“Durability will be assured when foundations are
carried down to the solid ground and materials
wisely and liberally selected” Vitruvius
The hotel had several desig
features that made up for i
The reflecting pool (visible
the picture above) also
provided a source of water
for fire-fighting, saving the
building from the post-
Cantilevered floors and
balconies provided extra
support for the floors;
A copper roof, which canno
on people below the way a
Seismic separation joints,
located about every 20 m a
Tapered walls, thicker on lo
floors, increasing their stre
Suspended piping and wirin
instead of being encased in
concrete, as well as smooth
curves, making them more
resistant to fracture.
I’m searching for “my
If people post jobs in
discussion areas, any user can
move them to job board
If people use
connection invites to
can be reported.
“When the arrangement of the apartments is
faultless and presents no hindrance to
use, and when each class of building is
assigned to its suitable and appropriate
ckspace headquarters in in a former mall. The
lding is so usable for moving people around, it's
bert Venturi calls this a “decorated shed”
and are typically
model could be
any side dealing
with objects and
The MIT project, they were interviewing
me for MIT and they sent their facilities
people to Bilbao. I met them in Bilbao.
They came for three days.
W: This is the computer building.
Bilbao did not G: They were there for three days and it
rained every day. And they kept walking
leak. I was so around. I noticed they were looking
under things and looking for things, and
proud. they wanted to know where the buckets
were hidden, people putting buckets
out. I was clean. There wasn't a bloody
leak in the place. It was just fantastic.
But you've got to -- yeah, well, up until
then, every building leaked.
W: Frank had a sort of -- sort of had a
fame -- his -- his fame was built on that
in L.A. for a while. You know, Frank,
you've all heard the Frank Lloyd Wright
story when the guy -- the woman called
and said, "Mr. Wright, my -- I'm sitting in
the couch and the water's pouring in on
my head," and he said, "Madame, move
G: So, some years later I was doing a
little house on the beach for Norton
Simon, and his secretary was kind of a
hell-on-wheels type lady -- called me
and said, Mr. Simon's sitting at his desk,
and the water's coming in on his head,
and I told him the Frank Lloyd Wright
W: Didn't get a laugh.
G: No. Not now either.
I call it the "Then What?"
Okay, you solved all the
problems, you did all the
stuff, you made nice, you
loved your clients, you
loved the materials, you
loved the city, you're a
good guy, you're a good
person... and then what?
What do you bring to it?
See his great TED talk http://www.ted.com/talks/frank_gehry_asks_then_what.html
“Early in life I had to choose between honest arrogance
and hypocritical humility. I chose honest arrogance and
have seen no occasion to change.” Frank Lloyd Wright
“when the appearance of the work is pleasing and in good taste, and
when its members are in due proportion according to correct principles
of symmetry.” Vitrvius
SEAGRAM BUILDING (Philip
Johnson did interiors, 1957) Seagram
This logical and elegant 38-
story skyscraper (525' H)
has alternating horizontal
bands of bronze plating
and bronze-tinted glass
New York City
and decorative bronze I-
beams which emphasize
its verticality. Placed to
the rear of its site and set 1957
back from Park Avenue, it
incorporates a large plaza
in the front as part of the
design--thus avoiding the
need for set-backs. It
uses granite pillars at the Is this Beautiful?
base and has a two-story
• What is IA?
• IAI definition
1. The art and science of organizing and labeling web sites,
intranets, online communities and software to support
usability and findability.
2. The structural design of shared information environments.
3. An emerging community of practice focused on bringing
principles of design and architecture to the digital
In the physical world
• Things that have
– We find with
maps and signs-
• Things that don’t
– We find with
In the digital world
• Nothing is fixed
• Wayfinding and organization is the two
keys to findability
• Role of IA is to shape the digital space to
Make things findable
– Build on Metadata
– Browse systems
– Search systems
– Visual cues
Make things appear
• Serendipity systems
– See also
– Popularity relationships
– Also built on metadata
The structural design of an information
space to facilitate task completion and
intuitive access to content.
Information Architecture for the World-Wide Web Louis Rosenfeld & Peter Morville
Sort into groups. Name groups
PLAY WITH YOUR BALLS
Metadata: what is it?
“metadata is data about data"
Metadata: what is it?
“Metadata tags are used to describe
documents, pages, images, software,
video and audio files, and other content
objects for the purposes of improved
navigation and retrieval”
‘Information Architecture for the World Wide Web’, 2nd ed., (2002)
Rosenfeld, L. & Morville, P.
Not all Metadata is equal
• What are users interested in?
• What do you want users to be able to find?
• What metadata makes management
• Tag content for findability
• Tag content for management
• Write as many descriptive words (or short
phrases) on your post-it
• One word (or phrase) per post-it
• Don’t share– yet! Hold on!
But computers are literal
And need help
Let’s give them “Reggae”
Of course, the IA can’t always be
Thus Controlled vocabularies (CV)
Amy Warner defines a controlled vocabulary (CV)
as “organized lists of words and phrases, or
notation systems, that are used to initially tag
content, and then to find it through navigation
I define them as
Documented relationships of words and
concepts to assist people finding stuff.
A=B A A B
Winter Holidays > Christmas
Christmas Tree | Santa
• Simplest type
• Helps with search, indexing
• Simplifies maintenance
Synonym rings include
• Acronyms: BBC, British Broadcasting
Company; MPG, miles per gallon
• Variant spellings: cancelled, canceled;
• Scientific terms versus popular use
terms: acetylsalicylic acid, aspirin;
lilioceris, lily beetle
– From Synonym Rings and Authority Files
by Karl Fast, Fred Leise and Mike Steckel
I’m tired of typing “Controlled
Vocabulary--- CV is shorter.
