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Tourism revision

  1. 1. Tourism Revision
  2. 2. Knowledge Check List • Reasons for global increase in tourism • Potential of cities, mountains and coasts for tourism development • Economic importance of tourism to contrasting parts of the world • Contribution of tourism to the UK economy • Impact of external factors on visitor numbers to the UK • Tourist area/ resort life cycle model • The meaning of mass tourism • The positives and negatives of mass tourism • Strategies for maintaining tourism and reducing the impacts of it • The attraction of extreme environments • The impact of tourism on extreme environments • The need for stewardship and conservation • How tourism can help sustainable development
  3. 3. Growth in Tourism
  4. 4. Growth in Tourism Why is tourism growing? 1) 2) 3) 4) Why are some areas getting more popular? 1) 2) 3)
  5. 5. Growth in Tourism Why is tourism growing? 1) More disposable income around the globe 2) More paid holiday / holiday entitlement 3) Travel is cheaper / Technology is better 4) Holiday Providers and range of holiday destinations up 5) Media / TV Why are some areas getting more popular? 1) Improvement in transport 2) Better marketing 3) Improved infrastructure
  6. 6. What’s the attraction? Type Coast/ City/ Mountains Attractions Examples
  7. 7. What’s the attraction? Type Coast/ City/ Mountains CITY MOUTAINS COSTAL Attractions CULTURE ENTERTAINMENT SHOPPING SCENERY WALKING CLIMBING SKIING SNOW BOARDING SWIMMING SNORKELLING FISHING WATER SPORTS SEA SIDE RESORTS Examples LONDON, NEW YORK, PARIS, ROME ALPS, ROCKIES CARRIBEAN THAILAND
  8. 8. Theory- Importance of Tourism • Creates jobs for local people which helps the economy grow • Increase the income of businesses that supply tourism • Important to rich and poor countries in bringing in money and jobs • Poorer countries are more dependent on tourism (UK 3% of GNP Vs 15% of Kenya)
  9. 9. Questions... Give two reasons why tourism is an important economic activity (2 marks). __________________________________________ ________________________________________ ________________________________________ Contrast the economic importance of tourism in rich and poor countries (2 marks). __________________________________________ ________________________________________ ________________________________________
  10. 10. UK Tourism Countryside and Historic Landmarks Churches, Cathedrals & Castles Half of visitors to UK go to London £114 billion into UK economy & 1.4 million jobs
  11. 11. Explain why the UK is a popular tourist destination. (4 marks) Key Ideas: -Transport links & infrastructure -Attractions -Marketing ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________
  12. 12. Explain the factors that lead to increasing and decreasing tourism in the UK • Cheap package flights to the Mediterranean since 1970 allowed UK working classes the chance of guaranteed hot sunny weather. • Higher expectations by the paying public. • Traditional bucket and spade holidays lose their fashionable appeal. • Longer holidays allow fortnight bookings, encouraging overseas holidays. • Lack of investment from local authorities causes the infrastructure to become run-down eg flaky paintwork and graffiti – discouraging future visits.
  13. 13. Annotate the Butler Life Cycle Model Time Key Ideas: Exploration, involvement, development, consolidation, stagnation, rejuvenation, decline
  14. 14. UK Case Study: Blackpool Stages: • 1860s – seaside becomes fashionable for the affluent/wealthy as railways make coastal resorts accessible. • 1890s – Day trippers include factory workers helped with bank holiday excursion trains. • 1920s – One week factory holidays increases the tourists/staying visitors. • 1950s – increased paid holidays with a post-war economic boom. • 1970s – decline due mainly to overseas package tours. • 1980s – resort either:- - declines eg Herne bay; - rejuvenates itself eg Blackpool - Uncovers niche market eg oyster festival at Whitstable
  15. 15. UK Case Study: Blackpool To counter the Mediterranean competition Blackpool now:- • Offers wet weather facilities such as indoor swimming pools, • Extended the ‘illuminations’ season through until November, • Diversified with year round activities such as Business Conferences, • Built a range of night clubs to successfully tap into the ‘stag- do-hen-party’ market, • Expanded the range of rides such as the rollercoaster.
  16. 16. UK Case Study: Blackpool • Voted UK’s favourite seaside resort • Winter Illuminations ‘breathtaking’ • 1.3 million visitors at least per year • 19,000 tourist related jobs NB Football team gaining promotion into the Premier League helps.
  17. 17. Mass Tourism • Definition: refers to the act of large numbers of people staying in the same place such as the Spanish Costas in the 1970s and 80s.
