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Human resource development

  1. 1. BHAGYA VIJAYAN Jr. MSc Agricultural Extension
  2. 2. Topics for discussion Conceptual frame work of HRD Inter disciplinary approach of HRD Function systems Case studies HRD Interventions-Different experiences 2
  3. 3. Definition of HRD 3
  4. 4. Emergence of HRD Employee needs, extend beyond the training classroom Includes coaching, group work, and problem solving Need for basic employee development Need for structured career development 4
  5. 5. Relationship Between HRM and HRD Human resource management (HRM) encompasses many functions Human resource development (HRD) is just one of the functions within HRM 5 HRM HRD
  6. 6. Human resource planning Equal employment opportunity Staffing (recruitment and selection) Compensation and benefits Employee and labour relations Health, safety, and security Human resource development Primary Functions of HRM 6
  7. 7. Secondary HRM Functions Organization and job design Performance management/ performance appraisal systems Research and information systems 7
  8. 8. HRD Functions Training and development (T&D) Organizational development Career development 8
  9. 9. Training and Development (T&D) Training – improving the knowledge, skills and attitudes of employees for the short-term, particular to a specific job or task – e.g., Employee orientation Skills & technical training Coaching Counseling 9
  10. 10. Training and Development (T&D) Development – preparing for future responsibilities, while increasing the capacity to perform at a current job Management training Supervisor development 10
  11. 11. Organizational Development  organization’s effectiveness and member’s wellbeing- behavioral science concepts Focuses on both macro and micro-levels HRD plays the role of a change agent 11
  12. 12. Career Development Ongoing process by which individuals progress through series of changes until they achieve their personal level of maximum achievement. Career planning Career management 12
  13. 13. Critical HRD Issues Strategic management and HRD The supervisor’s role in HRD Organizational structure of HRD 13
  14. 14. Strategic Management & HRD Strategic management aims to ensure organizational effectiveness for the foreseeable future – e.g., maximizing profits in the next 3 to 5 years HRD aims to get managers and workers ready for new products, procedures, and materials 14
  15. 15. Supervisor’s Role in HRD Implements HRD programs and procedures On-the-job training (OJT) Coaching/mentoring/counseling Career and employee development A “front-line participant” in HRD 15
  16. 16. Organizational Structure of HRD Departments 16 Depends on company size, industry and maturity No single structure used Depends in large part on how well the HRD manager becomes an institutional part of the company – i.e., a revenue contributor, not just a revenue user
  17. 17. Sample HRD Jobs/Roles Executive/Manager HR Strategic Advisor HR Systems Designer/Developer Organization Change Agent Organization Design Consultant Learning Program Specialist Instructor/Facilitator Individual Development and Career Counselor Performance Consultant (Coach) Researcher 17
  18. 18. Challenges for HRD Changing workforce demographics Competing in global economy Eliminating the skills gap Need for lifelong learning Need for organizational learning 18
  19. 19. New technologies Need for more skilled and educated workers Cultural sensitivity required Team involvement Problem solving Better communications skills Competing in the Global Economy 19
  20. 20. Need for Lifelong Learning Organizations change Technologies change Products change Processes change PEOPLE must change!! 20
  21. 21. Need for Organizational Learning Organizations must be able to learn, adapt and change Principles: Systems thinking Personal mastery Mental models Shared visions Team learning 22
  22. 22. Creating a Learning Organization Personal Mastery: managers empower employees and allow them to create and explore.  Mental Models: challenge employees to find new, better methods to perform a task.  Team Learning: is more important than individual learning since most decisions are made in groups.  Build a Shared Vision: people share a common mental model of the firm to evaluate opportunities.  Systems Thinking: know that actions in one area of the firm impacts all others. 23
  23. 23. A Framework for the HRD Process HRD efforts should use the following four phases (or stages): Needs assessment Design Implementation Evaluation 24
  24. 24. 25
  25. 25. Establishing HRD priorities Defining specific training and objectives Establishing evaluation criteria Need Assessment Phase 26
  26. 26. Design Phase Selecting who delivers program Selecting and developing program content Scheduling the training program 27
  27. 27. Implementation Phase Implementing or delivering the program 28
  28. 28. Evaluation Phase Determining program effectiveness – e.g., Keep or change providers? Offer it again? What are the true costs? Can we do it another way? 29
