Jr. MSc Agricultural Extension
Topics for discussion
Conceptual frame work of HRD
Inter disciplinary approach of HRD
HRD Interventions-Different experiences
Definition of HRD
Emergence of HRD
Employee needs, extend beyond the training
Includes coaching, group work, and problem
Need for basic employee development
Need for structured career development
Relationship Between HRM and
Human resource management (HRM) encompasses
Human resource development (HRD) is just one of
the functions within HRM
Human resource planning
Equal employment opportunity
Staffing (recruitment and selection)
Compensation and benefits
Employee and labour relations
Health, safety, and security
Human resource development
Primary Functions of HRM
Secondary HRM Functions
Organization and job design
performance appraisal systems
Research and information
Training and development (T&D)
Training and Development (T&D)
Training – improving the knowledge, skills and
attitudes of employees for the short-term, particular to
a specific job or task – e.g.,
Skills & technical training
Training and Development (T&D)
Development – preparing for future responsibilities,
while increasing the capacity to perform at a current job
organization’s effectiveness and
member’s wellbeing- behavioral science
Focuses on both macro and micro-levels
HRD plays the role of a change agent
Ongoing process by which individuals
progress through series of changes until they
achieve their personal level of maximum
Critical HRD Issues
Strategic management and HRD
The supervisor’s role in HRD
Organizational structure of HRD
Strategic Management & HRD
Strategic management aims to ensure organizational
effectiveness for the foreseeable future – e.g.,
maximizing profits in the next 3 to 5 years
HRD aims to get managers and workers ready for new
products, procedures, and materials
Supervisor’s Role in HRD
Implements HRD programs and procedures
On-the-job training (OJT)
Career and employee development
A “front-line participant” in HRD
of HRD Departments
Depends on company size, industry and maturity
No single structure used
Depends in large part on how well the HRD manager
becomes an institutional part of the company – i.e., a
revenue contributor, not just a revenue user
Sample HRD Jobs/Roles
HR Strategic Advisor
HR Systems Designer/Developer
Organization Change Agent
Organization Design Consultant
Learning Program Specialist
Individual Development and Career Counselor
Performance Consultant (Coach)
Challenges for HRD
Changing workforce demographics
Competing in global economy
Eliminating the skills gap
Need for lifelong learning
Need for organizational learning
Need for more skilled and educated workers
Cultural sensitivity required
Better communications skills
Competing in the Global Economy
Need for Lifelong Learning
PEOPLE must change!!
Need for Organizational Learning
Organizations must be able to learn, adapt
Creating a Learning Organization
Personal Mastery: managers empower employees and allow them
to create and explore.
Mental Models: challenge employees to find new, better methods
to perform a task.
Team Learning: is more important than individual learning since
most decisions are made in groups.
Build a Shared Vision: people share a common mental model of
the firm to evaluate opportunities.
Systems Thinking: know that actions in one area of the firm
impacts all others.
A Framework for the HRD Process
HRD efforts should use the following four phases (or
Establishing HRD priorities
Defining specific training and objectives
Establishing evaluation criteria
Need Assessment Phase
Selecting who delivers program
Selecting and developing program content
Scheduling the training program
Implementing or delivering the
Determining program effectiveness – e.g.,
Keep or change providers?
Offer it again?
What are the true costs?
Can we do it another way?
Include 6 areas
1. HRD Quality
3. Personal policy and practices
Subject matter areas from which
HRD derives knowledge
Education- adult education,work orientation
Psychology- career counselling,incentives
System Theory- system analysis
Organizational behaviour- group dynamics,change
Economy- micro and macro levels
From point of view of organisation
increasing organisation capacity to achieve goal
Increases and develop employee perfomances
Using employees knowledge and skills efficiently
Improves the organisation’s ability to manage change
Benefits of establishing strong HRD
From point of view of
Improves equity ,employee compensation and levels
Helps employees understand how their work relates
to the mission and value of the org.
Helps employees feel highly motivated
Increases employee job satisfaction
HRD functions are carried out through its systems
and sub systems.
HRD has five major systems
each of the systems has sub systems
3. Development system
4. Self renewal system
5. Culture System
individual and team oriented
1. Career system:
2. Work system:
Performance feedback and guidance
3. Development system:
4. Self-renewal system:
Organizational Development interventions
5. Culture system:
• Vision, Mission and Goal
• Get-togethers and celebrations
• Task forces
• Small Groups
• HRD - a process-oriented function
• HRD functions - fail
because the processes involving the systems
are not adequately addressed.
• concerns the question of “how”& “why ”
• emphasises - behavioural &interactional
HRD processes centred around
1.Individual: Individual is the basic constituent of
an organization. All the behavioural pattern and
dynamisms emerge from individuals.
2.Role: Role is a dynamic entity which involves the
expectations of significant others and self from the
position of the role holder.
role related HRD processes in organizations.
Competencies for job performance
Stress & Burnout
When individuals begin to work in team, behavioural
patterns and dynamisms emerge.
• Conflict resolution
4.Organization: A large number of HRD processes
are organization related.
The force within us that activates our behaviour.
It is a function of three distinct components,
Intensity, Direction, and Persistence.
Intensity refers to the amount of mental and
physical effort put forth by the person.
The extent to which an individual determines
and chooses efforts focused on a particular
The extent to which the goal-directed effort is
put forth over time.
When doing the job is
When rewards such as pay
and formal recognition act
Why Reward & Recognition
Drives Stretch in Performance
Enhances aspirations and creates Motivation
Builds Self Esteem and sense of Belonging
Improves Individual Attitudes
Reward is a Right; Recognition is a Gift…..
