR FLOOR SEC. SECTION CL CEILING LINE FL FLOOR LINE T & B TOILET & BATH CEM CEMENT GL GROUND LINE VERT. VERTICAL CHB CONCRETE HOLLOW BLOCK K KITCHEN
  26. 26. 55 Architectural Symbols Knowing the architectural symbols is a prerequisite for all students in architecture and drafting technology program. It would be difficult for you to interpret drawing or blueprint unless you are familiar with the symbols. The following illustrations are the architectural symbols: a. Doors and windows symbols that are shown in the floor plan.
  27. 27. b. Symbols of doors and windows that are used to represent its existence on floor plans and elevation drawings. 56
  28. 28. c. Door, window and staircase symbols that are shown in the elevation plans. 57
  29. 29. D. Sheets # 5& 6 – Contains Foundation Plan, Roof Framing Plan, Truss Detail, and Column/Footing/Beam Schedules 58 Structural Plans The following terminologies are used on structural plans. Be familiar with them and look forward to meeting them. Foundation Plan - A structural excavation plan of footings and walls of a building. Is the part of the building below the surface of the ground which is sometimes called the substructure. Roof Framing Plan - A structural framing plan of the roof plan with complete specifications.
  30. 30. Truss Detail - A complete structural detail of a common or typical truss of a building either wooden or steel. Column/Footing/Beam Schedule - A complete specification of column, footings, and beam in terms of sizes, materials and quantity. 59
  31. 31. Column, Footings and Beams 60 Footings A part of foundation directly supporting the column or post of a house. A detail drawing of building footings with specific requirements. Footings Construction Notes - A sub-complete detail of wall footings, lintels, beams, and other required structural features present in the plan. General Notes - A complete specification and legend of structural features presented in the plan.
  32. 32. Sheet # 5 - Foundation plan, Detail of Footings, Truss Detail, and Column/Footing/ 61 Beam Schedules Sheet # 6 - Roof Framing Plan, Construction Notes and General Notes
  33. 33. Plumbing Plan/Layout 62 Plumbing Plan The complete drawing detail of water and sewerage distribution. Water System Plan The drawing of flow of water in the house from main water source. Water coming from the lavatory, bath tubs and floor drain goes to the main canal while water from the toilet bowl goes to the septic tank. Sewage System Plan The drawing flow of sewage from the house to main canal and septic tank.
  34. 34. 63 Septic Tank It is the depository of human excreta and a drainage reservoir for all washing done in the kitchen and bathroom. The main section of septic tank is the digestive chamber and the leaching well. Sheet # 8 - Septic Tank Detail Storm Drainage System Shows the flow of water waste from the lavatory, floor drain, and downspout from roof to storm drainage.
  35. 35. E. Sheets # 7/8 -Water and Sewage System Plan 64 Electrical Plan A plan consists of lighting plan, power layout and specification details of the house. Lighting Layout - An electrical plan that shows the flow of house lightings. Power & Auxiliary Layout An electrical plan that shows the flow of convenience outlet and other auxiliary outlet in the floor plan.
  36. 36. Sheet # 9 –Contains the following working plans: Lighting layout, Power and Auxiliary layout, Location plan, Panel board Detail, Load Schedules and Specifications Electrical Symbols are small drawings or pictograms, used to represent various electrical devices in a diagram or plan of an electrical circuit. These symbols are used in sketching schematic diagram for numerous types of electrical works. Electrical Symbols and Abbreviations Used in wiring plan and diagram: 65 • ACU – Air-Conditioning Unit • Weather Proof Outlet – WP • M –Meter
  37. 37. 66 Other Electrical Symbols Symbol Description Symbol Description Conductor/Wire Ammeter Terminal Voltmeter Switch Galvanometer Fuse Wattmeter Connected Wires Wires Not Connected Circuit Breaker Push Button Suggested Activity 3 Directions: Identify the different electrical symbols that you can find in the given sample electrical plan. Determine the number of circuits found in the plan. Explain the importance of every lighting fixtures in relation to the circuit.
  38. 38. Note: You are going to evaluate your answers according to the following criteria: a. Identification of electrical symbols from the given plan………40% b. Presentation………………………………………………………30% c. Content.……………………………………………………………30% How did you find this activity? Did you enjoy answering it? Is it difficult? Are you challenged? After having a series of blueprint readings and knowing different architectural terms, it is now the time to assess yourself how far is your understanding about the different topics. Give your honest answer to the given evaluation below. Good luck!! 67 Summative Assessment: Lesson 1 Suggested Activity 4 4.A-Direction. Identify what is referred to in each number and write your answer on A separate sheet of paper. ______1. A drawing sheet that contains perspective, site development title, page and sheet index.
  39. 39. ______2. A drawing of the lot showing the setback and development of the house in relation to the lot. ______3. The top view of the site or lot where the proposed house will be built. ______4. Generally includes title block, table of contents, and labels for signs and sealed of the duly licensed and registered professionals in the plans. ______5.A complete specification of doors and windows in terms of width, height, types, materials and quantity. 4.B-Direction: Give the term of the following architectural abbreviations: 1. ELEV._______________ 6. FLR. _______________ 2. FFL. _______________ 7. GL. _______________ 3. DN _______________ 8. NTS ______________ 4. O.C. _______________ 9. FL _______________ 5. CHB _______________ 10. @ _______________ 4.C-Direction: Draw the following architectural symbols of doors and window: Requirements Drawing Requirements Drawing 68 1. Interior Door 6. Sliding Door 2. Folding Door 7. Bay Window 3. Swing Door 8. Double Window 4. Accordion Door 9. Sliding Window
  40. 40. 5. Double Door 10.Arched Opening 4.DGive at least 2 specification found in the roof plan, 4 features in sections, and 2 features from reflected ceiling plan. Write your answer on a separate sheet of paper. 4.E Give at least three (3) specification features in drawing doors and windows schedule, three (3) main features in kitchen detail, and four (4) features from toilet and bath details. 4.F Give at least five (5) specification in foundation plan, five(5) features in roof framingplan, and five (5) features from truss detailing, and five (5) features in column/footings/beam schedules. Write your answer on a separate sheet of paper. Now check your answer using the answer key. If you got 90-100% of the items correctly, proceed to the next learning topic. If not, do the next activities again to gain knowledge and skills required for mastery. Good luck!! Lesson 2: Prepare and Set-up Tools and Materials for Drawing This lesson is designed to familiarize students to the different tools, materials and equipment needed in technical drawing. 69 Skills Assessment Direction: Listed below are some of the most important skills that you must gain in order to draft a quality floor plan. On the right side of the matrix lists the skills expected of you to master. Rate yourself by checking “Not much”, if you are not so familiar yet, “A little” and/or “A lot”, if you are already familiar with the skills. Don’t feel bad if you checked “Not Much” in all of the skills. Keep in mind that this is being administered to determine your pre-entry knowledge of and skills on the lesson to be presented.
