Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
Upcoming SlideShare
Sustainable Curitiba
Sustainable Curitiba
Loading in …3
×
1 of 42

Compact City

57

Share

Every one in the world wants to live in a compact environment. like in olden days the peoples they were used telephone, telegram, etc. for communication. but in the current scenario every one have smart phones for better communication. Because smartphones are compact and convenient to them.This presentation about Compact City planning and also it dealt how various compact cities in the developed and developing countries manage themselves. This presentation just gives an outline of the compact city planning.

Related Books

Free with a 30 day trial from Scribd

See all

Related Audiobooks

Free with a 30 day trial from Scribd

See all

Compact City

  1. 1. Compact City (High density with mixed uses) Submitted by, Robert Christofer A (2013803013) Department of Planning School of Architecture and Planning 1/38
  2. 2. 1.Introduction  Why we need Compact City  General Characteristics 2.Components of Compact City 3.Objectives, Sub themes and Research questions 4.Case studies  Compact high density development in Hong Kong, China  Compact city planning along the LRTS corridor, London, Great Britain  Urban Compactness policy to achieving high density with mixing of activities, Amsterdam, Netherland.  Compact high density development Curitiba, Brazil  Compact high density development, Ahmedabad, India. 5.Applicability of Compact City in Indian Context 6.Issues 7.Conclusion Drawn 8.References 2/38 Synopsis
  3. 3. What is Compact City? Introduction  A compact city is an currently emerged urban planning concept  Promotes relatively High density with mixing of various activities  It provide required infrastructure facilities with in the walkable distance  It is otherwise called as “City of Short distance” Source: http://www.dw.de/visions-of-shortdistance-cities 3/38
  4. 4.  Elkin (1991) said Compact city is the “Intensification of the use of space in the city with higher residential densities and centralisation”  Newman and Kenworthy(1989) said “More intensive land use, Centralised activities and higher densities”  Breheny (in Blowers, 1993) said “High density, mixed use city, where growth is encouraged within the boundaries of existing urban areas , but with no development beyond its periphery” 4/38 Compact City-View of authors
  5. 5.  Efficient usage of scarce land  Reduces travel time between office and home  Low wastage of precious sub-urban agricultural land  Saving in per-capita infrastructure spending  Lower per capita pollution  Enables faster execution of planned development  Integrated approach to solve the social problems arose. 5/38 General characteristics of compact city
  6. 6. Current scenario- Key issues Increasing rate of private mode of transportation Un planned development(Urban sprawl) Reduction of per capita availability of land (Source: Land degradation scenario report of India-2011) GHG emission by private mode of transportation Source:http://knowledge.allianz.com/mobility/transportation_safety/whic h-transport-methods-produce-most-emissions-india) (10 October 2012). 0.89 0.3 0.2 0 0.5 1 1900 1950 2000 2050 2100 LANDINHA YEAR Per capita availability of land in India 124.5 83 66.8 45.6 0 50 100 150 Cars Bikes City buses Trains Emission of GHG Emission of GHG (grams/kilometre) 6/38 Why we need compact city
  7. 7. Components 1.Centrality 2.Contiguity 3.Density 4.Intensity 5.Fine grain 6.Mobility and Accessibility  Base for differentiation in compact urban patterns  Creates various approaches  Unity of urban functions in a continual form  Contiguity between Open spaces and buildings should be maintained in a compact city  Relatively high in nature  Both population and dwelling units  Revitalisation of urban centres  Making the area more attractive and accessible  Relation between similar and dissimilar activities  Leads to clustered development  Mode of transportation  Easily accessibility results highest mobility rate 7/38 Components
  8. 8. Objectives Main objective of this study is to learn  Various concepts involved in the compact urban form.  Effectiveness of mixing of activities to achieve the high density.  To assess the applicability of compact city concept in Indian context 8/38 Objectives, Sub themes & Research Questions
  9. 9.  High density with mixed land uses.  Interconnection of streets and transport corridors with a focus on pedestrian, bicycle and public transport oriented planning. 9/38 Sub themes
