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Introduction to Human Computer Interface (HCI) Slide 1 Introduction to Human Computer Interface (HCI) Slide 2 Introduction to Human Computer Interface (HCI) Slide 3 Introduction to Human Computer Interface (HCI) Slide 4 Introduction to Human Computer Interface (HCI) Slide 5 Introduction to Human Computer Interface (HCI) Slide 6 Introduction to Human Computer Interface (HCI) Slide 7 Introduction to Human Computer Interface (HCI) Slide 8 Introduction to Human Computer Interface (HCI) Slide 9 Introduction to Human Computer Interface (HCI) Slide 10 Introduction to Human Computer Interface (HCI) Slide 11 Introduction to Human Computer Interface (HCI) Slide 12 Introduction to Human Computer Interface (HCI) Slide 13 Introduction to Human Computer Interface (HCI) Slide 14 Introduction to Human Computer Interface (HCI) Slide 15 Introduction to Human Computer Interface (HCI) Slide 16 Introduction to Human Computer Interface (HCI) Slide 17 Introduction to Human Computer Interface (HCI) Slide 18 Introduction to Human Computer Interface (HCI) Slide 19 Introduction to Human Computer Interface (HCI) Slide 20 Introduction to Human Computer Interface (HCI) Slide 21 Introduction to Human Computer Interface (HCI) Slide 22 Introduction to Human Computer Interface (HCI) Slide 23 Introduction to Human Computer Interface (HCI) Slide 24 Introduction to Human Computer Interface (HCI) Slide 25 Introduction to Human Computer Interface (HCI) Slide 26 Introduction to Human Computer Interface (HCI) Slide 27 Introduction to Human Computer Interface (HCI) Slide 28 Introduction to Human Computer Interface (HCI) Slide 29 Introduction to Human Computer Interface (HCI) Slide 30 Introduction to Human Computer Interface (HCI) Slide 31 Introduction to Human Computer Interface (HCI) Slide 32 Introduction to Human Computer Interface (HCI) Slide 33 Introduction to Human Computer Interface (HCI) Slide 34 Introduction to Human Computer Interface (HCI) Slide 35 Introduction to Human Computer Interface (HCI) Slide 36 Introduction to Human Computer Interface (HCI) Slide 37 Introduction to Human Computer Interface (HCI) Slide 38 Introduction to Human Computer Interface (HCI) Slide 39 Introduction to Human Computer Interface (HCI) Slide 40 Introduction to Human Computer Interface (HCI) Slide 41 Introduction to Human Computer Interface (HCI) Slide 42 Introduction to Human Computer Interface (HCI) Slide 43 Introduction to Human Computer Interface (HCI) Slide 44 Introduction to Human Computer Interface (HCI) Slide 45 Introduction to Human Computer Interface (HCI) Slide 46 Introduction to Human Computer Interface (HCI) Slide 47 Introduction to Human Computer Interface (HCI) Slide 48 Introduction to Human Computer Interface (HCI) Slide 49 Introduction to Human Computer Interface (HCI) Slide 50 Introduction to Human Computer Interface (HCI) Slide 51
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Introduction to Human Computer Interface (HCI)

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This topic is based on the article published by Whitworth and Ahmad in Interaction-Design. It covers topics such as Evolution of Computing Systems, Computing Level (in terms of Mechanical, Informational, Psychological, and Socio-Technical Systems), Human Physiological Needs, and Design Level Combination.

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Introduction to Human Computer Interface (HCI)