  41. 41. Skills in Preparing and Setting-up Tools and 70 Materials for Drawing Not Much A little A lot I know how to observe Occupational Health and Safety policies and procedures in setting-up tools and materials for drawing I know how to prepare drawing tools, materials, equipment based on the job requirements. I can set-up tools, materials and equipment based on the job requirements. Technical Terms Encountered In Preparing and Setting-Up Tools and Materials for Drawing Drawing Tools- are instruments used as guide in drawing processes. Drawing Materials - are the consumable drawing items such as drawing paper, masking tape, eraser etc. Drawing Equipment - the instruments, attachments, and other equipment used to make mechanical drawings. The Importance of Drawing Tools, Materials, and Equipment This lesson is only a review of your prior learning in technical drawing particularly on the proper use and care of drawing tools, materials and equipment. The purpose of this discussion is to allow you to review and recall its importance in the Drafting Technology works. A.Drawing/Drafting Tools These refer to the sets of tools that are used in all drafting works or activities especially if the activity requires mechanical presentation. Prior to the start of drafting activity, it is expected therefore that all drawing tools needed must be available in the work station to ensure that the assigned task can be accomplished according job specifications. The following are the common drafting tools: 1. Drafting Table/Drawing Board (24” x 36” /0.61cm x 0.91cm) 2. T-square (36” /0.915 cm. length) 3. Triangles -300 x 600 and 400 x 450 (@ least 0.30 each length) 4. Triangular Scale – 1:100, 1:75 in range
  42. 42. 5. Technical Pens/G-Tech pen/Pilot pen – (From point: 0.0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.5, 71 0.6, 0.8, 1.0) 6. Mechanical pencil – point 0.3, 0.5 7. Pencil Sharpener or Pen knife 8. Drawing Templates – Circular templates, Furniture template, Ellipse template, 9. Protractor (medium size) 10. Dusting Brush 11. Sand paper pad (fabricated fine coarse sand paper attached to wood or board pad) 12. Erasing shield 13. Pull-push rule B. Drawing/Drafting Materials These are sets of consumable items that are specifically used in drafting works or activities. The draftsman cannot perform his drafting task without these items. The following are the required materials needed in drafting works: 1. Bond Paper (short and Long) 2. Tracing paper 3. A4 drawing paper 4. Drawing pencil – HB, F, 2H 5. Pen and Ink Eraser 6. Masking Tape 7. Ink (Steadler/Rotring/Faber Castell) 8. Cartolina Paper C. Equipment These items are also essential in producing quality drafting output especially if the assigned task requires mechanical manipulation. Although, these items are so expensive, however, these are important in making the drawing output presentable and convincing to the clients. The following are some of the equipment needed in drafting task: 1. Drafting machine 2. Leroy Lettering Pen 3. Computer
  43. 43. 72 Suggested Activity 1 Direction.Identify the drawing tools, materials and equipment needed in performing the different job or tasks. Write the answer on a separate sheet of paper. A. Five most common tools in drafting architectural layout and details. 1. 4. 2. 5. 3. B.Four most needed materials in architectural layout and details. 1. 4. 2. 5. 3. C.List three important equipment needed in lay-outing architectural details 1. 2. 3. Procedure in Setting up Drawing Tools, Materials and Equipment and Standard Operating Procedure In preparation for a required task in drawing architectural layout and details, a draftsman should analyze the job order, prepare, and select tools and materials for the task. This is to ensure the correct setting of standard procedure and accuracy of drawing plans. Some of the key tools used in drafting architectural plans are described and illustrated in this learning Outcome. The drawing tools, materials and equipment are very expensive items, however these are important in all drafting tasks. Considering its cost and value in drafting activity, it is also important to take care and maintain its functionality. With this, you are required to adhere tothe Standard Operating Procedure in keeping them safe, functional and safe during and after each use. A. Before the start of drafting activity: Setting-up of drafting tools, materials and equipment:
  44. 44. 1. Select the tools, materials and equipment which are needed in performing the 73 assigned task. 2. Properly set up the required tools and materials in a place within your reach which is convenient for you to move and execute your work. 3. Clean the table and tools, see to it that these are free from dust and other elements that would cause damage to your work. 4. Wash your hand with clean water. B. Activity proper: 1. Perform the activity by following the standard operating procedure per job requirement. 2. Properly manipulate all the tools and equipment that are used in the activity. 3. In case of errors or mistakes along the way of the activity (for instance misprinting of lines, letters, and other forms of mistakes) use appropriate eraser for a particular mistake. C. After the activity: 1. Submit your output to your teacher for checking. 2. Check all the tools and materials to ensure that nothing has lost. 3. Check and clean the drawing tools and equipment. 4. Return the tools and materials to the assigned tool keeper for safekeeping. 5. Withdraw your borrower’s card from the tool keeper as a proof that you have returned the borrowed tools and materials. 5. Clean your work station before leaving. D. Other important practices that must be observed in the work station or workplace There are important practices that you must observed in the work station and they are the following: 1. Observe safety precautions: 1.1 Never use any tools and equipment without having it cleaned. 1.2 Always turn off the lights, air condition, ceiling fan, computer units, and otherelectronic equipment before leaving the work station. 1.3 Maintain the cleanliness and orderliness of the work station.
  45. 45. 1.4 Use tools and equipment properly. 2. Observe punctuality in attendance. 3. Avoid quarreling with your co-students. 4. Observe and practice the value of respect. 5. Return the borrowed tools and equipment on time. 6. Observe and practice proper disposal of waste. 74 Suggested Activity 1 Present to class video presentation about good practices about setting-up tools and materials for drawing. Let them observe carefully for a group discussion. After knowing the following considerations strictly emphasized as Standard Operating Procedure in the utilization of the drafting tools, materials and equipment, answer the given activities: Suggested Activity 2 Directions: Enumerate the following. Write the answers in your notebook. A. List down five (5) drafting tools and materials when drawing sheet that contains perspective, site development, title page and sheet index. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. B.Give at least five (5) steps for fastening the drawing paper. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
  46. 46. C. Cite the steps in setting-up drafting tools, materials and equipment observing occupational health and safety procedures. 75 1. 2. 3. 4. How did you find this activity? Are you challenged? After knowing all the considerations emphasized as standard operating procedures, it is now the time to assess yourself how far is your understanding about the topic. Perform the activity below to assess yourself if you already acquired the skills needed by performing the given assessment. Good luck!! Summative Assessment: Lesson 2 Suggested Activity 3 Directions:Set-up tools, materials and equipment, based on the job requirements following the procedures set in the occupational health and safety. Note: The teacher will set the criteria based on the actual performance. Suggested Activity 4 Architectural Working Drawings After all the interpretation of drawings are performed, it is also necessary to expose the student in tracing activity. This activity is commonly applied in industry especially in the reproduction of the architectural plans. All drafting works must be done first in the preliminary process using sketching sheet. The final outputs are those drawings which are done through tracing activity. Below is an activity on tracing the drawing. Steps in tracing architectural working drawing sheet # 1: 1. Prepare all tools and materials needed. 2. Fasten sheet #1 and tracing paper on drawing board. Be sure it is aligned horizontally by the T-square and aligned vertically with the triangle. 3. Trace border lines using T-square, 30 degrees x 60 degrees triangle, and technical pen point 0.8-1.0.
  47. 47. 4. Trace all the labels in title block and index using technical pen point 0.3 – 0.6. 5. Trace first all vertical lines using big triangle 30 degrees x 60 degrees. Follow all horizontal lines using T-square before tracing all the curved and irregular curved lines using French curved or templates. 6. Trace all the labels and dimensions using technical pen point 0.1-0.4. 7. Finalize the drawing by checking and erasing all unnecessary lines. Criteria 5 points 3 points 1 point 76 Line Technique Application of (all) various lines was used according to standards At least 3-5 lines were used not according to standards More than 5 lines were used not according to standards Accuracy All measurements and notations needed were accurately done At least 3-5 measurements and notations needed were inaccurately done More than 5 measurements and notations needed were inaccurately done Layout/Proportion All drawings were drawn proportionately and was layout properly Layout was good but 1-2 drawing were out of proportion More than 2 drawings were drawn out of proportion and improperly layout Neatness Finished output was neatly done, no erasures nor any smudges Erasures/smudges are observable on the finished output Finished output has so many erasures/ smudges present Time Management Finish the task ahead of the given time/date Finish the task on the given time/date Unable to finish the task on the given time/date RATING SCALE: Points earned Numerical Rating Descriptive Rating 21 - 25 91 - 100 Outstanding 16 - 20 86 - 90 Very Good 11- 15 81 - 85 Good 6 - 10 76 - 80 Fair 1 - 5 71 - 75 Needs Improvement Teacher’s Comments: Teacher’s Signature: _____________________ Date: _____________
  48. 48. Congratulations! You have done a great job!! After gaining knowledge from previous activities, you are about to learn new topic on the preparing and setting-up tools and materials you need for drawing.. Let’s proceed to another learning experiences. Enjoy and have fun! Lesson 3. Draft Site Development Plan This lesson is designed to introduce you to the techniques and processes of plotting the site development plan guided by the National Building Code Standards. 77 Skills Assessment Direction: Listed below are some of the most important skills that you must gain in order to draft a quality floor plan. On the right side of the matrix lists the skills expected of you to master. Rate yourself by checking “Not much”, if you are not so familiar yet, “A little” and/or “A lot”, if you are already familiar with the skills. Don’t feel bad if you checked “Not Much” in all of the skills. Keep in mind that this is being administered to determine your pre-entry knowledge of and skills on the lesson to be presented. Skills in Drafting Site Development Plan Not Much A little A lot I can draw technical description of a lot according to the approved lot survey. I know how to draw a building footprint according to the architectural drafting standards I can draw a title block according to the architectural drafting standards. I know how to indicate dimension lines, dimensions and drawing titles according to architectural drafting standards. Technical Terms Encountered In Drafting Site Development Plan Building Code- are local laws that set standard for structural design within the community.