  10. 10.  How to introduce urban compactness concept in our country?  If the compact city can encourage private mode of transportation?  What are the common indictors to measure the urban compactness in a city?  What are the challenges(present and future) while introducing the urban compactness concept in India? 10/38 Research hypothesis
  11. 11. Case study Issues identified Policies to over come the issues Out comes Compact High density development in Hong Kong, China 1. Mei Fu Shan Chuen city development Hong Kong, China 2. Metro-City Residential Development, Tseng Kwan O, Hong Kong, China  Increasing rate of population  Segregation of various activities  Land constraints  Concept of verticality  Concept of compactness  High rise development(30 stories to 60 stories)  Accommodating more people in the same area  Development along transit corridors  They achieved the maximum density of 9,600 habitants per and 2,048 households perSq.Km 11/38 Case study-1
  12. 12.  The intensification and development along the transit corridor is the major strategy  To make a city with higher density with high rise and mixed uses they go for sky scrapers and verticality.  Transportation plays an important role.  The urban compact form of Hong Kong mainly reduce the ¼ to of the travel time.  Intermingling of functions mainly based on the site characteristics and potentials.  Through urban densification they achieved the maximum density of 9,600 habitants per Sq.Km and 2,048 families per Sq.Km. 12/38 Inferences
  13. 13. Common indicators  Access of public transport use  Job accessibility  Rate of non-motorised travel  Housing affordability  Level of car ownership  Population of that area  Health facilities  Amount of living spaces Based on the indicators they conducted survey  To find whether the facilities are available or not near by  Then giving scores based on the availability of indicators mentioned  They have used weightage method (3 scales and 5 scales weightage)  Based on this scores they have found whether the city is compact or not. 13/38 Measuring urban compactness-Hong Kong
  14. 14. Measuring urban compactness Dimension for Compactness Nature of Indicators Weightage 1.Density Density of population Persons and households per hectare (within administrative district), and average of wards (population-weighted). 1-5 Density of built form Persons and households per hectare within built-up area and Residential area of district. 1-5 Density of housing Percentage of housing stock made up of higher- and lower density housing, and small and large dwellings. 1-5 14/38
  15. 15. Dimension for Compactness Nature of Indicators Weightage 2. Mix of uses Provision of facilities (balance of uses) Quantity of 'key' facilities, ratio of residential to non-residential land, and frequency of newsagents. 1-3 Vertical mix of uses Incidence of mixed retail/residential and commercial/residential Development. 1-5 based on residential uses Up to 60% --5 60%-50% --4 50%-40% --3 40%-30% --2 Below 20% --1 15/38 Measuring urban compactness
  16. 16. 3.Accessibility Access to superstores Average distance to nearest superstore, from all wards 1-5 More than 1000m --1 With in 1000m --2 500-1000m --3 250-500 --4 Below 250m --5 Access to green space Average distance to nearest green space, from all wards, 1-5 Job accessibility Percentage of low -income employees working outside the district, in absolute and relative terms (compared with high-income groups) 1-5 16/38 Measuring urban compactness
  17. 17. Public transport use Percentage of employees who travel to work by public transport 1-3 Up to 60% --3 30-60% --2 Below 30% --1 Non-motorised travel Percentage of employees who travel to work on foot or by bicycle, in absolute terms and relative to high-income employees 1-5 Up to 10% --1 10-20% --2 20-40% --3 40-55% --4 55-70% --5 Amount of living space Rooms per household (average, and for three-person, low-income households); extent of overcrowding; inequality in housing size. 1-5 Based on the land availability 3.Accessibility cont... 17/38 Measuring urban compactness
  18. 18. Job opportunities Number of jobs per relevantly qualified economically active resident, in absolute terms and relative to high-income jobs 1-3 With in 250m --3 250-1000 m --2 >1000m --1 Affordable housing Average price of lower-cost dwellings relative to average income of manual workers 1-5 Based on the land and construction costs Level of car ownership Percentage of car-less households. 1-3 More than 2 cars/Household --1 One car/household --2 No car --3 Size Total residents; total built-up area. 1-5 3.Accessibility cont... 18/38 Measuring urban compactness