  29. 29. Interdisciplinary Approach Include 6 areas 1. HRD Quality 2.HRD Planning 3. Personal policy and practices 4.HRD data 5.Performance management 6.Training 30
  30. 30. Subject matter areas from which HRD derives knowledge  Education- adult education,work orientation  Psychology- career counselling,incentives  System Theory- system analysis  Organizational behaviour- group dynamics,change theory  Economy- micro and macro levels 31
  31. 31. From point of view of organisation  increasing organisation capacity to achieve goal Increases and develop employee perfomances Using employees knowledge and skills efficiently Improves the organisation’s ability to manage change Benefits of establishing strong HRD system 32
  32. 32. From point of view of employees Improves equity ,employee compensation and levels of responsibilities Helps employees understand how their work relates to the mission and value of the org. Helps employees feel highly motivated Increases employee job satisfaction 33
  33. 33. HRD SYSTEMS HRD functions are carried out through its systems and sub systems. HRD has five major systems  each of the systems has sub systems 1.Career system 2.Work system 3. Development system 4. Self renewal system 5. Culture System 34 individual and team oriented organization based
  34. 34. 1. Career system: subsystems Manpower planning Recruitment Career planning Succession planning Retention 35
  35. 35. 2. Work system: sub systems Role analysis Role efficacy Performance plan Performance feedback and guidance Performance appraisal Promotion Job rotation Reward 36
  36. 36. 3. Development system: subsystems 37 Induction Training Job enrichment Self-learning mechanisms Potential appraisal Succession Development Counselling Mentor system
  37. 37. 4. Self-renewal system: sub systems 38 Survey Action research Organizational Development interventions Organizational Retreats
  38. 38.  5. Culture system: subsystems 39 • Vision, Mission and Goal • Values • Communication • Get-togethers and celebrations • Task forces • Small Groups
  39. 39. HRD PROCESSES • HRD - a process-oriented function • HRD functions - fail because the processes involving the systems are not adequately addressed. • concerns the question of “how”& “why ” • emphasises - behavioural &interactional dimensions. 40
  40. 40. HRD processes centred around 1. Employee 2.Role 3.Teams 4.Organization itself 41
  41. 41. 1.Individual: Individual is the basic constituent of an organization. All the behavioural pattern and dynamisms emerge from individuals. Efficacy  Effectiveness  Styles Leadership 42
  42. 42. 2.Role: Role is a dynamic entity which involves the expectations of significant others and self from the position of the role holder.  role related HRD processes in organizations. Competencies for job performance Commitment  Motivation  Frustration Stress & Burnout 43
  43. 43.  3.Teams:  When individuals begin to work in team, behavioural patterns and dynamisms emerge. • Communication • Feedback • Conflict resolution • Collaboration 44
  44. 44.   4.Organization: A large number of HRD processes  are organization related.  45   Organizational Climate  Communication  Learning Organization  Organizational Change  Organizational Development
  45. 45. 47 The force within us that activates our behaviour. It is a function of three distinct components, Intensity, Direction, and Persistence. Intensity PersistenceDirection MotivationMotivation
  46. 46. 48 Intensity refers to the amount of mental and physical effort put forth by the person. PersistenceDirection MotivationMotivation Intensity
  47. 47. 49 The extent to which an individual determines and chooses efforts focused on a particular goal. Intensity PersistenceDirection MotivationMotivation
  48. 48. 50 The extent to which the goal-directed effort is put forth over time. Intensity PersistenceDirection MotivationMotivation
  49. 49. Motivation: Intrinsic When doing the job is  inherently motivating Extrinsic When rewards such as pay  and formal recognition act  as motivators 51
  50. 50. Why Reward & Recognition Drives Stretch in Performance Enhances aspirations and creates Motivation Feeling Valued Builds Self Esteem and sense of Belonging Improves Individual Attitudes 52
  51. 51. Reward is a Right; Recognition is a Gift….. Rewards   Direct Financial (pay)  Indirect Financial (benefits)  Work Content (work)  Careers (development)  Affiliation (feeling of       belonging) Recognition Praise Time Toys, Trophies & Trinkets Fun, Freedom & Food Small Money Others 53
  52. 52. What is Diversity? In simple terms, diversity is "otherness," or those  human qualities that are different from our own and  outside the groups in which we belong. There are  various qualities that differentiate one individual from  the next.  56
  53. 53. Elements of Diversity Age Gender Sex Ethnicity Race Physical Ability Physical Characteristics Income Education Marital Status Religious Beliefs Geographic Location Parental Status  Personality Type 57
  54. 54. 58   Diversity: The uniqueness of all individuals; includes everyone.