• Sometimes on
intranets, CV’s are
• You think you can
force people to use
• But people are lazy
I want a cannon camera.
• On the internet you want
to be found
• Plus users use short
– Average queries are 2.5
words– 30% of searches are
one word queries
• On large scale sites, there is
enough data to do this
programmatically, but on small
Bizrate built a business off
It may be the Canon PowerShot S30
But what do people call it?
Alphabetical (administrative metadata)
Authors, A-Z > ( M ) > Moore, Alan
New for You > New Releases > Books
Topic (descriptive metadata)
Comics > Graphic Novels > Horror
Amazon uses all of these, and more….
• Cadillac of Controlled Vocabularies
• Includes associative relationships
Preferred Variants Siblings Parent Associated
Christmas X-mas, Hanukah, Winter Santa Claus
Nöel Kwanzaa holidays
Identify all content and attributes
• Link ID • Maintainer
• ROT • Expiration
• Document type • Access
• Topics/Keywords • Author
• Location • Existing/planned
• Look Inward • Log harvesting
– Your site – Search engines
– Current keywords – Overture
• Look outward • Ask people
– Magazines – Interviews
– Competitors – Card sorts
– Discussion lists – Free Listing
A Card Sort for Architects
• Multiple Groupings
– Equivalent UF cheese=fromage
– Broader terms BT cheese | dairy
– Narrower terms NT cheese | cheddar
– Related term RT cheese | crackers
NT Down Sleeping Bags
NT Synthetic Sleeping Bags
NT Family Sleeping Bags
NT Cold Weather Sleeping Bags
NT 2-Season Sleeping Bags
NT 3-Season Sleeping Bags
NT Back Packing Sleeping Bags
NT Expedition Class Sleeping Bags
NT Ultralight Sleeping Bags
RT Ultralight Backpacking
RT Sleeping Bag Liners
RT Sleeping Pads
RT Stuff Sacks
From Creating a Controlled Vocabulary
by Karl Fast, Fred Leise and Mike Steckel
• Cheese goes in dairy or in sandwich
• A cheese basket?
• String cheese?
Choices fit strategy
• What is related
• What is required?
• What else is interesting?
Relevancy is king
• Action/product of action (baking/cakes)
• Raw material/product (wool/sweater).
• Implementation dependant on situation
• May be slow painful data entry– know this
• Test with users – did you get it right?
– Browse Testing
– Search Testing
– Monitor quantitative
– Refine, refine, refine
• Who maintains it?
• What the rules for new terms?
• Document your decisions.
Is that all?
Life beyond enumerative
was developed, prior to the existence of
computers, by S. R. Ranganathan,
a Hindu mathematician
working as a librarian.
Ranganathan’s 5 Facets
• who: personality
• what: matter
• how: energy
• where: space
• when: time
Essential Qualities of a Facet
• Mutually exclusive; represents a characteristic
of division not found in any other facet
• Cannot be further sub-divided
• Relationships between facets are non-
hierarchical (though within facets…)
The broad categories into which the
subject area is divided. A facet consists “... of a
group of terms that represents one, and only one,
characteristic of division of a subject field....no
two facets may contain terms that could represent
the same concepts.” —Louise Spiteri
facets to help
• Faceted classification by Yahoo! Personas
• Content by the users
What’s the difference?
Electronics Camera facets
• Modern • Mood
– Rock • Tempo
– Atlanta • Use
1. Consider the universe of documents to be
2. Consider user finding strategies.
3. Analyze each document to identify the facets.
4. Group isolates (simple-concept subjects) into
5. Apply the notational system.
(I skipped some steps, to avoid wonking out….)
• Content inventory: what’s in your site?
• Organizational Scheme
• Portfolio Piece: Site map (a la Dan Brown’s
Communicating design Chapter 5)
Neolithic monument in present day TurkeyOccupied between 6300 BC to 5400 BCSupported a population of up to 6000 peopleIt was the largest and most cosmopolitan city of its time
Commodity, firmness, delight
The hotel had several design features that made up for its foundation:The reflecting pool (visible in the picture above) also provided a source of water for fire-fighting, saving the building from the post-earthquake firestorm;Cantilevered floors and balconies provided extra support for the floors;A copper roof, which cannot fall on people below the way a tile roof can;Seismic separation joints, located about every 20 m along the building;Tapered walls, thicker on lower floors, increasing their strength;Suspended piping and wiring, instead of being encased in concrete, as well as smooth curves, making them more resistant to fracture.
The MIT project, they were interviewing me for MIT and they sent their facilities people to Bilbao. I met them in Bilbao. They came for three days.W: This is the computer building.G: They were there for three days and it rained every day. And they kept walking around. I noticed they were looking under things and looking for things, and they wanted to know where the buckets were hidden, people putting buckets out. I was clean. There wasn't a bloody leak in the place. It was just fantastic. But you've got to -- yeah, well, up until then, every building leaked.W: Frank had a sort of -- sort of had a fame -- his -- his fame was built on that in L.A. for a while. You know, Frank, you've all heard the Frank Lloyd Wright story when the guy -- the woman called and said, "Mr. Wright, my -- I'm sitting in the couch and the water's pouring in on my head," and he said, "Madame, move your chair."G: So, some years later I was doing a little house on the beach for Norton Simon, and his secretary was kind of a hell-on-wheels type lady -- called me and said, Mr. Simon's sitting at his desk, and the water's coming in on his head, and I told him the Frank Lloyd Wright story.W: Didn't get a laugh.G: No. Not now either.
It's the "Then What?" that most clients who hire architects -- most clients aren't hiring architects for that. They're hiring them to get it done, get it on budget, you know, and not -- you know, be polite -- and they're missing out on the -- the real value of an architect.
Usonian houses were beautiful, human scaled.. And didn’t have closet space. Should we choose beauty over usability sometimes?