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Dr.M.Malathi
 Obligate intracellular parasite
 It belongs to coccidian parasites
 The name toxoplasma derived from “toxon”
arc or bo...
Three morphological forms
Asexual forms
Tachyzoite
Bradyzoite (Tissue
cyst)
Sexual form oocyst
 Actively multiplying form
 Crescent shaped
 Seen in acute infection
 Infect all the nucleated mammalian cells
 Insid...
 Resting stage of the parasite
 Seen in chronic infections  most common
site is muscles and brain
 Inside the cyst  s...
 Sexual form of the parasite found only in cats
and felines
Definitive host
Intermediate host:
Enteric cycle or sexual
cycle
Exo enteric cycle or
asexual cycle
1. Ingestion of sporulated oocysts from
contaminated soil, food or water
2. Ingestion of tissue cyst containing
bradyzoite...
 A known AIDS patient presents with
complaints of fever, seizures, visual defects
and facial nerve palsy and altered sens...
 A newborn baby is presenting with visual
impairment, microcephaly, hydrocephaly and
on CT scan it showed intracerebral
c...
 Features in immunocompetent individual
 Features in immunodeficient individual
 Congenital toxoplasmosis
 Ocular toxo...
 Direct microscopy  Detection of
tachyzoites in blood and tissue cyst in tissue
biopsy
 Staining methods:
1. Giemsa
2. ...
 Detection of Toxoplasma antigen by ELISA
 Detection of Toxoplasma antibody by
1. Sabin feldman dye test
2. IgM ELISA
3....
 Molecular diagnosis
 Animal inoculation
 Tissue culture
 Imaging methods
 Gold standard antibody detection test
 Done only in reference laboratories
 Complement mediated neutralization test
th...
 Toxoplasma antibodies in the serum bind to
the antigens in the live tachyzoites  killed
due to complement mediated lysi...
 Toxoplasma antigens in amniotic fluid
 PCR
 IgM antibodies in fetal blood by ELISA
 Role of IgG antibodies in diagnos...
 Congenital toxoplasmosis:
oral pyrimethamine (1mg/kg) and
sulfadiazine ( 100mg/kg) with folinic acid
daily for one year
 Toxoplasmosis in AIDS:
Cotrimoxazole
Dapsone – Pyrimethamine
Atovaquone with pyrimethamine
 Consumption of cooked meat
 Hand hygiene
 Prenatal and antenatal screening to detect
Toxoplasma infection in women of ...
Toxoplasma gondii
Toxoplasma gondii
Toxoplasma gondii
Toxoplasma gondii
Toxoplasma gondii
Toxoplasma gondii
Toxoplasma gondii
Toxoplasma gondii
Toxoplasma gondii
Toxoplasma gondii
Toxoplasma gondii
Toxoplasma gondii
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Toxoplasma gondii

  1. 1. Dr.M.Malathi
  2. 2.  Obligate intracellular parasite  It belongs to coccidian parasites  The name toxoplasma derived from “toxon” arc or bow ( curved shape of the tachyzoites)  Phylum - sporozoa
  3. 3. Three morphological forms Asexual forms Tachyzoite Bradyzoite (Tissue cyst) Sexual form oocyst
  4. 4.  Actively multiplying form  Crescent shaped  Seen in acute infection  Infect all the nucleated mammalian cells  Inside the host cell, the tachyzoites are surrounded by a vacuole  asexual multiplication occurs  rosettes  Host cell  distends  pseudocyst
  5. 5.  Resting stage of the parasite  Seen in chronic infections  most common site is muscles and brain  Inside the cyst  slowly multiplying trophozoites are called as bradyzoites  BRADYZOITE:  Resistant to gastric juice  Multiplies slowly  Contains PAS positive amylopectin granules
  6. 6.  Sexual form of the parasite found only in cats and felines
  7. 7. Definitive host
  8. 8. Intermediate host:
  9. 9. Enteric cycle or sexual cycle Exo enteric cycle or asexual cycle
  10. 10. 1. Ingestion of sporulated oocysts from contaminated soil, food or water 2. Ingestion of tissue cyst containing bradyzoites from undercooked meat 3. By blood transfusion, needle stick injuries, organ transplantation 4. Transplacentral transmission 5. Laboratory accidents ( Tachyzoites are the infective form in blood)
  11. 11.  A known AIDS patient presents with complaints of fever, seizures, visual defects and facial nerve palsy and altered sensorium.  His CD4 count is 78/ul  CT scan brain shows multiple ring enhancing lesions in the basal ganglia
  12. 12.  A newborn baby is presenting with visual impairment, microcephaly, hydrocephaly and on CT scan it showed intracerebral calcification.
  13. 13.  Features in immunocompetent individual  Features in immunodeficient individual  Congenital toxoplasmosis  Ocular toxoplasmosis
  14. 14.  Direct microscopy  Detection of tachyzoites in blood and tissue cyst in tissue biopsy  Staining methods: 1. Giemsa 2. PAS 3. Silver stains 4. Immunoperoxidase stain
  15. 15.  Detection of Toxoplasma antigen by ELISA  Detection of Toxoplasma antibody by 1. Sabin feldman dye test 2. IgM ELISA 3. IgG ELISA 4. IgG avidity test
  16. 16.  Molecular diagnosis  Animal inoculation  Tissue culture  Imaging methods
  17. 17.  Gold standard antibody detection test  Done only in reference laboratories  Complement mediated neutralization test that requires live tachyzoites  Live tachyzoites are incubated with complement and test serum  Alkaline methylene blue dye is added and reincubated
  18. 18.  Toxoplasma antibodies in the serum bind to the antigens in the live tachyzoites  killed due to complement mediated lysis  Killed tachyzoites  thin, distorted and colourless  The dilution of the test serum at which 50% of the tachyzoites are killed  antibody titer of the test serum
  19. 19.  Toxoplasma antigens in amniotic fluid  PCR  IgM antibodies in fetal blood by ELISA  Role of IgG antibodies in diagnosing congential toxoplasmosis ?  Ultrasound of fetus at 20 to 24 weeks of gestation
  20. 20.  Congenital toxoplasmosis: oral pyrimethamine (1mg/kg) and sulfadiazine ( 100mg/kg) with folinic acid daily for one year
  21. 21.  Toxoplasmosis in AIDS: Cotrimoxazole Dapsone – Pyrimethamine Atovaquone with pyrimethamine
  22. 22.  Consumption of cooked meat  Hand hygiene  Prenatal and antenatal screening to detect Toxoplasma infection in women of child bearing age  Proper handling of pet cats  Screening of blood donors and organ donors
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