  49. 49. Master plan- is the designer’s house or building design based on the needs and wants of his clients. Corner lot- is a lot with at least two adjacent sides meeting on a corner of two streets. Inside lot- is a lot surrounded on each side by other lots. Open lot- is a lot bounded on all sides by streets or pathways. Property lines- are those lines showing the exactarea of the acquired lot. Setback- refers to the distance at how far a building can be built within the property lines. Site Development Plan- is the outline and measurements of the proposed building and its placement on the property. Site- is an area of land available for construction or the lot on which a building is constructed. Through lot- is a lot having frontage on two public streets or highways. Zoning- refers to the legal restrictions on size, location, and type of structures to be built on a designated area. 78 Site Development Plan
  50. 50. Site Development Plan is the outline and measurements of the proposed building and its placement on the property. This shows the position and the location of the building with property line, setbacks, approaches, grade contours, landscape and other pertinent data in relation to the site. A site development plan is drawn using a scale not smaller than 1:200 meters so that other features found in the plan will not be greatly affected. 79 Site An area of land available for construction or the lot on which a building is constructed. Building site maybe a single lot, a series of lots, or a subdivision. A lot is a piece of ground of specific size. A subdivision is a large tract of land that is being developed. Planning and Designing A master plan is defined as the visual presentation of conceptual ideas supported by mathematical calculations aimed at giving convenience and comfort to the users or occupants. Good plans are those that are functional and economical following the principles of “Form Follows Functions”. Planning Consideration in Developing the Site:
  51. 51.  DISTRIBUTION. Refers to the placement, location and arrangement of each room unit in relation with each other as to function and coordination. One example is the relation between the dining and the kitchen which primarily requires accessibility on food servicing. These areas are interrelated and should not be far from each other. To make the handling of meals easy, the sequence of food preparation should be provided for in the layout of the kitchen and its equipment. Three work areas are necessary: the mixing area, the sink area and the cooking area. Supplies and equipment for use at each work areas should be stored closed at hand. There is a direct path between the work areas, forming the so-called “work triangle” by which the efficiency of a kitchen can be assessed. The sum of the distances between the work areas should not be less than 3.50 m. and not more than 6.00 m.  ORIENTATION. Refers to the position and direction of the sunrise and the sunset. Many want their bedrooms to face the sunrisewhich is, on the eastern side of the lot. Others, especially those who work at night, prefer their bedrooms located on the west side. The breeze at the site may determine the location of the living room and toilet or bathrooms. The height of the flood waters in the locality should also be considered in determining the distance of the first floor from the ground. This is especially true in low areas. In high locations the floor may be 20 cm. only from the ground level.  SIZES, AREAS and SHAPES.All rooms are intended for human use, therefore, it should be planned according to human scale. Good design always provide ample areas to accommodate furniture, appliances, and other related facilities, including the critical and important lanes or pathways for routinary movements inside the house. Rule VIII of the New National Building Code under the 2005 Implementing Rules & Regulations (No. 7) Minimum sizes of rooms and their least horizontal dimensions shall be 80 as follows: 1. Rooms for human habitation 6.00 sq.m. with at least dimension of 2.00 m. 2. Kitchen 3.00 sq.m. with at least dimension of 1.50 m. 3. Toilet and Bath 1.20 sq.m. with at least dimension of 0.90 m.  CIRCULATION. Circulation and movement of the occupants inside the building should not be hampered by any obstacles nor be detoured as result of poor planning.  LIGHT and VENTILATION. There is no substitute for a good daylight and fresh natural air entering and circulating inside the building. Artificial lighting
  52. 52. and ventilation is very costly to those who cannot afford, others prefer it for maximum comfort regardless of costs. Rule VIII of the New National Building Code under the 2005 Implementing Rules & Regulations (No. 8) “Rooms intended for any use not provided with artificial ventilation shall be provided with a window with a total free area equal to least 10% of the floor area of the room but not less than 1.00 sq.m. Toilet and bathrooms and laundry rooms shall be provided with windows with an area not less than 1/20 of the floor area but not less than 240 sq.mm.Such windows shall open directly to a court, yard, public street or alley or open watercourse”.  HEIGHT. A moderate height ceiling allows fresh air circulations, comfortable atmosphere, and preserve aesthetic value of the room. Room with low ceiling has warm atmosphere that requires artificial ventilation. Rule VIII of the New National Building Code under the 2005 Implementing Rules & Regulations (No. 6) Ceiling Heights: 1. Habitable rooms provided with artificial ventilation shall have ceiling heights not less than 2.40 m. For buildings of more than 1 storey, the minimum height of the first storey shall be 2. 70 m., for the second storey, 2.40 m., and for the succeeding storeys, 2.10 m. Above mentioned rooms with natural ventilation shall have ceiling height of not less than 2.70 m. 2. Mezzanine floors shall have a clear ceiling height of not less than 1.80 m.above and below it.  LIKE AND DISLIKES OF THE FAMILY MEMBERS. This factor is usually considered when the family is rich and can afford to pay for the services of an architect or draftsman. Before he designs the house, the architect or draftsman has to first interview the members of the family to get information about their interests, hobbies, and the like. From such interviews, he will get to know whether the family wants a library or study room, a social hall, a playroom, a music room, a swimming pool, a carport or garage, servant’s quarters, a driver’s room, a landscaped garden, a balcony, and a roof garden. Property Lines- are those lines showing the exactarea of the acquired lot. 81
  53. 53. 82 Setback- refers to the distance at how far a building can be built within the property lines. Zoning - refers to the legal restrictions on size, location, and type of structures to be built on a designated area. Zoning Laws One major area covered by building code is the zoning laws. Zoning laws were developed to keep different areas of a community from interfering with each other. In some cities or towns, separate areas are set aside for specific uses. Examples are residential, commercial, and industrial. These are established and protected by zoning laws.In addition, zoning laws establish standards for construction in different sizes and uses.
  54. 54. One of the first thing an architect must do before designing a building is to read the building codes. The intended use of the building has to be within the limits of zoning laws. Also, the size of the lot must be large enough to meet the requirements. 83 Building Code Building Code are local laws that set standard for structural design within the community. This is a collection of local laws that regulate the building of homes and other structures. These legal requirements are intended to protect the safety and health of the people who live and work in the buildings. They regulate restrictions concerning the construction of buildings to provide safety to the occupants. All constructions in an area must meet the requirements of building codes. Some of the designs and construction features covered by building codes include:  Qualifications of persons who can design building within the area.  Structural design that can be used.  Lot sizes for certain types of buildings.  Types and sizes of materials that can be used. National Building Code Rules 1. For one-storey wooden or frame house, the height of the floor plan from the ground should not be less than 1.50 m. 2. Walls with window opening should not be less than 2.00 m. from the lot line of fence. In other words, adjacent houses should not be at least 4.00 m. from each other. 3. The front part of a house should not be less than 3.00 m. from the lot line along the street. 4. No windows should be constructed along a wall of a house if this wall is flushed with or exactly on the lot line.
