• It is also known as habitual or
repeated abortion.It is defined as
three or more consecutive
spontaneous abortions.Approx 1
in 100 women experience it.
1 Genetic factors.
a) chromosomal abnormalities (structural abnormalities) are
mainly associated with recurrent abortions.These
abnormalities are three times more common in
females.Most common chromosomal abnormalities are:
b) Neural tube defects and Potter’s syndrome increases
incidence of abortion.
• 2.Anatomical factors.
• a) Congenital anomalies of uterus are present in
10-15% of cases.These include bicornuate ,
subseptate,unicornuate uteri.The mechanism
through which these cause abortion is not clear
though implantation on septum may lead to
decreased plancental vascularization.
• b) Intra uterine adhesions are also responsible
presumably due to inadequate placentation.
• c) Fibroid uterus.
• d) Incompetent cervix.
• 3.Endocrinal factors.
• a) Polycystic ovarian disease.
• b) Corpus luteum insufficiency.
• c) Diabetes mellitus.
• d) Thyroid dysfunction.
• 4.Immunological factors.
• a) Alloimmune factor e.g production of
suppressor cells within decidua,blocking
antibodies, trophoblastic leucocyte cross
• b) Auto immune diseases e.g in SLE , lupus
anticoagulants, cardiolipins antibodies appear
before clinical onset of disease which
increases incidence of recurrent abortion.
• 5.Systemic Disorders e.g hypertension and
• 6.Smoking and Alcohol.The risk of abortion
is doubled in these patients.
Investigation in non- pregnant woman.
• Counselling is most important part of
management during or before next
• During pregnancy general treatment includes
• Specific intervention
• Cervical incompetence
• Before next pregnancy causative factor is
found and patient is treated accordingly.