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MANAGEMENT
EDUCATION
QUO
VADIS
GERHARD APFELTHALER
MARCH 16, 2016
MANAGEMENT
EDUCATION
QUO
VADIS
GERHARD APFELTHALER
MARCH 16, 2016
STRUCTURE
1. The changing macro environment
2. The changing student landscape
3. The changing competition
4. The changing ...
“Of the 26
institutions still
surviving since
the 15th
century, 22 are
universities”
Ives & Jarvenpaa, 1996
AT THE BEGINNI...
“Only 500 of the
4,000 plus
colleges are
safe”
BUT ALSO
THE BAD NEWS…
Sellingo, 2013
• Business schools as forces of evil?
• Managers, not MBAs (Mintzberg, 2004)
• Management education has little effect upon...
TUITION AND INCOME
THE CHANGING MACRO ENVIRONMENT
STUDENT LOAN DEBT SOARING
THE CHANGING MACRO ENVIRONMENT
• 59% of US companies are
finding it difficult to attract
critical-skills employees
• Once companies do manage
to fill the...
• WEF: unprecedented developments in genetics, AI,
robotics, nanotechnology, 3D printing, biotechnology
• In May 2015, Ube...
• 69% believe office attendance is unnecessary on a
regular basis (Cisco)
• Only 20% say that leaders can be trusted (Pew ...
UNDERGRADUATES STUDYING
MORE THAN 20 HOURS A WEEK
1961: 66%
2003: 20%
THE CHANGING STUDENT LANDSCAPE
Philip Babcock and Mi...
THE CHANGING STUDENT LANDSCAPE
Arum & Roksa, 2011
HOW STUDENTS SPEND THEIR TIME
1. 51% of college students had not written
a paper of more than 20 pages in their
senior year.
2. Approximately 45% of stu...
Percentage of A’s
in 1961: 15%
Percentage of A’s
in 2008: 43%
THE CHANGING STUDENT LANDSCAPE
A NATION OF GENIUSES?
Rojstac...
IN 2014, IN THE US:
MORE THAN
900,000
IN 2013, IN
EUROPE: 340,000
FOREIGN STUDENTS IN
THE US AND EUROPE
THE CHANGING STUDE...
DIVERSITY
•Positive relationship between gender
diversity and performance of companies
(Columbia Business School and anoth...
1. Number of institutions of higher
education in India in 1947: 27
2. Number of institutions of higher
education in India ...
1. University of Phoenix 477,000 students
(2012) and #64 among top 100
advertisers: $614 million (2012)
2. Free alternativ...
1. Private equity investments in education in 2011: $224
million
2. Coursera raised an additional $49 million in 2015,
and...
21
THE CHANGING NEEDS OF BUSINESS
73% of business leaders contend there is a
substantial skills gap in the current U.S.
wo...
2.1
1.5
1.1
1.0
1.0
0.8
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.0
-0.1
-0.1
-0.1
-0.4
-0.4
-0.4
-0.4
-0....
Graduate Management Admission Council, Poll of Employers, 2015
TOP 5 GOALS COMPANIES PURSUE
THE CHANGING NEEDS OF BUSINESS...
TOP JOBS COMPANIES OFFER
THE CHANGING NEEDS OF BUSINESS
1. Sales (Europe, US)
2. Finance (US)
3. Marketing (Europe, US)
4....
FACTORS EMPLOYERS CONSIDER
Graduate Management Admission Council, Corporate Recruiters Survey, 2015
THE CHANGING NEEDS OF ...
FACTORS EMPLOYERS CONSIDER
Graduate Management Admission Council, Corporate Recruiters Survey, 2015
THE CHANGING NEEDS OF ...
87% of leaders say most college graduates lack
the most important skills required to succeed
into today’s workplace
(Gradu...
1. Real world experience
2. Leadership development
3. Communication
4. People management
5. Strategy
THE CHANGING NEEDS OF...
• More than 80% expect technology to support delivery of
their studies
• 90% want flexible degrees that allow to mix study...
MANAGEMENT EDUCATION
QUO VADIS?
GERHARD APFELTHALER
MARCH 16, 2016
1. Technology in Delivery
2. Technology as added
value
...
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This is a presentation intended to stimulate discussions around the future of management education / education at business schools. It outlines a number of macro trends such as tuition and student debt, millennials, competitive factors, etc.