  55. 55. 84 Suggested Activity 1 Below are sample shapes for your guide in drawing. Provide yourself with ½ sheets of manila paper, T-square, triangle, pencil and a piece ofpentel pen. You will draw lots of different shapes: Directions:Having prepared the needed drafting tools and materials, draw from any of your chosen shape a lot occupancy in a ½ sheet of manila paper using the appropriate tools observing the Standard Operating Procedures in drawing site development plan. 1. Imagined that it is a big drawing of a residential lot. All the side lines will be label as property lines. 2. As a residential lot, you need to accommodate and locate the following: 2.1 A setback space from all the sides of the lot to produce lot occupancy. 2.2 One or two streets along the sides of the lot. 2.3 Pick an appropriate roofing’s for the lot occupancy. Hip Roof Gable Roof Dormer Roof 2.4 Draw the gate entrance on the front of the lot adjacent to the street for
  56. 56. 85 easy access. 3. Your output will be evaluated according to the following criteria. If it is group activity, each group is required to evaluate and give comments on the output of the assigned leader following the same criteria: 3.1 Completeness of elements.............30% 3.2 Functionality……….........................10% 3.3 Accuracy in measurements……....30% 3.4 Presentation…………......................20% 3.5 Time management (Speed).............10% Total = 100% Suggested Activity 2 Directions: Identify what is referred to in each number.Write your answer on a separate sheet of paper. ______1.The outline and measurements of the proposed building and its placement on the property. ______2. The legal restrictions on size, location, and type of structures to be built on a designated area. ______3. A piece of ground of specific size. ______4. Local laws that set standard for structural design within the community. ______5. Designed to keep different areas of a community from interfering with each other. ______6. Space requirement from the lot line along the street.
  57. 57. ______7. The distance at how far a building can be built within the property lines. ______8. Space requirement of walls with window opening from the lot line of fence. ______9. Space requirement to each other of adjacent houses according to National Building Code. ______10. Lines which are working on the outside of the lot area. 86 Lot Mensuration and Plotting Technical Terms Encountered in Lot Mensuration and Planning Lot - an area usually a small piece of land that has been measured and is considered as a unit used for a particular purpose. Inside lot- is a lot surrounded on each side by other lots. Through lot- is a lot having frontage on two public streets or highways. Corner lot-is a lot with at least two adjacent sides meeting on a corner of two streets. Open lot- is a lot bounded on all sides by streets or pathways. Percentage of Lot Occupancy: 1. Every building, except those especially mentioned in the building ordinance, shall be limited in its occupancy. Limitation of Lot Occupancy: 1. To secure natural light and ventilation 2. For better fire protection
  58. 58. 87 Limits of Lot Occupancy: 1. Domestic building on inside lot - 70% 2. Domestic building on corner lot- 90% 3. Non-Domestic building on inside lot - 90% 4. Non-domestic building on corner lot- 95% Measurement of Lot Occupancy: 1. Measurement of lot occupancy shall be taken at ground level 2. Items not included in measurements: 2.1 Court 2.2 Yard 2.3 Light well (Light Well - same as close court only, it has no passages it is used only for illumination and ventilation. Doors are used only for maintenance.) Open Court Close Court Lot plotting: Protractor is an instrument graduated in angular degrees for measuring and laying out angles.
  59. 59. 88 Procedures in lot plotting: 1. NORTH is always to be pointed vertical up with respect to the paper. 2. Bearing is read, plotted and marked off directly as, due NORTH, due SOUTH, due WEST, or due EAST 3. Plotting starts with point 1 and ends with point 1 4. Compass axes North-South and West-East are zeroed in each point and bearing marked off. Drafting practices in lot plotting: 1. All drawings and labels are inked. 2. Use only standard plotting paper if submitted as part of Contract Document. 3. Lot points are represented by small circle and point no. indicated near it within the lot whenever possible. 4. Bearing and Magnitude are centered to lot line and within the lot whenever possible. NOTE: Bearing and Magnitude must be written and readable from South West quadrant. 5. Lot No. and Block No. are written at the center of lot. 6. Subdivision streets are indicated as Street Lot No. ____. It is directly centered and parallel to respective streets.
  60. 60. 7. Scale is indicated under the NORTH symbol for non-documentary work and proper position for documentary Plotting Paper. 89 Suggested Activity 3 Directions: Following the given diagram. Mark-off the given sample bearings using the protractor and a ruler, apply the procedures in lot plotting. Bearing Magnitude: (Use scale dimension: 1 cm. = 1 m.) 1. E 25 degrees 45 minute N, 10 m. 2. W 10 degrees 30 minute S, 15 m. 3. N 18 degrees 15 minute E, 8 m. 4. S 7 degrees 20 minute W, 20 m.
  61. 61. 90 Suggested Activity 4 Direction:Draw the following bearing magnitude with corresponding distance using ruler and protractor. Scale: 1cm.=1m. a. N 15°30’ E, 7m b. E 48°40’ S, 11m c. W 25°20’ N, 7m d. S 49°50’ W, 9m e. Start at point 1, N15 degrees 30’ E, 7m., point 2, E 15 degrees 25’ S, 9m, point 3, S 45 degrees 36’ W, 8m., point 4 connect to point 1. Get the measurement and bearing magnitude of points 1-4. Suggested Activity 5 Directions: Choose the letter of the correct answer. Write the answer on a separate sheet of paper. _____ 1. This is a lot bounded on all sides by streets or pathways. a. corner lot b. insidelot c. open lot d. through lot _____ 2. The type of lot with at least two adjacent sides meeting on a corner of two streets. a. corner lot b. inside lot c. open lot d. through lot _____ 3. This is a graduated instrument in angular degrees for measuring angles. a. compass b. divider c. protractor d. ruler _____ 4. This type of lot having frontage of two public streets or highways. a. corner lot b. inside lot c. open lot d. through lot _____ 5. Thisdirection is always to be pointed vertical up with respect to the paper. a. East b. North c. South d. West _____ 6. This is a type of lot where it is surrounded by other lots. a. cornerlot b. inside lot c. open lot d. through lot Suggested Activity 6 Directions: Draw Site Development Plan. Observe the following requirements.
  62. 62. 1. Draw the lot area using the given dimensions. 91 1.1 Given: 12.25 m. x 16.75 m. 1.2 Bearing magnitude: a. Point 1, N 35 degrees 40 minute E, 12.25 m., point 2, S 60 degrees 25 minutes W, 16.75 m., point 3, W 35 degrees 40 minutes S, 12.25 m., point 4 connect to point 1. 1.3 Scale: 1: 100m. 2. Points to considered when plotting: 2.1 Lot points are represented by small circle and point no. indicated within the lot whenever possible. 2.2 Locate lot center. Analyze the lot shapes, streets, adjacent lots and consider the lot plan guides when designing areas of occupancy. 2.3 Plan and measure the setbacks of all corners of the lot plan. Observe Architectural Standards. 2.4 Draw and finalized design of occupancy plan. 2.5 Draw the desired roof type on the occupancy plan. 2.6 Indicate all symbols required in the plot plan. 2.7 Indicate the perimeter dimensions including compass direction. 2.8 Indicate the necessary utility line to be shown in the plot plan. 2.9 Letter all the labels required. 2.10 Indicate the scale used. 2.11 Finalize the drawing. Note: Your output will be evaluated according to the following criteria below. The teacher will assigned the percentage accordingly: 1. Accuracy of: a. lines used b. scaled measurements c. notations and specifications
  63. 63. 92 2. Work Values: a. work attitude/behavior b. safe work habits c. housekeeping and maintenance d. time management How did you find given activities? Are they challenging? Now after knowing all the theories, concepts and practices in the preparation of site development plan, you are going to assess yourself how far is your understanding about the topic. Perform the activity below to measure if you already acquired the needed skills by performing the given assessment. Good luck!! Summative Assessment: Lesson 3 You are now going to prove yourself how much learning you had acquired. This is also to test your skills in precise measurements and perseverance…Go! Suggested Activity Directions:Draw the site of a given survey lot below. Use appropriate drawing tools and materials. Given:Start from point no. 1, N 440 33’E’, 197.38m., from point 1., S790 00’W; 6.55 m. point 2, from 2, N 100 21’ W; 17.04m. point 3, from point 3, N780 25’ E; 6.51 m. point 4, point 4, S 100 30’ E; 17.11 m. point 5. Get the measurement and bearing magnitude of points 1 - 5. Use scale 1 : 100 m. Note: Your output will be evaluated according to the following criteria below. The teacher will assign the percentage accordingly: 1. Accuracy of: a. lines used b. scaled measurements c. notations and specifications 2. Work Values: a. work attitude/behavior
  64. 64. b. safe work habits c. housekeeping and maintenance d. time management Congratulations! You have done a great job! Well, how did you fare in this activity? If you lost track, then you may always go back to the previous lessonsor you may do some researching. If you pass, then congratulations. You may proceed with the next topic. 93 Lesson 4. Draft Floor Plan This lesson is designed to help you draft sample floor plans that follow a given architectural design standards and requirements. Skills Assessment Direction: Listed below are some of the most important skills that you must gain in order to draft a quality floor plan. On the right side of the matrix lists the skills expected of you to master. Rate yourself by checking “Not much”, if you are not so familiar yet, “A little” and/or “A lot”, if you are already familiar with the skills. Don’t feel bad if you checked “Not Much” in all of the skills. Keep in mind that this is being administered to determine your pre-entry knowledge of and skills on the lesson to be presented. Skills in Drafting Floor Plans Not Much A little A lot I can draw walls, windows, doors, fixtures and fittings according to architectural design standards. I can draw grid and dimension lines according to architectural design standards. I know how to use metric scale system according to the magnitude of the plan. I can identify sizes of doors, walls and rooms following the schedule. I know to indicate letterings and labels according to the drafting standards.