  1. 1. INTRO TO HCI (Human-Computer Interaction) Edneil D. Jocusol, ECT, MTM Faculty, Dep. of Information Technology Cavite State University - Gen. Trias Whitworth, B., & Ahmad, A. (n.d.). The Evolution of Computing. The Interaction Design Foundation. Retrieved September 21, 2021, from https://www.interaction-design.org/literature/book/the-social-design- of-technical-systems-building-technologies-for-communities-2nd-edition/the-evolution-of-computing
  2. 2. THE EVOLUTION OF COMPUTING
  3. 3. COMPUTING LEVELS The evolution of computing is approached here using Bertalanffy's general systems theory (Bertalanffy, 1968). This theory is based on the observation of discipline isomorphisms, when different specialist fields discover the same abstract equation or law in different contexts
  4. 4. IT = Information Technology IS = Information Systems ICT = Information & Comm Tech. Informatics
  5. 5. LEVELS AS WORLD VIEWS Essential. To view a world one needs a view perspective. Empirical. It arises from interaction with the world. Complete. It consistently describes a whole world. Subjective. We choose a view perspective, explicitly or not. Exclusive. You cannot view the world in two different ways at the same time, as you cannot sit in two places at once. Emergent. One world view can emerge from another. A world view is: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.
  6. 6. Flowers in Bees' Eyes
  7. 7. As computing levels changed, so did the business model You can sell software same as or more than the hardware. Google cannot sell information. So it uses advertisements around its platform to generate income
  8. 8. FROM HARDWARE TO SOFTWARE Hardware is any physical computer part, e.g. mouse, screen or case. It does not "cause" software, and nor is software a hardware output, in the way that physical systems have physical outputs. We create software by seeing information choices in physical events.
  9. 9. Chip overheat Software crash (Call engineer) (Call programmer)
  10. 10. COMPUTER SCIENCE = Mathematics + Engineering
  11. 11. Adding people to the computing equation meant that getting the technology to work was only half the problem — the other half was getting people to use it. Web users who did not like a site just clicked on, and only web sites that got hits succeeded. Given equal functionality, users prefer a more usable product (Davis, 1989). FROM SOFTWARE TO USERS
  12. 12. Human Computer Interaction (HCI) = IT + Psychology wheras IT = Hardware + Software
  13. 13. FROM USERS TO COMMUNITIES
  14. 14. THE REDUCTIONIST DREAM The reductionist dream is based on logical positivism, the idea that only the physical exists so all science must be expressed in physical terms. Yet when Shannon and Weaver defined information as a choice between physical options, the options were physical but the choosing was not (Shannon & Weaver, 1949).
  15. 15. THE REQUIREMENTS HIERARCHY
  16. 16. DESIGN LEVEL COMBINATIONS Ergonomics designs safe and comfortable machines for people. Object design applies psychological needs to technology in the same way (Norman, 1990). Human computer interaction applies psychological requirements to screen design. Fashion is the social requirement to look good applied to wearable object design. Socio-technology is information technology meeting social requirements. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
  17. 17. THE FLOWER OF COMPUTING The illustration on the next slide shows how computing evolved through the four stages of hardware, software, people, and community. At each stage, a new specialty joined computing, but pure engineers still see only mechanics, pure computer scientists only information, pure psychologists only human constructs, and pure sociologists only social structures. In practice, however, computing is thriving. Every day more people use computers to do more things in more ways
  18. 18. ICT Information & Communications Technology IT Information Technology IS Information Systems MIS Management Information Systems AI Artificial Intelligence
  19. 19. Graded Recitation
  20. 20. Discussion Question 1 How has computing evolved since it began? Is it just faster machines and better software? What is the role of hardware companies like IBM and Intel in modern computing?
  21. 21. Discussion Question 2 How has the computing business model changed as it evolved? Does selling software make more money than selling hardware? Can selling knowledge make money? What about selling friendships? Can one sell communities?
  22. 22. Discussion Question 3 Is a kitchen table a technology? Is a law a technology? Is an equation a technology? Is a computer program a technology? Is an information technology (IT) system a technology? Is a person an information technology? Is an HCI system (person plus computer) an information technology? What, exactly, is not a technology?
  23. 23. Discussion Question 4 Is any set of people a community? How do people form a community? Is a socio-technical system (an online community) any set of HCI systems? How do HCI systems form an online community?