Direct Financial (pay)
Indirect Financial (benefits)
Work Content (work)
Affiliation (feeling of
Toys, Trophies & Trinkets
Fun, Freedom & Food
What is Diversity?
In simple terms, diversity is "otherness," or those
human qualities that are different from our own and
outside the groups in which we belong. There are
various qualities that differentiate one individual from
Elements of Diversity
The uniqueness of all individuals;
Principles of Diversity Management
Establish a business strategy for effectively
managing a diverse workforce
Create a positive work environment
Promote personal and professional development
Empower all people to reach their full potential
Remove barriers that hinder progress
Ensure equal opportunities and prevent
Techniques for Managing
Compensation and reward programs tied to
achieving diversity goals
Cultural advisory groups
Corporate social activities that celebrate diversity
Managing diversity effectively
Greater range of perspectives, ideas, and creativity.
Better problem definition, generation of
alternatives, and decisions.
Greater potential of developing a high performance
Greater resilience in dealing with escalating
Implications for Managers
Managing a diverse workforce is an important part
of an international manager’s job
Must understand the impact of diversity and know
how to utilize
Realize different cultures view diversity differently
and consider impact on manager
Potential Benefits of an Effective Diversity
Improve organizational performance
Help prevent unlawful discrimination or harassment incidents
Improve workplace relations
Build more effective work teams
Improve organizational problem solving
Improve customer service
Enhanced recruitment efforts
Barriers in preventing a
Limiting area of consideration
Lack of diversity at the senior ranks
Categorizing people into certain positions
Always recruiting from same source
Grooming/developing only one person
Types of exercises
Interview simulations / role plays
candidates are brought together as a committee or
project team with one or a number of items to make a
Candidates may be assigned specific roles to play in
the group or it may be structured in such a way that
all the candidates have the same basic information.
Interview Simulations / Role Plays
candidates meet individually with a role player or resource
gather information to form a view and make a decision, or
alternatively, to engage in discussion with the resource
person to come to a resolution on an aspect or issue of
Case Studies / Analysis Exercises
the candidate is presented with the task of
making a decision about a particular business
An objective is a simple statement of an end result to
be achieved within a specified time frame.
It should be short, clear and specific.
It can also be in the form of an activity as it may not
always be possible to quantify the end results.
Why Objective setting ?
Gives direction to job.
Helps focus on important job areas.
Assists review and change in job emphasis.
Provides a basis for appraisal, counselling and
Increases mutual job understanding with superior.
Targets – are specific conditions to be
achieved/indicates how much of what and by when
Activities – action steps which lead to the end
results / used when targets are not quantifiable /
indicate what by when
Process of goal setting
What is the job ?
What are the end results expected ?
What policies / procedures / work methods are
impeding performance ?
What changes are needed for better results ?
How can work assignments be regrouped/altered to
improve schedule ?
What problems need to be overcome next year ?
Objectives should be
S - Specific
M - Measurable
A - Attainable
R - Relevant
T - Time-bound
Establishing specific goals to support stated purpose.
Determining the importance of these goals.
Making plans for action.
Arriving at performance standards and measurement
Stating anticipated problems.
Weighing the resources required to carry out the
Providing for interaction of organization and
Following up with actual performance measurement
HRs role in Performance
Ensuring timely adherence
Auditing the objectives jointly with line managers
Ensuring objectives are in line with organisational
Requesting modification if required
Job satisfaction and turnover intention in
organizations :A Study across in Indian Persepective
Several organizations are facing a serious threat of
employee turnover irrespective of sectors ,across
countries .This case study is an attempt to identify the
factors influencing job satisfaction and turnover
intention of employees from multiple sectors in
Chennai city.This research considered a sample of 588
employees across various sectors to find out the
opinions about the levels of satisfaction experinced
OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
Identify the factors influencing job satisfaction in
multi- sector organizations
To classify the employees based on the employees’
perception of job satisfaction in multi-sector
To identify the major reasons for the employee
turnover intention in organizations
To identify the correlation between employee job
satisfaction and turnover intention in organizations
The study mainly depends on primary data collected
through a well- framed and structured questionnaire to
elicit the opinions of the respondents , and the
secondary data were obtained from scholarly articles
published in journals ,websites etc.
The study was among employees across sectors from
Chennai city in order to have varied opinion about job
satisfaction in various sectors during the period from
Sample selected – non probability convenience
The respondents were from
IT firms 81
Job satisfaction turnover –negative relationship
The study has shown that job satisfation is a consistent
worry for organization ,irrespective of sectors based
on demographic aspects ,and other influencing
factors like pay and promotion ,work ,organizational
aspects etc.These factors are perceived differently by
different individuals.Hence ,whatever steps the
organization takes in order to improve with respect to
these aspects ,it rests with the employees to perceive
it rightly and get satisfied .
Therefore ,it is clear that the emloyees’ intent to leave
their present present organizations need not occur
only if the employees are not satisfied.The employee
may intend to leave an organization even if he/she is
satisfied.So the organization should chalk out
methods to retain the interest of the most calibered
employees .Therefore the organizations should
employ those methods to recruit potential personnels
as soon as the present employee shows intention to
quit, so that the organizational efforts are not wasted
in creating features for job satisfaction to prevent turn
1. Performance management in Amul marketing chain
2. Qualitative management (eployee satisfaction )in
facebook ,the social networking site
3. Performance management in IFFCO’s research wing
4. Capacity building of the personnell in KAMCO
Prabandhan:Indian journal of Management
International Journal of Management and Business
Tripati,P.C. and Reddy,P.N.,2010,Principle of
Udaykumar Haldar,Human Resource Management
WHAT THINGS COME TO MIND?