  65. 65. Technical Terms Encountered In Drafting Floor Plans Bathroom- is where the toilet and tub or shower are separated for easy installation of pipes. Bedroom- is a room for sleeping and for taking a rest. Carport- is a garage consists of a free-standing roof completely separated from the house, or it may be built against the existing walls of the house with one or more of the exterior walls removed. Garage- is an enclosed structure designed primarily to shelter an automobile. Kitchen- is the place where foods are prepared. Livingroom- is the center of the living area in most homes. Main Entrance- provides access to the house. It is the one through which guests are welcomed. It provides shelter to anyone awaiting entrance. Service Entrance- provides access to the house through which supplies can be delivered to the service areas. 94 Floor Plan Floor plan is the top cross-sectional view of the floor area of a house. The horizontal cutting plane line for this top view passes between the upper and lower window sills or one meter above the floor line. It shows the size and arrangement of the rooms. It also presents the sizes and locations of the stairs, door and windows openings, and partitions and walls. Sometimes it includes the kind of furnishings in each room. However, the materials required for constructing permanent or integral parts of each room such as bedroom closets, kitchen cabinets, etc., should also be accounted for in the bill of materials. Steps in Drawing Floor Plans 1. Layout the position of exterior and interior walls.Refer to Rule VIII of the New National Building Code under the 2005 Implementing Rules & Regulations (No. 7) 2. Add the thickness of the walls with a hard pencil (Don’t darken the walls at this stage). 3. Locate the position of doors and windows by center line and by their width.
  66. 66. 4. Darken the object lines with an F pencil. 5. Add door and window symbols with 2H pencil. 6. Add symbols for stairwells. 7. Erase extra heavy lines that can be perceive as object lines. 8. Draw the outline of the furniture and fixtures. 9. Add symbols for any masonry work such as planters if necessary. 10. Dimension the drawing. 95 Rules for Dimensioning Floor Plans 1. Architectural dimension lines are unbroken lines with dimension placed above the lines. Arrowheads, dash, small circles and diagonal are used to denote the termination of the dimension line. Arrowheads may also be placed outside the extension lines when the area is too narrow or limited. 2. Dimensions should be placed to read from the right or from the bottom of the drawing. The measurements should always be written above the dimension lines. 3. Dimension lines are placed about 10 mm. apart. Overall dimensions of the building are placed outside all other dimensions. 4. Rooms are dimensioned from the center line of partitions. In some cases, they maybe dimensioned from wall to wall, exclusive of wall thickness. 5. In dimensioning stairs, the number of risers is placed on a line with an arrow indicating the direction (up or down). 6. Architectural dimensions always refer to the actual size of the building regardless of the scale of the drawing. 7. Never crowd dimensions. To free the plan of excessive dimensions, the sizes of doors and windows are given in the door and window schedule. 8. Refrain from double entry dimensions and omit obvious dimensions. Doors and Windows in Plan 1. Show normally swinging doors at 90 degrees opening. 2. Doors swing are shown with light lines and quarter symbols. 3. Door type is not illustrated in plan, only in elevation. 4. Windows type cannot be explained in plan except for width and location. 5. Show sill lines with a lighter line weight than walls, jambs and glass.
  67. 67. 96
  68. 68. 97 Area Planning In developing any architectural design, the designer should progress logically follow step by step the design process. One key step is to divide the functions of the building into specific areas. In multi-storey buildings, a separate floor plan is drawn for each floor level when the layout of the room is not in each floor. However, when two or more floor levels have the same arrangement and features, one typical floor plan representing all the identical floors will suffice. Three Major Functional Areas of a House 1. The Living Area 2. The Sleeping Area 3. The Service Area Area/room requirements and pointers in planning: Living Area. This is the center of the living area in most homes. It should be centrally located and should be adjacent to the outside entrance and to the dining area, but the entrance should not lead directly into the living room. This is the area of the home that most strangers or visitors observe. As the name implies, it is here where the family entertains, relaxes, listen to music, watches television, enjoy hobbies, dines and participates in other recreational activities. Recommended sizes should be at least 2.00m x 3.00 small, 3.70 m. x 5.50 m. average or optimum size would be 6.10 x 7.90 m. in rectangular shape.
  69. 69. Sleeping Area. The primary function of the sleeping areais to provide facilities for sleeping and taking rest of the family. The bedroomis usually located in a quite part of the house. Ideal number of rooms for low cost housing should be two bedrooms, master’s bedroom and bedroom. Preferably, there should be a toilet and bath in master’s bedroom and a built-in cabinets or closets for dressing purposes. 98 Noise Control Since noise contributes to fatigue, it is very important to plan minimize if not totally eliminate noise in the sleeping area. The following guides might help you design bedrooms that are quite and restful. 1. The bedroom should be placed in the most quite part of the house, away from major street noise. 2. Carpeting or porous walls and ceiling panels help absorb noises. 3. Rooms above a bedroom should be carpeted. 4. Floor to ceiling draperies help reduce noise. 5. The use of double-glazed insulating glasses in windows and sliding doors helps reduce outside noise. 6. The windows of an air-conditioned room should be kept closed during hot weather.
  70. 70. Sample Bedroom Service Area. The service area includes the kitchen, laundry, garage workshops storage room and utility room. Since great number of activities takes place in the service area, it should include facilities for the maintenance and serving the other areas of the house. The function of the living and sleeping areas is greatly dependent upon the efficiency of the service area. Kitchenis the place where food is prepared.It is connected to the work triangle area for storage and mixing center, preparation and cleaning center and cooking center. There should be a storage hanging kitchen cabinet witha minimal width of 0.60 meter. a. Function - The preparation of food is the basic function of the kitchen. It may be used however as dining and as laundry area. The proper placement of appliances, storage cabinets and furniture is important in planning to eliminate wasted motion. b. Location - Since the kitchen is the core of the service area, it should be located near the service entrance and near the waste-disposal area. The children’s play area should be visible from the kitchen and must be adjacent to the dining area and outdoor eating areas. 99
  71. 71. Sample Kitchen 100 The Work Triangle From the work sequences described above, it will be observe that there are three activities which relate to three main appliances – the refrigerator, the sink and the gas range or stove. The relationship of these three is commonly referred to as the work triangle. Types of kitchen: A. U-Shaped Kitchen.
  72. 72. 101 B. L-Shaped Type:
  73. 73. 102 C. Corridor Type:
  74. 74. Dining Area. This is the area where greatly depend on eating habits of the occupants. This should be located between the living room and kitchen. Its size and shape are determined by the size of the family. 103
  75. 75. 104 Sample Dining Area Bathroom. Bathroom is where the toilet and tub or shower is located to save economically in plumbing. As much as possible the toilet must be situated near the kitchen. The bath and toilet must be near the bedrooms, accessible to the living room even without passing through other rooms. The toilet and bath are generally located between bedrooms. In a two-storey residential house, the bedrooms, toilet, and bath are often located on the second floor. In this case, the stair must go up from the living room or hall if there is any. The stair is generally L or U-shaped and has a landing. Bathroom Doors and Windows. Bathroom door could be small as 55-60 cm. except for utility bathroom which requires not less than 70. cm. wide to allow passage of equipment as required. In general, bathroom wall contains only one door.
