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Training Need Analysis Training and Development

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Kannur University MBA slides 3rd Semester, Training Need Analysis, Training and Development Class note for the students
details about the TNA is discussed

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Training Need Analysis Training and Development

  1. 1. MBA – HR : 3rd semester Training & Development: Systems & Practices Unit-2: Training Need Analysis Vimal Jyothi Institute of Management & Research- Chemperi Kannur Dt, Kerala-670632. www.vjim.ac.in; 91-4602213399 Jinuachan Vadakkemulajanal, Faculty -administrator; jinuachan@gmail.com
  2. 2. Unit II: Training Needs Analysis Syllabus: unit -2 • The Process and Approaches of TNA. • Organizational Analysis, Requirements Analysis, Task, Knowledge, Skill, and Ability Analysis. • Person Analysis, Team Work for Conducting Training Needs Analysis. • TNA and Training Process Design, Output Of TNA, Focus on Small Business 2jinuachan@gmail.com: HR: T&D: TNA
  3. 3. Training Needs Analysis/ assessment 3jinuachan@gmail.com: HR: T&D: TNA
  4. 4. TNA means…. • A Training Needs Analysis (TNA) is used to assess an organization’s training needs. • The root of the TNA is the gap analysis. This is an assessment of the gap between the knowledge, skills and attitudes that the people in the organization currently possess and the knowledge, skills and attitudes that they require to meet the organization’s objectives. • It helps to outline the desired skills and abilities to be developed in order to improve the performance of the organization jinuachan@gmail.com: HR: T&D: TNA 4
  5. 5. What is a training needs assessment? • It is the process of identifying training needs in an organization for the purpose of improving employee job performance. • Process by which an organizations’ training and development needs are identified • Performance effectiveness in obtaining goals • Current or future skills gaps of employees • Employee preferences for training • New ways of performing tasks • Prevention of performance problems • Mandated training needs (e.g., legal) 5jinuachan@gmail.com: HR: T&D: TNA
  6. 6. Scope of TNA. • Understand the skill GAP and remedy for it • It begins with Job and ends with customer expectation • Different from available course offerings to needy Why Need assessment process: To determine.. 1. The content of learning, content development 2. The need of learning, out put oriented study 3. The depth of learning, expertise level need 4. Immanence of learning scenario, industry/govt rules 6jinuachan@gmail.com: HR: T&D: TNA
  7. 7. Scope of TNA /Why TNA 5. Who Receives Training, target identification 6. Type of Training; on/off the job, in/shallow depth 7. Frequency of Training, routine, exceptional, one time 8. The priority of learning in terms of learner/ organization/ topics 9. Buy V/s Build Training Decision, In-house or hired trainers 10.Training V/s Other HR Options Such as Selection or Job Redesign 11.How Training Should Be Evaluated, training appraisal 7jinuachan@gmail.com: HR: T&D: TNA
  8. 8. Indications for the need of training, Why training? The Context of training? • New Legislation; rules regulations • Identification of lack of Basic Skills; IT, S/w • Poor Performance; below standard • Frequent need for equipment repairs • Accidents, Excessive scrap • People use different method to do one job, standardization lacks • Deadlines are not met • Bottlenecks in production process • New Technology; Automation of the process • Customer Requests; service, delivery • New Products; tech intensified products+ services • Higher Performance Standards; • New Jobs; Business analytics 8jinuachan@gmail.com: HR: T&D: TNA
  9. 9. Approaches of assessment Systematic approach: • Organization: needs as per vision • Person: As per development and right person model • Task: Knowledge and skill expected in individual Learner centered approach Learner as the center of assessment Job responsibilities and task to carry 9jinuachan@gmail.com: HR: T&D: TNA
  10. 10. Methods or Ways of appraisal 1. Performance appraisal data, Job Analysis 2. Questionnaire, Surveys 3. Observation and work study using consultants 4. Outside assessment centers 5. Analysis of other data from the workplace 6. Direct observation 7. Questionnaires, assessments/survey 8. Business and Production Reports 9. Test or Examination 10.Group Conferences 10jinuachan@gmail.com: HR: T&D: TNA