  19. 19.  Mixing of activities mainly results in the increasing of density in an area.  Like residential with commercial, residential with non-hazardous industrial & Institutional  (E.g.) Metro-City Residential Development, Tseng Kwan O, Hong Kong, China  Phase One contains 2,048 households or 6,700 residents in 6 towers of 43 stories tall  Mixing of activities: Residential with commercial, institutional and non-hazardous industrial Residential Commercial Institutional Non hazardous Industries Total Height of the Building 24 floors 9 floors 4 floors 6 floors 43 stories 56% 21% 9% 14% 100% Source: Wang Xu and Lau Siu Yu (2002), ‘Pursuing New Urban Living Environment In The New Millennium: Projecting The Future Of High-Rise And High Density Living In Hong Kong', Department of Architecture, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China 19/38 Inferences-Mixing of uses
  20. 20.  From ground to up to 4 floors are used as institutional(9%)  5 to 13 floors are used as Commercial(21%)  14 to 19 floors are used for non hazardous industries(14%)  20 to 43 floors are fully utilized for residential purpose(56%)  They used basement floor and stilt for parking (basement floor 1, 2 and stilt 1,2) Source: Wang Xu and Lau Siu Yu (2002), ‘Pursuing New Urban Living Environment In The New Millennium: Projecting The Future Of High-Rise And High Density Living In Hong Kong’, Department of Architecture, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China 20/38 Arrangement of mixing of activities
  21. 21. Case study-2 Case study Issues identified Policies to over come the issues Out comes Compact city planning along the LRTS corridor in London  Scattered development  Increasing rate of private mode of transportation(11 cars per 10 households) Source:Available fromhttp://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/r el/census/2011-census/key- statistics-for-local-authorities-in- england-and-wales/index.html11 December 2012  Encourage residential intensification  Prefer tall building construction to increase population and also the dwelling units density  Increase the employment Opportunities Concentrate different functions: office, retail, visiting, leisure and cultural provision  Promote appropriate uses compatible with residential amenity  Provide an extensive set to local and trunk links by bus network  Promote walking and improve the pedestrian environment  Multi functional development  Achieving high density development(29 0 persons per ha, and the net density is 406 persons per ha.) 21/38
  22. 22.  In London they integrate urban areas, Through urban renaissance and intensification they achieved high density in the core areas by intermingling of activities  Transportation plays an important role in the intensification process  (E.g.) Barbican in London has a land area of 22.4 ha, 16 ha of which is residential, accommodating 6,500 persons. The gross density is 290 persons per ha, and the net density is 406 persons per ha. And also they created 6500 new jobs. These developments are well connected by the public mode of transportation. 22/38
  23. 23. In this conceptual plan the transportation(LRTS) plays an important role to make the city as more compact. Along LRTS corridor they have identified certain nodes. These nodes are either stop or stations. Around the nodes they brought the compact development by declaring some zonal regulations. 23/38 Conceptual diagram-London compact development plan
  24. 24.  Through urban densification and selective expansion process they achieved high density living in that area  Construction of high-rise buildings are encouraged to increase the density by the way of giving higher Floor Area Ratio around the LRTS nodes (Stops/Stations).  Redevelopment of brownfield area to reduce the construction cost  Integration of housing with various activities  Focusing the economic development by creating additional employment opportunities  Through urban densification process they achieved the maximum density of 406 persons per hectare. 24/38 Inferences