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2016 management education quo vadis

  1. 1. MANAGEMENT EDUCATION QUO VADIS GERHARD APFELTHALER MARCH 16, 2016
  2. 2. MANAGEMENT EDUCATION QUO VADIS GERHARD APFELTHALER MARCH 16, 2016
  3. 3. STRUCTURE 1. The changing macro environment 2. The changing student landscape 3. The changing competition 4. The changing needs of business 5. The voice of business schools
  4. 4. “Of the 26 institutions still surviving since the 15th century, 22 are universities” Ives & Jarvenpaa, 1996 AT THE BEGINNING, THE GOOD NEWS…
  5. 5. “Only 500 of the 4,000 plus colleges are safe” BUT ALSO THE BAD NEWS… Sellingo, 2013
  6. 6. • Business schools as forces of evil? • Managers, not MBAs (Mintzberg, 2004) • Management education has little effect upon career success (or managerial performance)(Grey, 2004) • Differences in starting salaries between MBA and undergraduate degree holders, disappear over time (Pfeffer & Fong, 2002) • Most programs have been following the same structure since the 1950s – academic calendars, business function orientation, seat-time, semester courses, grade point average evaluation (Friga, Bettis & Sullivan, 2003) CRITIQUE FROM THE INSIDE
  7. 7. TUITION AND INCOME THE CHANGING MACRO ENVIRONMENT
  8. 8. STUDENT LOAN DEBT SOARING THE CHANGING MACRO ENVIRONMENT
  9. 9. • 59% of US companies are finding it difficult to attract critical-skills employees • Once companies do manage to fill their critical-skills positions, 36% report difficulty retaining those employees • The fastest growing segment will be workers aged 45-64. • Workers aged 40 and above exceed the number under 40 for the first time ever. THE CHANGING MACRO ENVIRONMENT AGING WORKFORCE
  10. 10. • WEF: unprecedented developments in genetics, AI, robotics, nanotechnology, 3D printing, biotechnology • In May 2015, Uber hired 40 highly qualified researchers and staff (almost the entire department) from Carnegie Mellon’s National Robotics Engineering Center. • According to WEF, 5.1 million jobs in the US will be lost to disruptive labor market changes over the period 2015–2020 THE CHANGING MACRO ENVIRONMENT FOURTH INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION • 50% of respondents in Pew Research Center predict massive displacement of the workforce by AI and robotics • 50% of respondents in Pew Research Center predict no net effects of AI and robotics on labor
  11. 11. • 69% believe office attendance is unnecessary on a regular basis (Cisco) • Only 20% say that leaders can be trusted (Pew Research) • 71% don’t obey social media policy at work (Cisco) • 40% believe that they should be promoted at least every 2 years (Time) • 60% recognize their current position as a mere stepping-stone (Time) • 84% say making a difference in the world is most important (Bentley University) • 92% believe businesses should be measured by more than profits (Deloitte) THE MILLENNIALS THE CHANGING STUDENT LANDSCAPE
  12. 12. UNDERGRADUATES STUDYING MORE THAN 20 HOURS A WEEK 1961: 66% 2003: 20% THE CHANGING STUDENT LANDSCAPE Philip Babcock and Mindy Marks, “The Falling Time Cost of College: Evidence from Half a Century of Time Use Data,” June 1, 2008.
  13. 13. THE CHANGING STUDENT LANDSCAPE Arum & Roksa, 2011 HOW STUDENTS SPEND THEIR TIME
  14. 14. 1. 51% of college students had not written a paper of more than 20 pages in their senior year. 2. Approximately 45% of students show no significant gains in critical thinking, complex reasoning, and writing skills as assessed by CLA (Collegiate Learning Assessment) THE CHANGING STUDENT LANDSCAPE Arum & Roksa, 2011 STUDENT LEARNING
  15. 15. Percentage of A’s in 1961: 15% Percentage of A’s in 2008: 43% THE CHANGING STUDENT LANDSCAPE A NATION OF GENIUSES? Rojstaczer and Christopher Healy, “Where AIs Ordinary: The Evolution of American College and University Grading, 1940-2009,” Teachers College Record 114, no. 7 (2012)
  16. 16. IN 2014, IN THE US: MORE THAN 900,000 IN 2013, IN EUROPE: 340,000 FOREIGN STUDENTS IN THE US AND EUROPE THE CHANGING STUDENT LANDSCAPE
  17. 17. DIVERSITY •Positive relationship between gender diversity and performance of companies (Columbia Business School and another at the Credit Suisse Research Institute, 2012) •Diverse groups are more successful in completing their tasks than homogenous groups (Stanford, Northwestern University and Brigham Young University, 2009) •Racially diverse groups outperform homogeneous groups (Stanford University, University of Illinois, 2006) THE CHANGING STUDENT LANDSCAPE
  18. 18. 1. Number of institutions of higher education in India in 1947: 27 2. Number of institutions of higher education in India in 2006: 367 universities and 18,000 colleges 3. Participation in higher education in China in 1990: 3 % 4. Participation in higher education in China in 2006: 22 % THE CHANGING COMPETITION GLOBAL COMPETITION