  11. 11. .. Methods or Ways of appraisal.. 11.consultation with persons in key positions, and/or with specific knowledge 12.Review of relevant literature 13.focus groups reports 14.Records, HRIS & report studies 15.work study sample report 16.Interviews of employees and Managers/ supervisors 11jinuachan@gmail.com: HR: T&D: TNA
  12. 12. Classification of training needs • There are different types of training needs based on expected competency as: Diagnostic needs Analytical needs OthersCompliance needs Democratic needs 12jinuachan@gmail.com: HR: T&D: TNA
  13. 13. Other training needs • Training needs can also be classified as: – Normative needs • a need compared to a standard. – Felt need • why individuals think they want to learn. – Expressed/demanded need • based on the demand & supply gaps of knowledge and skill. – Comparative need • compared to others there is a need. – Anticipated future need • based on projected future demand. 13jinuachan@gmail.com: HR: T&D: TNA
  14. 14. Systematic TN Analysis 14jinuachan@gmail.com: HR: T&D: TNA
  15. 15. 15jinuachan@gmail.com: HR: T&D: TNA
  16. 16. TNA Framework Performance Gap Organizational Analysis Operational Analysis Person Analysis Identify performance discrepancy and its causes Training Needs Non-Training Needs 16jinuachan@gmail.com: HR: T&D: TNA
  17. 17. 2. Organizational Analysis Basic concept for analysis • Mission & strategies of an organization • Resources & their allocation, given the objectives – Capital Resources – Human Resources • Organizational environment: Internal and external factors that may be causing problems -Micro level and SLEPT analysis • Impact of the preceding factors of operations -developing, providing & transferring the KSAa 17jinuachan@gmail.com: HR: T&D: TNA
  18. 18. Organizational needs analysis – It includes  a human resource analysis: Expectation of the org vision about the human resources.  analysis of efficiency indexes: including cost of labor, quantity of output, quality of output, waste and, equipment use and repairs can provide useful information.  an assessment of the organizational climate: It address the organization’s performance in the “softer” domains that constitute the corporate culture. 18jinuachan@gmail.com: HR: T&D: TNA
  19. 19. Organizational Requirements Analysis – In organizational analysis, one may consider issues like: • Increased competition for old and new business. • Greater emphasis on efficiency and cost reduction. • Increased needs on cooperation among companies. • Business strategies of the rival companies. • Research and innovation, tech advancement. • Merger, acquisition, diversification and expansion. • Automation and modernization. • Manpower plan on hiring, retrenching and deployment of stall 19jinuachan@gmail.com: HR: T&D: TNA
  20. 20. Task Analysis Task analysis / job needs analysis – It is the process of collecting information regarding the job and its system – Task analysis explains what must be done to perform a job or complete a process successfully. – It understands the task environment (work flow, ergonomics, etc) to be able to meet expectations 20jinuachan@gmail.com: HR: T&D: TNA
  21. 21. Steps in Task analysis • There are four steps involved in task analysis: – Develop a list of task statements for a main task. – Develop the list of task clusters, task divisions, process units – Develop a list of KSAs (Knowledge, skills and attitude)needed for the task performance – Assess the importance of task units 21jinuachan@gmail.com: HR: T&D: TNA
  22. 22. Task analysis questions • What tasks are performed? • How frequently are they performed? • How important is each task? • What knowledge is needed to perform the task? • How difficult is each task? • What kinds of training are available? 22jinuachan@gmail.com: HR: T&D: TNA
  23. 23. Person needs analysis – A person needs analysis identifies gaps between a person’s current capabilities and those identified as necessary or desirable. Expected KSA- Present = GAP – Person needs analysis can be either broad or narrow in scope. • The broader approach: compares actual performance with the minimum acceptable standards of performance. • The narrower approach: compares an evaluation of employee proficiency on each required skill dimension with the proficiency level required for each skill. 23jinuachan@gmail.com: HR: T&D: TNA