  25. 25. Case study Issues identified Policies to over come the issues Out comes Compact city policies, Amsterdam, Netherland  Mono functional development  Growth along various directions  Failure of ABC industrial locational policy  Optimizing land use by densification and intermingle functions  Create a continued clustering and concentrate urbanization  Concentrate regional amenities, public services and economic function in the vicinity of multimodal public hubs.  Strengthen the user base for amenities, so that shops in the city remain economically viable  Create space for socio- cultural mixes and functionally mixed  Clustered development by urban intensification  Multi functional development  Accessibility to public transportation by inducing development along transit corridors  Specific mix of land uses is not found 25/38 Case study-3
  26. 26. Inferences Source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Gooiord,_Bijlmer.jpg  Urban densification process effectively done in that area through clustered development. The commonly adopted strategies are  Along public transport truck routes in order to support public transport thresholds  In and around urban nodes and modal interchanges/public transit stops  On the periphery of open spaces to increase surveillance  Within areas of focused high private-sector investments  Transportation play a vital role in the city development.  Mixing of activities done after analysing the site characteristics.  Through densified clustered development results maximum population density of 400 to 500 persons per hectare and 75 to 100 dwelling units per hectare. 26/38
  27. 27. Case study Issues identified Policies to over come the issues Out comes Compact high density development Curitiba ,Brazil  More traffic congestion  Increasing rate of private mode of transportation  Deviation of growth in various directions (Scattered developments)  Optimizing land use by densification and intermingle functions  Create a continued clustering and concentrate urbanization  Developments along the (BRT) transit corridor  High density development by the way of giving more FSI in the transit corridor  Multi functional development  Accessibility to public transportation by inducing development along transit corridors  Specific mix of uses along the transit corridor  High density development like upto 600 persons per Hectare and 100 dwelling units per hectare 27/38 Case study-4
  28. 28. Structural axis along the BRT corridor Curitiba trinary road system 28/38 Compact development-Curitiba, Brazil
  29. 29. Residential Commercial BRT corridor Green areas Water bodies 29/38 Curitiba’s Land use, street network and Public transit
  30. 30.  Urban densification process effectively done.  Transportation play a vital role in the city development.  Mixing of activities done after analysing the site characteristics.  Increasing Floor Area Ratio maximum 6 around the transit nodes is the one option for densifying an urban settlements.  Through densification they have achieved a maximum density.  Effective utilisation of existing infrastructure facilities. 30/38 Inferences
  31. 31. Case study Issues identified Policies to over come the issues Out comes Compact high density development, Ahmedabad, India  More traffic congestion  Increasing rate of private mode of transportation  Lack of availability of land  Inducing the growth  Creating employment opportunities  Optimizing land use by densification and intermingle functions  Create a continued clustering and concentrate urbanization  Developments along the (BRT) transit corridor  High density development by the way of giving more FSI in the transit corridor  Multi functional development  Accessibility to public transportation by inducing development along transit corridors  Specific mix of uses along the transit corridor  High density development like up to 190 persons per hectare 31/38 Case study-5
  32. 32.  Jammarg Bus Rapid Transit system was introduced in the year 2009 span of 220 kilometres  Phase I--45 kms  Phase II--currently under construction, adds another 58.0 kms.  Phase III proposes adding an additional 40.2 kilometres.  Daily ridership increased by a factor of 10 in two years, from 13,000 in October 2009 to 135,000 in November 2011  Introduction of rapid buses are opposed to orienting the land use activities in the busway. Improved accessibility is to be achieved by moving people around the city 32/38 Case study-5 cont..
  33. 33.  Naturally Ahmedabad has compact structure.  Due to land use transformations after the execution of BRTS network  The AUDA decided to intensify in and around the nodes.  Minimum lot size of 1500m to 2500m  100m of the road is zoned as high intensity development zone with FSI 4,  Up to 250m is also intensification zone with FSI 3  Rest of the city to get FSI 2.75 Nodes 33/38 Case study-5 cont..