  55. 55. Principles of Diversity Management  Establish a business strategy for effectively  managing a diverse workforce  Create a positive work environment  Promote personal and professional development  Empower all people to reach their full potential  Remove barriers that hinder progress  Ensure equal opportunities and prevent  discrimination  59
  56. 56. Techniques for Managing Diversity Compensation and reward programs tied to  achieving diversity goals Language training Mentoring programs Cultural advisory groups Corporate social activities that celebrate diversity  60
  57. 57. Managing diversity effectively Greater range of perspectives, ideas, and creativity. Better problem definition, generation of  alternatives, and decisions. Greater potential of developing a high performance  team. Greater resilience in dealing with escalating  demands. 61
  58. 58. Implications for Managers Managing a diverse workforce is an important part  of an international manager’s job Must understand the impact of diversity and know  how to utilize Realize different cultures view diversity differently  and consider impact on manager 62
  59. 59. Potential Benefits of an Effective Diversity Management Program Improve organizational performance Help prevent unlawful discrimination or harassment incidents Improve workplace relations Build more effective work teams Improve organizational problem solving Improve customer service Enhanced recruitment efforts 63
  60. 60. Barriers in preventing a balanced workforce Limiting area of consideration Lack of diversity at the senior ranks  Categorizing people into certain positions Always recruiting from same source  Grooming/developing only one person  64
  61. 61. Types  of exercises Group discussion Interview simulations / role plays Case studies 66
  62. 62. Group Discussions candidates are brought together as a committee or project team with one or a number of items to make a recommendation on.  Candidates may be assigned specific roles to play in the group or it may be structured in such a way that all the candidates have the same basic information. 67
  63. 63. Interview Simulations / Role Plays candidates meet individually with a role player or resource person. gather information to form a view and make a decision, or alternatively, to engage in discussion with the resource person to come to a resolution on an aspect or issue of dispute. 68
  64. 64. Case Studies / Analysis Exercises the candidate is presented with the task of making a decision about a particular business case. 69
  65. 65. Objective Setting An objective is a simple statement of an end result to be achieved within a specified time frame. It should be short, clear and specific. It can also be in the form of an activity as it may not always be possible to quantify the end results. 71
  66. 66. Why Objective setting ? Gives direction to job. Helps focus on important job areas. Assists review and change in job emphasis. Provides a basis for appraisal, counselling and feedback. Increases mutual job understanding with superior. 72
  67. 67. Objectives Targets – are specific conditions to be achieved/indicates how much of what and by when Activities – action steps which lead to the end results / used when targets are not quantifiable / indicate what by when 73
  68. 68. Process of goal setting What is the job ? What are the end results expected ? What policies / procedures / work methods are impeding performance ? What changes are needed for better results ? How can work assignments be regrouped/altered to improve schedule ? What problems need to be overcome next year ? 74
  69. 69. Objectives should be S - Specific M - Measurable A - Attainable R - Relevant T - Time-bound 75
  70. 70. Process Establishing specific goals to support stated purpose. Determining the importance of these goals. Making plans for action. Arriving at performance standards and measurement criteria. Stating anticipated problems. 76
  71. 71. Process.. Weighing the resources required to carry out the planned action. Providing for interaction of organization and individual goals. Following up with actual performance measurement and evaluation. 77
  72. 72. HRs role in Performance Management Delivering time-lines Ensuring timely adherence Auditing the objectives jointly with line managers Ensuring objectives are in line with organisational goals Requesting modification if required 78
  73. 73. Case study Job satisfaction and turnover intention in organizations :A Study across in Indian Persepective  CASE: Several organizations are facing a serious threat of employee turnover irrespective of sectors ,across countries .This case study is an attempt to identify the factors influencing job satisfaction and turnover intention of employees from multiple sectors in Chennai city.This research considered a sample of 588 employees across various sectors to find out the varied opinions about the levels of satisfaction experinced by them. 79
  74. 74. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY Identify the factors influencing job satisfaction in multi- sector organizations To classify the employees based on the employees’ perception of job satisfaction in multi-sector organizations To identify the major reasons for the employee turnover intention in organizations To identify the correlation between employee job satisfaction and turnover intention in organizations 80
  75. 75. METHODOLOGY The study mainly depends on primary data collected through a well- framed and structured questionnaire to elicit the opinions of the respondents , and the secondary data were obtained from scholarly articles published in journals ,websites etc. The study was among employees across sectors from Chennai city in order to have varied opinion about job satisfaction in various sectors during the period from 2010-2012 Sample selected – non probability convenience sampling The respondents were from IT firms 81
  76. 76. Research Measures Job satisfation Turnover Intention 82
  77. 77. Conclusion Job satisfaction turnover –negative relationship MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS The study has shown that job satisfation is a consistent worry for organization ,irrespective of sectors based on demographic aspects ,and other influencing factors like pay and promotion ,work ,organizational aspects etc.These factors are perceived differently by different individuals.Hence ,whatever steps the organization takes in order to improve with respect to these aspects ,it rests with the employees to perceive it rightly and get satisfied . 83
  78. 78. Therefore ,it is clear that the emloyees’ intent to leave their present present organizations need not occur only if the employees are not satisfied.The employee may intend to leave an organization even if he/she is satisfied.So the organization should chalk out methods to retain the interest of the most calibered employees .Therefore the organizations should employ those methods to recruit potential personnels as soon as the present employee shows intention to quit, so that the organizational efforts are not wasted in creating features for job satisfaction to prevent turn over intention. 84
  79. 79. HRD Interventions 1. Performance management in Amul marketing chain 2. Qualitative management (eployee satisfaction )in facebook ,the social networking site 3. Performance management in IFFCO’s research wing 4. Capacity building of the personnell in KAMCO 85
  80. 80. REFERANCES Prabandhan:Indian journal of Management International Journal of Management and Business Studies Tripati,P.C. and Reddy,P.N.,2010,Principle of Management Udaykumar Haldar,Human Resource Management 86

Editor's Notes

  • DIVERSITY:
    WHAT THINGS COME TO MIND?
    LISTING
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