  24. 24. • Determination of the training and development needs of individual employee • It evaluates the overall success of individual’s performance • Trend analysis of the performance, critical incidents, potentialities • BCG, SWOT analysis • Diagnostic personal analysis is conducted to discovering reasons for persons’ performance (i.e., KSAs, motivation, situational factors) 24jinuachan@gmail.com: HR: T&D: TNA
  25. 25. Proactive and reactive TNA • Proactive TNA is strategic and carefully planned without a definite problem as the focus. It is used to deliver new techniques or processes to employees, as well as strengthen existing expectations. -This method anticipates future trends and prepares people for the fore seen challenges • Reactive TNA happens when a specific problem is pinpointed. For instance, if a worker's performance problem is evident, reactive TNA is used to correct that specific issue. • Contrast Proactive TNA happens when the weaknesses of a work force are unknown and it helps indicate where help is needed. Reactive TNA occurs when a problem is already obvious, creating the need for specialized training to correct the specific problem. jinuachan@gmail.com: HR: T&D: TNA 25
  26. 26. KSA: Knowledge • It means detailed examination of a job role to find out what are the • knowledge, skill, attitude, motives, values and self concept needed in people for superior or effective performance • Business Knowledge • IT, Management knowledge • Education and language 26jinuachan@gmail.com: HR: T&D: TNA
  27. 27. Next slide 27jinuachan@gmail.com: HR: T&D: TNA
  28. 28. Expected Skills to perform jobs • Adaptability skills • Analytical Skills • Action Orientation • Coaching/Employee Development skills • Communication • Customer Focus • Decision Making • Fiscal Management • Global Perspective • Innovation • Interpersonal Skills • Leadership • Establishing Objectives • Risk Management • Persuasion and Influence • Planning • Problem Solving • Project Management • Results Orientation • Self-Management • Teamwork • Technology 28jinuachan@gmail.com: HR: T&D: TNA
  29. 29. Other analysis models • Performance Analysis. Are the employees performing up to the established standard? If performance is below expectations, can training help to improve this performance? Is there a Performance Gap? • Content Analysis. Analysis of documents, laws, procedures used on the job referring manuals, documents, or regulations . So the training does not conflict or contradict job requirements. An experienced worker can assist (as a subject matter expert) in determining the appropriate content. 29jinuachan@gmail.com: HR: T&D: TNA
  30. 30. …Other analysis models • Training Suitability Analysis. Analysis of whether training is the desired solution. Training is one of several solutions to employment problems. However, it may not always be the best solution. It is important to determine if training will be effective in its usage. • Cost-Benefit Analysis. Analysis of the ROI of training. Effective training results in a return of value to the organization that is greater than the initial investment to produce or administer the training. 30jinuachan@gmail.com: HR: T&D: TNA
  31. 31. TNA based on style and need a. Rapid Needs Assessment b. Detailed assessment c. Continual assessment jinuachan@gmail.com: HR: T&D: TNA 31
  32. 32. a. Rapid Needs Assessment • It is undertaken immediately after a disaster, rapid assessment provides information on needs, possible courses of action and resource requirements. It normally takes up to a week • It involves using local resources and specific methods to undertake a relatively quick, easy and inexpensive snapshot of a specific group or community in order to assess the needs of any planned initiative. • It is a way of working that does not use a traditional scientific approach to needs assessment but encourages using local people using tools such as questionnaire • Eg in case of natural catastrophe, emergencies, jinuachan@gmail.com: HR: T&D: TNA 32