  34. 34.  Ahmedabad rated as one India’s best-planned cities. Its achievements are the result of a planning culture that embraces innovative tools and financing schemes, as well as good governance that enables smooth planning implementation.  To guarantee this new approach of integrated planning is realised in every aspect of spatial and transport planning.  Densification along the transit corridor are done successfully to encourage high density developments by giving more FSI.  Developments near to transit nodes should discourage the usage of private mode of vehicles.  Through the process of densification along the BRTS corridor they have achieved the maximum density of 190 persons per hectare effectively. 34/38 Inferences
  35. 35.  India is one of the fast developing countries in the world. It has about 18% of the world’s population.  In the next 6 years urban India needs to build at least 10.5 million houses to meet the housing demand  Vast growth of existing metropolitan cities results scattered developments(e.g.)Bangalore, Chennai, Mumbai etc.,  Resulted in lack of matching infrastructure, large share of slums in cities, traffic congestion, and disparities in access to urban services, lack of land availability, pollution and degraded natural environment in cities  So Compact urban development is the best solution to meet growing housing demand 25.7 28.53 31.16 0 10 20 30 40 1991 2001 2011 Rate of Urbanization % Urban population (Source: www.censusindia.gov.in) 35/38 Applicability to India’s context
  36. 36.  The high intensity of development reduces geographical spread /urban sprawl  Reduces land consumption  higher residential densities accommodating more people within the same area and also contribute to more social interaction  Average journey trips become shorter, leading to lower fuel consumption and lower harmful emissions  Urban compaction is needed as a way of combating sprawl and related issues of shortage of land for housing and loss of agricultural land 36/38 Need of compact development
  37. 37.  A focus on urban compactness guarantees congestion  Consolidation biases old infrastructure, increasing overload and the risk of failure.  Reduced quality of life, and loss of a sense of community, especially for households in middle to lower income brackets (and, ultimately, demolishing of failed apartment blocks)  The market does not favour medium to high density housing unless well located, well appointed, and therefore out of the price range of most households.  it is very important to bear in mind the different situation in Hong Kong, Amsterdam, Curitiba and India, such as the difference in the development pattern, transportation modes, living philosophy, and land policy. 37/38 Issues in Compact City
  38. 38.  It is safe to say that the future of India lies in its cities.  From the experiences of various compact cities in the world, In Indian cities, especially Smaller cities can adopt compact cities from scratch and restrict urban sprawl so as to control environment and ecological degradation  Strong political will and support from citizens is also the integral to the success of compact cities.  The Government should also encourage the finance institutions to raise funds through Public offers exclusively for Infrastructure Projects  The major step toward achieving this is by directing the policies for growth, such as encouraging the densification process with mixed-land use, encouraging Public private partnership (PPP) for urban transportation and waste Management and other infrastructure facilities etc. I want to conclude my study is listed as follows:  Best of the Best: We may understand and adopt, Development control & Management of facilities.  Re Engineering required: Social Inclusiveness, Policies, Regulations Marketing the approach itself. 38/38 Conclusion