  19. 19. 1. University of Phoenix 477,000 students (2012) and #64 among top 100 advertisers: $614 million (2012) 2. Free alternatives: Khan Academy, University of the People, Uglobal, Western Governors University, Udemy 3. First MOOC with 160,000 students 4. 16 million registered users enrolled at Coursera, with about 1 million in India 5. 5 million students at EdX 6. 4 million registered users at Udacity 7. 15+ US states allow transfer of Coursera credits THE NEW COMPETITORS THE CHANGING COMPETITION
  20. 20. 1. Private equity investments in education in 2011: $224 million 2. Coursera raised an additional $49 million in 2015, and is now valued at approximately $500 million 3. Private equity investments in educational technology in 2012: $ 1.1 billion 4. Apple iTunes University passed 1 billion downloads in early 2013 5. MacArthur Foundation’s $2 million prize for development of “digital badges” 6. 70% of business schools and 90% of employers agree that technological innovation will bring new entrants to the business education market (CarringtonCrisp, 2014) THE NEXT NEW COMPETITORS THE CHANGING COMPETITION
  21. 21. 21 THE CHANGING NEEDS OF BUSINESS 73% of business leaders contend there is a substantial skills gap in the current U.S. workforce resulting in: • Significant rise in talent-related expenses (replacement costs) • Negative impacts on innovation, pursuing market opportunities, key strategic initiatives and growth (Northeastern Univ) THE TALENT GAP
  22. 22. 2.1 1.5 1.1 1.0 1.0 0.8 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.0 -0.1 -0.1 -0.1 -0.4 -0.4 -0.4 -0.4 -0.4 -0.5 -0.5 -0.6 -0.6 -0.6 -0.6 -0.7 -0.8 -0.8 -0.9 -0.9 -0.9 -1.0 -1.1 -1.2 -1.4 -1.5 Figure 8: The mismatch between supply and demand for talent in 2021 Strongest trend talent surplus Demand and supply for talent in balance Strongest trend talent defcit Source: Oxford Economics Notes 1. The table ranks countries according to how their talent gaps are expected to evolve over the next decade. 2. Talent deficits are shown as red (negative numbers), talent surpluses as green (positive numbers), and broad balance as yellow. 3. Numbers report the average annual % change of the deficit/surplus. THE CHANGING MACRO ENVIRONMENT MISMATCH BETWEEN TALENT SUPPLY & DEMAND IN 2021 Oxford Economics, 2012
  23. 23. Graduate Management Admission Council, Poll of Employers, 2015 TOP 5 GOALS COMPANIES PURSUE THE CHANGING NEEDS OF BUSINESS 1. Improve performance and productivity (60%) 2. Expand customer base (52%) 3. Launch of new products (39%) 4. Cost reducation (38%) 5. Improving customer service (35%)
  24. 24. TOP JOBS COMPANIES OFFER THE CHANGING NEEDS OF BUSINESS 1. Sales (Europe, US) 2. Finance (US) 3. Marketing (Europe, US) 4. Data Analytics (Europe, US) 5. Operations / Logistics (Europe, US) Graduate Management Admission Council, Corporate Recruiters Survey, 2015
  25. 25. FACTORS EMPLOYERS CONSIDER Graduate Management Admission Council, Corporate Recruiters Survey, 2015 THE CHANGING NEEDS OF BUSINESS
  26. 26. FACTORS EMPLOYERS CONSIDER Graduate Management Admission Council, Corporate Recruiters Survey, 2015 THE CHANGING NEEDS OF BUSINESS 1. Proven ability to perform 2. Strong oral communication skills 3. Strong technical and quantitative skills 4. History of increased job responsibility 5. Strong writing skills 6. Industry of prior work experience
  27. 27. 87% of leaders say most college graduates lack the most important skills required to succeed into today’s workplace (Graduate Management Admission Council, Corporate Recruiters Survey, 2015) 90% of employers agree that many business graduates are strong academically, but demonstrate little evidence of professional skills (CarringtonCrisp, See The Future, 2014) THE CHANGING NEEDS OF BUSINESS BUT, UNFORTUNATELY…
  28. 28. 1. Real world experience 2. Leadership development 3. Communication 4. People management 5. Strategy THE CHANGING NEEDS OF BUSINESS UMBS, 2002 EMPLOYERS EXPECT BUSINESS SCHOOLS TO FOCUS ON 70% (90% in UK) believe that business schools should develop joint degrees with employers (CarringtonCrisp, 2014)
  29. 29. • More than 80% expect technology to support delivery of their studies • 90% want flexible degrees that allow to mix study and work (and life) with completion over an extended period • 60% expect business schools (90% in UK) to develop more degrees which provide exemptions from professional qualifications • 70% expect degrees to increasingly be delivered in modules, with credit for each part completed • More than 80% expect a personalized approach to their experience, especially with career support CarringtonCrisp, See The Future, 2014 STUDENTS EXPECTATION FROM BUSINESS SCHOOLS… THE CHANGING STUDENT LANDSCAPE
  30. 30. MANAGEMENT EDUCATION QUO VADIS? GERHARD APFELTHALER MARCH 16, 2016 1. Technology in Delivery 2. Technology as added value 3. Diversity and Internationalization 4. Industry integration / applied nature 5. Liberal studies 6. Convenience 7. Individualization 8. Life-long learning
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This is a presentation intended to stimulate discussions around the future of management education / education at business schools. It outlines a number of macro trends such as tuition and student debt, millennials, competitive factors, etc.

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