  33. 33. b. Detailed assessment: A more detailed assessment is carried out after a rapid assessment, if the situation is changing and more information is needed. It takes about one month, depending on the size of the area and the complexity of the situation. c. Continual assessment: Disaster situations can evolve rapidly and include unexpected knock-on effects, such as population movements. Assessment should therefore be an ongoing process throughout the emergency phase. Eg. Once the Red Cross Red Crescent is operational in a disaster zone, information is continually updated so that relief and programming can be adapted to evolving needs. jinuachan@gmail.com: HR: T&D: TNA 33
  34. 34. • Whole organization’s feed back is expected • Top level management support and strategic plans for training • Organization wide planning and appraisal groups • 360 degree appraisal teams • Awareness for employee and trade union participation • Change champion model and outsourcing for the assessment • The team work is depending on the sources of data as: Team Work for Conducting TNA 34jinuachan@gmail.com: HR: T&D: TNA
  35. 35. Team Work for Conducting TNA a. Sources of Information for Organizational Analysis • Strategic plan, vision, mission statements • Competency statements • Skills inventories decided across the industry and organization • Climate surveys, external feed backs • Labor-management data • Exit interviews • Management requests • Organizational performance measures 35jinuachan@gmail.com: HR: T&D: TNA
  36. 36. b. Sources of Information for Task Analysis • Job descriptions and specifications: - • Performance standards • Observe performance on job • Competency modeling in organization • Review literature concerning job • Interview job holders and supervisors • Analysis of operating problems (e.g., downtime, waste, repairs/rework, delivery times, quality of product/service) 36jinuachan@gmail.com: HR: T&D: TNA
  37. 37. c. Sources of Information for Person Analysis • Performance appraisal data • Job kdge test, Skill test • Observation of performance on job • Interviews or questionnaires • Assessment centers • Individuals objectives • Tests or simulations or role plays • Attitude surveys • Designed situations (e.g., AC) • Worker diaries • Developmental or employee initiated needs 37jinuachan@gmail.com: HR: T&D: TNA
  38. 38. Training Process Design 38jinuachan@gmail.com: HR: T&D: TNA
  39. 39. jinuachan@gmail.com: HR: T&D: TNA 39
  40. 40. TNA and cause solution Process Design 40jinuachan@gmail.com: HR: T&D: TNA
  41. 41. Training Process Design 41jinuachan@gmail.com: HR: T&D: TNA
  42. 42. jinuachan@gmail.com: HR: T&D: TNA 42
  43. 43. Output Of TNA • Assessment of Skill GAP • Three level analysis for the optimization • Review of the current training system and performance level • ROI and CBA helps to assess the financial benefits of training • Assessment of the training options • Helps to stream line the HRIS, find out feedback effectiveness, grievance systems • Highlight the training requirements and non- training needs 43jinuachan@gmail.com: HR: T&D: TNA
  44. 44. TNA Out put : Performance Gaps? Performance Gap KSA Deficiency Reward/ Punishment Incongruence Inadequate Feedback Obstacles in the System Appraisal Deficiency Commitment, satisfaction Deficiency 44jinuachan@gmail.com: HR: T&D: TNA
  45. 45. Reference • Blanchard, P Nick, and Thacker, James W., ‘Effective Training’, Pearson 2014 • Goldstein, Irwin L., Training Organizations, Thomson Asia 2004, ed.4th • O’Connor, Bronner, “ Training for Organizations”, Replika Pvt Ltd.2003 • Geoff Anderson, A Proactive Model for Training Needs Analysis, in Journal of European Industrial Training ISSN: 0309-0590 • http://www.ifrc.org/Global/Publications/disasters/guidelines/gu idelines-for-emergency-en.pdf 45jinuachan@gmail.com: HR: T&D: TNA
  46. 46. Jinuachan@gmail.com T&D 46 Dear Students, Plz refer the lecture notes for the further elaboration of the topic. Slides with diagrams are also part of the syllabus. The examples given during the lecture should be added to each part while answering the questions

Editor's Notes

  • Conducting a Training Needs Analysis is also a step by step process.

    When the gaps have been identified, the person in charge of the TNA must take a look into the three aspects of the company – internal/external business environment (organization), the jobs (operational), and the people (person).

    The analysis of the organization, jobs, and the people, will provide a concrete result on what caused the performance gaps.

    Training needs or non-training needs can be determined after knowing the causes of the performance gaps.
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