  39. 39. 1. Abdolhadi Daneshpour& Amir Shakibamanesh (2011), ‘Compact city; dose it create an obligatory context for urban sustainability’, International journal of Architectural engineering & Urban planning Vol.2, no.9, pp.120-135 2. Angel S, Sheppard S and Civco D (2005), ‘The Dynamics of Global urban expansion’, Transport and Urban development Department, Washington D.C, World Bank. 3. Bill Randolph (2006) ‘Delivering the Compact City in Australia: Current trends and Future implications’, University of New South Wales, Kensington 4. Breheny M (ed.) (1992), ‘Sustainable Development and Urban Form’, Pion publications, London. 5. BrehenyM (1997), ‘Urban Compaction: Feasible and Acceptable?” Cities, Earth scan Publications, London. pp. 209-217 6. Burgess R., (2000), ‘The Compact City Debate: A Global Perspective” in Compact Cities: Sustainable Urban Forms for Developing Countries’, Eds. M. Jenks, R. Burgess, (Spon Press, London). pp 9-24 7. Burton E. (2002), ‘Measuring Urban Compactness in UK Towns and Cities’, Environment and Planning B, Vol. 29, pp.219-250. 8. Brown F (2000), ‘Modelling Urban Growth’, Town and Country Planning, London.pp.334-337. 9. Brown and Lester R. (2000), State of the World 2000 – A World watch Institute Report on Progress ‘Toward a Sustainable Society, London’, Earth scan Publications, London. References
  40. 40. 10. Cervero R.(1991),’Congestion relief: The land use alternatives, Journal Of Planning And Research.Vol.10,No.2.pp.119-129 11. Dantzig G. and Saaty T. (1973), ‘Compact City: A plan for a liveable urban environment’, Freeman, San Francisco. 12. De Roo G. and Miller D. (2000), ‘Compact City and Sustainable Urban Development: A Critical Assessment of policies and Plans from an International Perspective, Ashgate, Aldershot. 13. Dieleman F. and Wegener M. (2004), ‘Compact City and Urban Sprawl’, Built Environment, Vol. 30,No. 4 14. Dewar D (2000), ‘The Relevance of the Compact City in Compact Cities: Sustainable Urban Forms for Developing Countries’, Spon Press, London and New York. pp. 209-218. 15. Elkin T, McLaren D, and Hillman M (1991),’Reviving the city: Towards sustainable urban development, London. 16. European Journal of Spatial Development (2012), ‘Compact city development: High ideals and emerging practices’, Europe. 17. Freeman H (1984),’Mental health and the environment’, Churchill Livingstone, London. 18. Haughton G and Hunter C (1994),’Sustainable cities’, Jessica Kingsley Publishers, London. 19. Hajer M. and Zonneveld W. (2000), ‘Spatial Planning in the Network Society – Rethinking the of Planning in the Netherlands, European Planning Studies. pp. 337-355. References
  41. 41. References 20. Jenks M & Burgess R (2000), ‘Compact cities-Sustainable urban forms for developing countries’, Spon press, London. pp. 14-23. 21. Mc Laren D. (1992),’Compact or Dispersed? Dilution is no solution’, Built environment. Vol.18, No.4.pp.268-284 22. Mc Loughlin J (1991),’The Demographic Revolution’, Chapter No.1-4, 8, 10, Faber and Faber,London. 23. Mike Jenks, Elizabeth Burton and Katie Williams (1996), ‘Compact Cities and Sustainability: An Introduction’, Oxford Brookes University, Oxford, UK. 24. Ni Kos A. Salingaros (2006), ‘Compact city replaces Sprawl, 010Publishers, Rotterdam, Holland. pp. (100-115). 25. Newman, P., Kenworthy, J., (1999), ‘Sustainability and Cities: Overcoming Automobile Dependence ‘Island Press, Washington, D.C. 26. Ng, M. K. and Hills, P. (2000), ‘Hong Kong: World City or Great City of the World?’ The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China. 27. Smyth, H., (1996), ‘Running the Gauntlet: A Compact City within a Doughnut of Decay” in The Compact City: A Sustainable Urban Form’, E & FN Spon publications, London. pp.101-113 28. Striker M (2011), ‘Urban compaction process in Amsterdam’, 47th ISOCARP Congress, Wuhan, China 29. Thomas, L., Cousins, W., 1996 “The Compact City: A Successful, Desirable and Achievable? In The Compact City: A Sustainable Urban Form?’, E&FN Spon publications, London. pp. 53-63
  42. 42. 31. Tong, Y. (2003), ‘Planning for Better Quality of Life for High Rise Residential Development in Hong Kong’, The University of Hong Kong, China. 32. Urban Task Force, Britain (1999), ‘Towards an Urban Renaissance, London: E & FN Spon’, London. 33. Van der Waals, J.F.M. (1999) ,‘The Compact City and the Environment: A Review’, Journal for Economy and Social Geography, May 2000, Vol. 91, No. 2, page 111-121. 34. Wang Xu & Lau Siu Yu (2002), ‘Pursuing New Urban Living Environment in the New Millennium: Projecting the Future of High-Rise and High Density Living in Hong Kong’, Thesis report, The university of Hong Kong, China. 35. Welbank, M., 1996 ‘The Search for a Sustainable Urban Form in ‘The Compact City: A Sustainable Urban Form?’,E & FN Spon publications, London. pp.74-82 36. XIE Yongqing (2010), ‘Urban Compaction and Its Impacts on Urban Development in Hong Kong, China. References

×