  76. 76. Entrances. Entrance is divided into several different types; the main entrance,theserviceentrance, and the special- purpose entrance. The entrance is composed of an outside waiting area like the porch, marquee or lanai and an insidewaiting area like foyer or entrance hall. It provides for and controls the flow of traffic into and out of a building. The main entrance provides access to the house. It is the one through which guests are welcomed and from which all major traffic patterns radiate. The main entrance should be readily identifiable. It should provide shelter to anyone who is waiting at the entrance. The service entrance provides access to the house through which supplies can be delivered to the service areas going through other parts of the house. It 105
  77. 77. should also provides access to parts of the service area like the garage, laundry or workshop. The special-purpose entrances and exits do not provide for outside traffic. Instead they provide for movement from the inside living area of the house to the outside living areas. A sliding door from the living area to the patio is a special-purpose entrance. It is not an entrance through which street, drive, or sidewalk traffic 106 would have an access. Garage and Carports A garageis an enclosed structure designed primarily to shelter an automobile. It maybe used for many secondary purposes – as a workshop, as a laundry, or for storage space. It is usually attached to the house in some manner to provide a sheltered entry. A carport is a garage with one or more of the exterior walls removed. It may consist of a free-standing roof completely separate from the house, or it may be built against the existing walls of the house.
  78. 78. 107 Suggested Activity 1 A. Directions:Read each item carefully. Choose the letter of the answer and write it on a separate sheet of paper. 1. A part of the house where sometimes used for eating and relaxing. a. porch b. living area c. bedroom d. dining area 2.It provides for and controls the flow of traffic into and out of a building. a. special purpose exit b. door c. entrance d. exit door 3.This room is generally located between the bedrooms. a. bathroom b. dining area c. kitchen d. foyer 4.This has an access to kitchen and living room. a. bathroom b. dirty kitchen c. dining hall d. dining area B. Essay. 1. Explain the significance of "kitchen work triangle" in designing a kitchen.
  79. 79. 2. Can toilet and bath be considered as sleeping area? Use of Appropriate Scale in Drawing a Floor Plan 108 Drafting Scales The architectural draftsman normally uses an architect’s scale for reducing and enlarging the size or measurement of an object. There are two system of measurement, namely, Metric system and English system. Sample Metric Scale
  80. 80. 109 Architectural Use of Metric System Always remember that the smallest the number used in metric scale, the bigger the size in the triangular scale, whereas, the largest the number used, the smallest size of actual measurement. 1:05 m. 1: 100 m. 1:10 m. 1: 200 m. 1:20 m. 1: 300 m. 1: 30 m. 1: 400 m. 1: 40 m. 1: 500 m. 1: 50 m. 1: 600 m. 1:75 m. 1:1000m. Note: The scale of 1:1000 m. or more is being used in Lot Plan and other topographical drawings. Full size scale The 1:1 is a full size scale and each division measures 1 mm. in width with the numbering of the calibrations at 10mm intervals. This same scale is convenient forratios of 1:10, 1:100, and 1:1000 Half size Scale The 1:2 is one-half size scale and each division is equals to 2 mm. with the calibration numbering at 20-unit intervals. In addition, this scale is convenient for ratios of 1:20, 1:200, and 1:2000. Architectural Use of metric Scale USE RATIO COMPARISON TO 1 METER CITY MAP 1:2500 1:1250 0.4 mm. equals to 1 M. 0.8 mm. equals to 1 M. PLAT PLANS 1:500 1:200 12 mm. equals to 1 M. 5 mm. equals to 1 M. PLOT PLANS 1:100 1: 80 10 mm. equals to 1 M. 12.5 mm. equals to 1M. FLOOR PLANS 1:75 1:50 1:40 13.3 mm. equals to 1 M. 20 mm. equals to 1 M. 25 mm. equals to 1M. DETAILS 1:20 1:10 1:5 50 mm. equals to 1M. 100 mm. equals to 1 M. 200 mm. equals to 1 M.
  81. 81. 110 Suggested Activity 2 A. Direction: Choose the letter of the best answer and write it on a separate sheet of paper. 1. It is the appropriate scale for plot plan. a. 1:2500 and 1:1250 c. 1: 5, 1:10, 1:20 b. 1:75,1:50,1:40 d. 1 :100, 1:80 2. Its equivalent is ten millimeters in metric figures. a. 0.0010 b. 0.010 c. 0.100 d. 0.10 3. It is equal to one hundred centimeters. a. 0.100 b. 0.0100c. 1.00 d. 10.0 4. It is also equivalent to one half kilometer. a. 1,000 meters c. 500 meters b. 50 meters d. 500 decimeters 5. It is a kind of scale equivalent to 1:1. a. half scale c. metric scale b. full scale d. none of the above B. Direction:Convert the following group of words/phrase into metric figures. 1. One meter and five centimeters ________________ 2. Ten meters and two decimeters ________________ 3. Ninety centimeters ________________ 4. Seventy five centimeters ________________ 5. One kilometer ________________ After gaining knowledge on the appropriate use of scale in drawing,it is important for you to know about some architectural drafting design standards, so brace yourself for this new experience.
  82. 82. Architectural Drafting Design Standards 111 Legal provisions: • Section 806 of the National Building Code (NBC). Size and Dimension of Rooms: a. Room for human habitations should be 6.00 square meters with at least a dimension of 2.00 meters. b. Kitchens should be 3.00 square meters with at least a dimension of 1.50 meters. c. Bath & Toilet – 1.20 square meters with at least dimension of 0.90 meters. • Section 1207. Stairs, Exit, and Occupant Loads. Width and Height.Every required exit doorway shall have a size to permit the installation of a door not less than 900 mm./90 cm. in width and not less than 2.00 meters in height. Stairways width. Stairway serving an occupant load of more than 50 shall not be less than 1.10 meters. While stairway serving an occupant load of 50 or less shall be 900 millimeters wide. Rise and run. The rise of every step in a stairway shall not exceed 200 millimeters and the run shall not be less than 250 millimeters.  Other guidelines must be observed in the arrangement of rooms in drawing floor plan: 1. Built-in cabinets or closets are usually found in the bedrooms, kitchen, and dining room. Open shelves may be constructed in the kitchen and dining room. 2. In some one-storey houses, the bedrooms toilet, and bath are elevated from the other rooms. In this case, the stairs leading to these rooms must be indicated on the floor plan. Two or three steps, each has 18 cm. or 19 cm. high from each other and 25 cm wide, may be shown in the plan. All these measurements must be drawn to scale.
  83. 83. 3. Since most of the time is spent by the members of a family in the bedrooms at home, these rooms must be located far from noise, dust, and polluted air coming from garbage pits or from the kitchens and toilets of the neighboring houses. 4. If furniture and house appliances are to be shown in each room, these furnishings should be drawn on the same scale in the floor plan. 5. If the floor plan will be traced on tracing paper in order to indicate the electrical or water connections, these furnishings should not be shown on the tracing. 6. In presentation drawings, the landscaping around the floor plan may be added. 7. It is on the floor plan where the cutting plane lines for at least two full-sectional elevations (cross and longitudinal) are indicated. These sectional elevations are usually labeled as Section A-A and Section B-B, depending on the capital letter used at the extremities of the cutting plane lines. These cutting plane lines need not be continuous or straight. They are often drawn in colored ink. ( see illustration) 8. Window and Door symbols should be indicated in the outer walls of the floor plan opposite to door and window openings to determine the total number and specification. Entrance and Exit. There shall be at least one entrance and another one for exit. Windows opening should be 10% of the total floor square area according to the National Building Code. 112 Example: Bedroom size of 3.00m. x 4.00 m. = 12 square meters x 10% = 1.20m. window width opening. Concrete Hollow Blocks (CHB) for Walling and Partitions Sizes: • CHB - 0.10 T x 0.40 W. x 0.20 H. (4” T x 16”W x 8”H) is used for interior walls or sometimes exterior wall with no heavy loads. • CHB - 0.15 x 0.20 x 0.40 (6” x 8” x 16”) is used for exterior wall sometimes forinterior wall.