  24. 24. Discussion Question 5 How does computer science relate to engineering and mathematics? What about human computer interaction (HCI) and engineering, computer science and psychology? Or socio-technology and engineering, computer science, psychology and the various social sciences?
  25. 25. Discussion Question 6 In an aircraft, is the pilot a person, a processor, or a physical object? Can one consistently divide the aircraft system into human, computer and mechanical parts? If not, what is the alternative?
  26. 26. Discussion Question 7 What is the reductionist dream? How did it work out in physics? Does it recognize computer science? How did it challenge psychology? Has it worked out in any discipline?
  27. 27. Discussion Question 8 How much information does a physical book, that is fixed in one way, by definition, have? If we say a book "contains" information, what is assumed? How is a book's information generated? Can the same physical book "contain" different information for different people? Give an example.
  28. 28. Discussion Question 9 If information is physical, how can data compression put the same information in a physically smaller signal? If information is not physical, how does data compression work? Can we encode more than one semantic stream into one physical message? Give an example.
  29. 29. Discussion Question 10 Is a bit a physical "thing"? Can you see or touch a bit? If a signal wire sends a physical "on" value, is that always a bit? If a bit is not physical, can it exist without physicality? How can a bit require physicality but not itself be physical? What creates information, if it is not the mechanical signal?
  30. 30. Discussion Question 11 Is information concrete? If we cannot see information physically, is the study of information a science? Explain. Are cognitions concrete? If we cannot see cognitions physically, is the study of cognitions (psychology) a science? Explain. What separates science from imagination if it can use non-physical constructs in its theories?
  31. 31. Discussion Question 12 Give three examples of other animal species who sense the world differently from us. If we saw the world as they do, how would it change what we do? Explain how seeing a system differently can change how it is designed. Give examples from computing.
  32. 32. Discussion Question 13 If a $1 CD with a $1,000 software application on it is insured, what do you get if it is destroyed? Can you insure something that is not physical? Give current examples.
  33. 33. Discussion Question 14 Is a "mouse error" a hardware, software or HCI problem? Can a mouse's hardware affect its software performance? Can it affect its HCI performance? Can mouse software affect HCI performance? Give examples in each case. If a wireless mouse costs more and is less reliable, how is it better?
  34. 34. Discussion Question 15 Give three examples of a human requirement giving an IT design heuristic. This is HCI. Give three examples of a community requirement giving an IT design heuristic. This is STS.
  35. 35. Discussion Question 16 Explain the difference between a hardware error, a software error, a user error and a community error, with examples. What is the common factor here?
  36. 36. Discussion Question 17 What is an application user sandbox? What human requirement does it satisfy? Illustrate with an online example of a user sandbox.
  37. 37. Discussion Question 18 Distinguish between a personal requirement and community requirement in computing. Relate to how STS and HCI differ and how socio-technology and sociology differ. Are sociologists qualified to design socio- technical systems? What about HCI experts?
  38. 38. Discussion Question 19 In general, what do people do when their needs are not met in a physical situation? Relate to what users do if their needs are not met online. Is there a difference? Explain. What do citizens of a physical community do if it does not meet their needs? What about an online community? Again, is there a difference? Give specific examples to illustrate.
  39. 39. Discussion Question 20 According to Norman, what is ergonomics? What is the difference between ergonomics and HCI? What is the difference between HCI and STS?
  40. 40. Discussion Question 21 Why is an IPod so different from TV or video controls? Which is better and why? Why has TV remote design changed so little in decades? If scheduled television competes with Internet videos for the hearts and minds of viewers, which one will win? Give advantages and disadvantages of both sides.
  41. 41. Discussion Question 22 How does an online friend differ from a physical friend? Can friendships transcend physical and electronic interaction architectures? Give examples. How is this possible?
  42. 42. Discussion Question 23 Why do universities divide computing research across many disciplines? What is a cross-discipline? What past cross-disciplines became disciplines. Why is computing a cross- discipline?

This topic is based on the article published by Whitworth and Ahmad in Interaction-Design. It covers topics such as Evolution of Computing Systems, Computing Level (in terms of Mechanical, Informational, Psychological, and Socio-Technical Systems), Human Physiological Needs, and Design Level Combination.

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