  18. 18. Mass Tourism “Mass tourism is organised tourism for large numbers of people.” Positives Negatives Economic Impacts Social Impacts Environmenta l Impacts
  19. 19. Mass Tourism “Mass tourism is organised tourism for large numbers of people.” Positives Negatives Economic Impacts •Bring money to local economy •Creates jobs for locals •Boost local economy supplying tourism •A lot of the profit is kept by the large travel companies Social Impacts •More jobs= young people stay in area •Improved roads, communications and infrastructure •Tourism income can be invested into community projects •Tourism jobs available to locals badly paid and seasonal •Traffic congestion & inconvenience •Behaviour of some tourists Environmenta l Impacts •Income from tourism can be reinvested in protecting environment •Transportation releases green house gas •Increased litter and pollution •Destruction of local wild life e.g. Boats damage coral
  20. 20. Increasing Tourism and Reducing the Impact Ways to reduce negative impacts: 1. 2. 3. Maintaining Tourism B R A C I O
  21. 21. Increasing Tourism and Reducing the Impact Ways to reduce negative impacts: 1. Improve public transport less congestion & pollution 2. Limit numbers to sensitive sites 3. Provide bins for litter Maintaining Tourism Build new facitlites Reduce impacts that make tourism less effective Advetise and market Cheaper to visit Improve transport infrastructure Offer new activites
  22. 22. Extreme Tourism (Holiday to Extreme Environment) Extreme Tourism Attractions Reasons for Increasing Damage to the Environment
  23. 23. Extreme Tourism (Holiday to Extreme Environment) Extreme Tourism Attractions Reasons for Increasing Damage to the Environment Adventure holidays Different & exciting Risk Wildlife Scenery Improved transport Last chance to see More disposable income Adverts & TV programmes Trees cut down for fuel Deforestation destroys habitats Deforestation leads to flooding Less roots leads to soil erosion Footpath erosion Water pollution - Sewage
  24. 24. Extreme Tourism (Holiday to Extreme Environment): Case Study - Antartica Why? scenery, wildlife, activities like cruises, kayaking, climbing, helicopter rides. Why has it increased in popularity? more thrill seekers, more activities, more accessible, appeals to tourists, ship sizes increased. 9000 tourists in 1992 has grown to 37000 in 2006 and 46000 in 2008 and the numbers are expected to double over the next 10 years. 100+ companies offer extreme holidays to Antartica. Impacts: sea pollution, littering, fragile resources. Sustainability: supervision of tourists means; no littering, no contact with animals, no walking on lichens, no trespassing, permit must be gained for activities. can be more sustainable by increasing the amount of people per boat and increasing the amount of supervisors.
  25. 25. Extreme Tourism (Holiday to Extreme Environment): Case Study - Antartica Case Study: Tourism in Antartica/Southern ocean Impacts Sustainable management Visitor Numbers Why go? Cruise Ships Over-flights Glacial landscapes , wildlife – seals whales and penguins Camping Naturalist, photographers, journalists 6700 in 1992 45,000 in 2009 1000-5000 researchers a year Over flying causing stress Foot prints remain for a long time Tern colonies suffer disturbances Damage – natural causes Code of conduct No litter Scott Polar research Antarctic tourism shows environmental concern
  26. 26. Ecotourism viewing small benefits environment local responsibility protecting conserving harm Tourism that does not __________ the environment and __________ the __________ people Involves: Conservation: __________ & managing __________ Stewardship: Taking __________ for __________ environment Should involve local people & local organisations Normally __________ scale with a small number of tourists Activities often involve wildlife __________ and walking
  27. 27. Ecotourism • Tourism that does not harm the environment and benefits the local people • Involves: – Conservation protecting & managing environment – Stewardship Taking responsibility for conserving environment • Should involve local people & local organisations • Normally small scale with a small number of tourists • Activities often involve wildlife viewing and walking
  28. 28. Environmental Benefits Economic Benefits Benefits for local people Sustainable Development
  29. 29. Environmental Benefits -Local people encouraged to conserve the environment -Reduces poaching and hunting -Reduce the use of fossil fuel -Waste is carefully disposed of Economic Benefits -Creates jobs for local people -Additional local employment Benefits for local people -Locals have better more stable income -Many schemes have a community projects fund Sustainable Development -Improve quality of life but doesn’t stop the future getting that they need -Aids local development -Development without damage to the environment
  30. 30. Review... • Reasons for global increase in tourism • Potential of cities, mountains and coasts for tourism development • Economic importance of tourism to contrasting parts of the world • Contribution of tourism to the UK economy • Impact of external factors on visitor numbers to the UK • Tourist area/ resort life cycle model • The meaning of mass tourism • The positives and negatives of mass tourism • Strategies for maintaining tourism and reducing the impacts of it • The attraction of extreme environments • The impact of tourism on extreme environments • The need for stewardship and conservation • How tourism can help sustainable development

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