  84. 84. • Plastering of CHB wall should not be less than 0.015 mm. or not more than 113 to 0.05 cm in thickness. Note: In lay outing floor plan walls, it should be scaled with same sizes of all actual materials to be used. If the occupancy wants to use 0.10 x 0.20 x 0.40 CHB plus plastering of 0.015 mm thickness on both side walls, the total thickness of the wall is 0.13 cm. On the other hand, intends to use 0.15 x 0.20 x 0.40 CHB plus plastering of 0.015 mm thickness on both sides a total average is 0.018 cm. since it is very hard to layout the accurate scale of 0.18 wall thickness, so most draftsman prefer to use 0.20 cm. wall in lay outing floor plan. Wall openings: Entrance door- is preferably with 0.90 cm. to 1.00 m. width. Bedroom door- has a minimum width of 0.80 cm. Toilet and Bath door- have a minimum width of 0.70 cm. to 0.80 cm. Minimal width of windows- is preferably 0.60 cm. (Please refer to Schedule of Doors and Windows). Suggested Activity 3 A. Direction:Choose the letter of the best answer and write it on a separate sheet of paper. 1. It is the standard thickness of wall in meter using 4” x 16” x 8” CHB . a. 0. 20 m.b. 0.10 m. c. 0.18 m. d. 0.13 m. 2. Standard thickness of wall in meter using 6” x 16” x 8” CHB. a. 0. 20 m.b. 0.10 m. c. 0.20 m.d. 0.18 m. 3. It is the standard size of an entrance door opening. a. 0.90 m. b. 0.80 m.c. 0.75 m. d. 1.00 m. 4. They are overhang roof lines in hidden lines form of floor plan. a. dormer b. canopy c. eave line d. shed line
  85. 85. 5. It is a minimum area of kitchen. a. 4.00 sq.m. b. 3.00 sq.m. c. 5.00 sq.m. d. 7.00 sq.m. B.Direction: Draw the symbols of the following: Door/Window Symbol 114 6. Interior Door 7. Swinging Door 8. Double Door 9. Accordion Door 10. Bay Window
  86. 86. 115 Suggested Activity 4 Directions: Draw a floorplan by following the steps and the given requirements and specifications below. 1. Prepare the needed tools and materials. 2. Construct the wall thickness. Use 0.15cm. CHB for the major walls. Start from the center of the wall. 3. Divide the floor area to other areas of the house. Use a 10 cm interior wall partitions. Compute each area of the house, then check the total floor area. 4. Lay out the position of doors and windows by center line and by their widths with a 4H pencil. The standard width of doors is 90-95 centimeters like the main entrance door. While 80 centimeters for bedrooms and service doors and 0 .75 centimeters for toilet and bath doors. 5. Label each part of the floor plan. Draw the kitchen and apply the work triangle principle in designing the kitchen. Draft the toilet and bath draw the fixtures properly. 6. Lay-out extension lines. Use any dimension limits and lay out dimensions legibly and never repeat dimensions. 7. Draw the schedule of doors and windows. Name the doors and windows by sizes. Finally, draw the roof line of the floor plan. Note: Your output will be evaluated according to the following criteria below. Your teacher will determine the appropriate percentages across criteria.  Accuracy of: - lines - scaled measurements - notations and specifications  Work values: - work attitude/behavior - safe work habits
  87. 87. - housekeeping and maintenance - time management How did you find doing the activity? It is challenging? At this point, you are going to perform the given activity below to assess yourself of the acquired knowledge and skills in floor planning based on the architectural drafting standards. Keep trying! 116 Summative Assessment: Lesson 4 Suggested Activity 5 Directions:Using the same operation, draw floor plan using the given measurements below. Given: A floor plan of 6.00 x 9.00 m. with two bedrooms. Use a scale of 1:100 m. Use correct drafting tools for the right job. Assessment Tool: Performance/Product Rubrics Name: ______________________ Date: __________ Year & Section: _______________ Criteria 5 points 3 points 1 point Line Technique Application of (all) various lines was used according to standards At least 3-5 lines were used not according to standards More than 5 lines were used not according to standards Accuracy All measurements and notations needed were accurately done At least 3-5 measurements and notations needed were inaccurately done More than 5 measurements and notations needed were inaccurately done Layout/Proportion All drawings were drawn proportionately and was layout properly Layout was good but 1-2 drawing were out of proportion More than 2 drawings were drawn out of proportion and improperly layout Neatness Finished output was neatly done, no erasures nor any smudges Erasures/smudges are observable on the finished output Finished output has so many erasures/ smudges present
  88. 88. 117 Time Management Finish the task ahead of the given time/date Finish the task on the given time/date Unable to finish the task on the given time/date RATING SCALE: Points earned Numerical Rating Descriptive Rating 21 - 25 91 - 100 Outstanding 16 - 20 86 - 90 Very Good 11- 15 81 - 85 Good 6 - 10 76 - 80 Fair 1 - 5 71 - 75 Needs Improvement Teacher’s Comments: Teacher’s Signature: _____________________ Date: _____________ Congratulations! For those who passed. But for those who didn’t make it. You still have time to do your research.Now this time you are going to studyanother part of a house plan, the Roof Plan.. Have fun! Lesson 5. Draft Roof Plans This lesson is designed to help you prepare a layout of a good roof plan design using the same floor plan in the preceding lessons. Skills Assessment Direction: Listed below are some of the most important skills that you must gain in order to draft a quality floor plan. On the right side of the matrix lists the skills expected of you to master. Rate yourself by checking “Not much”, if you are not so familiar yet, “A little” and/or “A lot”, if you are already familiar with the skills. Don’t feel bad if you checked “Not Much” in all of the skills. Keep in mind that this is being administered to determine your pre-entry knowledge of and skills on the lesson to be presented.
  89. 89. Skills in Drafting Roof Plans Not Much A little A lot I can indicate the dimensions of the roof plan based on the floor plan. I know how to draw roof plans according to drafting standards. I know how to use standard architectural symbols in drafting roof plans. I know how to layout drawings according to sheet contents. I can draw framing details of roof plans according to architectural drafting standards. TECHNICAL TERMS ENCOUNTERED IN DRAFTING ROOF PLANS Angle- iron is a structural piece of rolled steel shaped to form a 900 angle. Butterfly roof- is a roof with two sides sloping down toward the interior of the house. 118 Dome- is a hemispherical roof form. Dormer- is a structure projecting from a sloping roof to accommodate a window. Eave- is a part of a roof that projects over a wall. Fascia- is a surface finish material used to cover another surface. Flashing- is the material used for covering exposed places outside the building like firewalls. Flat roof- is a roof with a minimum pitch for drainage. Gable- is the triangular end of an exterior wall above the eaves. Gable roof- is a roof that slopes from two sides only. Galvanize- is a lead and zinc bath treatment to prevent rusting. Gambrel roof- is a symmetrical roof with two different pitches or slopes on each side.
  90. 90. Hip rafter- is the diagonal rafter that extends from the plate to the ridge to form the hip. Hip roof- is a roof with four sloping sides. Mansard roof- is a roof with two slopes on each sides with the lower slope much steeper than the upper. Overhang- is the horizontal distance that a roof projects beyond a wall. Pitch- is the angle between the top plate and the ridge board. It is also referred to as the rise over the run. Purlin- is a horizontal structure member which hold rafters together. Rafters- are structural members used to frame a roof. Ridge- is the top edge of the roof where rafters meet. Ridge cap- is a wood or metal cap used for roofing at the ridge. 119 Rise- is the vertical height of a roof. Roll roofing- is a material of fiber and asphalt manufactured in rolls. Shed roof- is a flat roof slanting in one direction. Shingles- are thin pieces of wood or other materials that overlap each other in covering a roof. Truss- is a prefabricated triangular shaped unit used for supporting roof loads over long spans. Valley- is the internal angle formed by two slopes of a roof. Valley rafter- is the diagonal rafter forming the intersection of two sloping roofs.
  91. 91. Hip Roof Gable Roof Shed Roof Saltbox Roof Gambrel Roof Gullwing Roof Half-Hip Roof Mansard Roof Dormer Roof 120 Roof It is the external upper covering of a house or building. It shows the size, shape and the type of materials that should be used in the roofing system. Basic types of roofs: There are different types of roofing system that are commonly used in the building construction. The following are:  Gable – most common, built with “common” rafters  Hip – provides overhang on all four sides  Gambrel – provides more space on the second floor  Mansard – combination of Hip and Gambrel  Shed – frequently used to attach one structure to another
  92. 92. 1. Gable Roof - has a pitch on two sides but no pitch on the gable ends. This type of roof is used extensively on Philippines “bahaykubo” and raw houses in subdivision. The pitch or angle of a gable roof varies from the high pitch roofs found on chalet A-frame style buildings to the low pitch roofs found on most ranch homes. 2. Hip Roofs - are used when eave-line protection is desired around the entire perimeter of the building. Hip roofs are very popular in warm climates. They are commonly used on Regency and French Provincial homes. 3. Flat Roofs- are used to create a low silhouette on modern homes. Slightly heavier rafters are needed for flat roofs. Built-up asphalt construction is often used on flat roofs. 121
  93. 93. 4. Shed-Type Roofs- are higher at one end than the other. They may be used effectively when two levels exist where additional light is needed. 5. Overhang - is a roof type where the pitch is low and extends on the side of the building perpendicular to the rafters direction. It should provide additional protection from the sun and rain. 122
  94. 94. These five roofing system are commonly used in the construction sector. However, there are other types of roofs that are rarely used in the construction. 123 Roof Plan A roof plan is one showing the outline of the roof and the major object lines indicating ridges, valleys, hips and openings. The roof plan is not a framing plan, but a plan view of the roof. To develop a roof framing plan, a roof must be stripped of its covering to expose the position of each structural member and each header. The roof plan can be used as the basic outline for the roof framing plan. Below are samples of blueprint drawings of roof plans, roof framing plan and other informative drawings. The roof plan indicates the following: a. Roofing sheets are materials laid to cover the total area of roofing space of the building. b. Ridge roll is a plain G.I. sheet is usually laid at the center top of ridge of the building. c. Ridge cap is the material used when the roofing system is in the form of hip roof.
  95. 95. d. Eaves line or gutter line is shown in the form of imaginary line to indicate 124 the gutter line. Different Types of Roofing Sheets: 1. Corrugated G.I Sheet 2. 4-V Corrugated Sheet 3. Ardex Corrugated Sheet 4. Kanalelas Corrugated Sheet. 5. Steel Bricks 6. Color bond Custom Orb
  96. 96. SAMPLE ROOFING MATERIALS AND ITS SIZE Types of Roofing Sheets 125
  97. 97. Sample of Roofing Materials Showing Width and Length 126 Roof Framing Plans The following are the types of roof frame and the important elements that you must be familiar in the roof framing plan. Each of these elements can be better understood as you go on to the discussion particularly in the presentation of sample illustrations in the preceding pages. Types of roof frame:  Rafter Type  Truss Type Rafter Type  Common Rafter – extended at right angles from the plate or girts to the ridge.  Hip Rafter – laid diagonally from the corner of the plate or girts to the ridge.
  98. 98.  Valley Rafter – placed diagonally from the plate or girts at the intersection of gable extension with the main roof.  Jack Rafter –any rafter which does not extend from the plate or girts to the 127 ridge.  Hip Jack – framed between hip rafters and girts.  Valley Jack – framed between the ridge and valley rafter.  Cripple Jack – frame between the hip and the valley rafter.  Octagonal Rafter – placed on an octagonal shaped plate at the central apex or ridge pole. Truss Type  Is a built-up frame commonly employed on a long span roof unsupported by intermediate columns and partitions.
  99. 99.  Is a design of a series of triangles used to distribute load, stiffen the structure and flexibility for the interior spacing as well as strength and rigidity. ROOF FRAMING SHOWING THE DIMENSION OF EACH MEMBER 128 Suggested Activity 1 Roof plan is the upper part of the building. This can be drawn through the following steps (see the operating steps): 1. Given: A scaled floor plan. 2. Draw or trace the given scaled floor plan using hidden lines without doors and windows. 3. From end line of the floor plan, lay out a standard 1.00 m. eave lines around the floor plan. 4. From eave lines, extend a 0.20 m. lines for gutter width, and analyze how many and where to indicate a 0.10 m. circular holes for downspout. 5. Select roof types required. From rectangular form of floor plan, get the center and project a line along the eave lines.
  100. 100. 6. If hip roof types will be used, project a 45 degree angle in all corners of eave Linesintersecting the center line to create a hip roof. From drawn hip roof layout, draw two lines at 0.10 m. width on both sides representing the ridge roll width. 7. Project a symbol (thin lines) for roof covering, indicate from the center of roof, the word slopes indicating a perpendicular line with arrowheads. 8. Complete the working drawing by supplying the required dimensions with proper dimensioning and labels, then finalize the drawing. Note: Your output will be evaluated according to the following criteria below. Your teacher will determine the appropriate percentages across criteria. 129  Accuracy of: - lines - scaled measurements - notations and specifications  Work values: - work attitude/behavior - safe work habits - housekeeping and maintenance - time management Now, do this simple activity to find out how much you learn in drafting roof plan. Check for your strength and weaknesses, this will help you in doing next activities.. Suggested Activity 2 Directions:Read each item carefully. Choose the letter of the best answer and write it on a separate sheet of paper. _____1. A horizontal structural member which hold the rafters together. a. Rafter b. Purlins c. Rise d. Run _____2. A prefabricated triangular shaped unit supporting the roof loads over long spans. a. Truss b. Shingles c. Rise d. Ridge _____3. The top edge of the roof where rafters meet a. Ridge b. Rafter c. Overhang d. Purlins _____4. The angle between the top plate and the ridge board referred to as the rise over the run.
  101. 101. a. Pitch b. Slope c. Valley d. Truss _____5. A roof with four sloping sides. a. Shed b. Hip c. Gable d. Mansard _____6. The part of a roof that extends over the wall. a. Overhang b. Eave c. Fascia d. Gutter _____7. A surface finish material used to cover another surface. a. Flashing b. Fascia c. Overhang d. Dormer _____8.A flat roof slanting in one direction. a. Gable b. Hip c. Dormer d. Shed _____9. A diagonal rafter that extends from the plate to the ridge to form a hip roof Type. a. Purlins b. Hip Rafters c. Truss d. Flashing 130 ____10. The vertical height of a roof. a. Rise b. Run c. Ridge d. Eave Summative Assessment: Lesson 5 Suggested Activity 3 Direction: Using the floor plan specified on page 45, draft a roof plan appropriate to the given sizes and shapes. Note:All sides must have an overhang of 1.50 meters. Note: You can use the same evaluation instrument used in Summative Assessment in Lesson 4 or your teacher will provide other assessment tool. Lesson 6. Draft Ceiling Plan This lesson is designed to enhance student to draw ceiling plans following the standards of National Building Code of the Philippines. This will guide you to be familiar to the different features of the ceiling plans. Skills Assessment Direction: Listed below are some of the most important skills that you must gain in order to draft a quality floor plan. On the right side of the matrix lists the skills expected of you to master. Rate yourself by checking “Not much”, if you are not so familiar yet, “A little” and/or “A lot”, if you are already familiar with the skills.
  102. 102. Don’t feel bad if you checked “Not Much” in all of the skills. Keep in mind that this is being administered to determine your pre-entry knowledge of and skills on the lesson to be presented. Skills in Drafting Ceiling Plans Not Much A little A lot I know how to draw vertical heights from finish floor line to ceiling line according to architectural drafting standards. I know how to indicate lighting fixtures and fire protection devices on the ceiling plan based on architectural drafting standards. Technical Terms Encountered in Drafting Ceiling Plans Acoustic- is the science of sounds in housing, materials used to keep down noise within a room or to prevent it from an overhead lining inside of a room. Ceiling Joist- is the structural member in building construction that holds the ceiling board. Ceiling Board- is a ceiling covering materials. Cornice- is a wood or any material project beyond the wall of the ceiling. Fixtures- is a piece of electric or plumbing equipment which is a part of the structure. Gypsum Board- is a board made of plaster with covering of paper. Hanger- is an iron or wood strap that is used to support a joist. Insulation- is a material obstructing the passage of sound, heat, or cold from one surface to another. Lighting Fixtures- is the position or placement of lighting fixtures of the house. Reflected Ceiling Plan- is a drawing of a room or building, looking down at the interior ceiling. Smoke Detectors- is a fire protection device that is used to detect smokeor gasses produced by smoldering fires particles of combustion. 131
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Grade 9 TLE-ICT Technical Drafting Architectural Layout and Details

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