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SUSTAINABLE PAPER
      PACKAGING
(PEMBUNGKUSAN KERTAS
        LESTARI)
  INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON
   CURRENT ADVANCEMEN...
Packaging falls into a number of
  categories:
§ Primary –packaging in contact with the
  product.
§ Secondary –‘outers’ w...
PACKAGING
Purposes:
§ Contain
§ Inform
§ Protect
§ Transport
§ Display
PACKAGING
put in another way:
§ is a means of ensuring safe delivery of a
  product to the ultimate user in a sound
  cond...
ELEMENTS OF PACKAGING:

§ Materials
§ Design
  - address the issue of wastage
     - under-packaging cause damage and
    ...
Materials
§   Metals (aluminum & steel)
§   Glass
§   Polymers (Plastics)
§   Wood/Composites
§   Paper
SUSTAINABILITY
§ Measures taken by various sectors to
  allay fears of sustainability centers
  around the traditional waste management
 ...
Sustainable Development
Entered the public debate after the World
Commission on Env. And Dev. Published
their landmark rep...
Sustainable packaging
§ Is beneficial, safe & healthy for individuals and
  communities throughout its life cycle;
§ Meets...
Sustainable Development
Most often quoted definition (Brundtland
Commission (United nations, 1983):
  “meets the needs of ...
Sustainable Development




Model of sustainable development: at the
confluence of three constituent parts
§ With paper packaging there has never
  been an issue regarding sustainability
  – its always sustainable
§ WHY?
Environmental Dependable

 § Made from renewable resources
 § One of the highest recovery rate of all
   packaging
      -...
Socially Dependable
§ Produced by manufacturers who
  practised high safety standards
     – ISO 9000 series
§ Charitable ...
Economically Dependable
§ Contributing to the nations’ economy
§ Creation of jobs
So what’s the
problem?
§Paper packaging consumption
steadily rising over the years
CONSUMPTION OF CORRUGATING
                      MEDIUM IN MALAYSIA
X000 TONNES



              600
              400
   ...
§Problems in sourcing of and
quality of raw material
§Issue of Raw Material
Sustainability
Social                  Environmental
 sustainability             sustainability




                SUSTAINABLE
         ...
RAW MATERIAL
SUSTAINABILITY
Raw material for paper and paper
packaging are the cellulose fibers
§ hygroscopic property (absorb moisture)
Malaysia being in the equatorial region
has high humidity
§ effect on paper strength properties
How to overcome this problem?

           Yield Pt.               NSSC

                                   KLB

          ...
Another critical issue
  relating to raw material
  sustainability is Quality of
  raw material
§ Basically most of all pa...
Strength of paper
diminishes upon
recycling
KRAFT PULP




             32
due to
HORNIFICATION
§ Loss of swelling ability of
  cellulosic fiber upon drying
 § due to the closure of pore
   spaces in the cell walls, pl...
WETTING
       A                                       B
                      DRYING



Progressive swelling of fibre wal...
DRIED FIBRES
                NEVER-DRIED FIBRES




               CHEMICAL PULP FIBRES

                                 ...
Factors that influence
   Hornification

§ High-yield pulps, such as
  thermomechanical pulp (TMP),
  appear to be much le...
MECHANICAL
            PULPS




CHEMICAL
  PULPS


                   38
RESTORATIVE
TREATMENTS
a) Refining
b) Fractionation
c) Chemical additives
  § Starches
  § Polyacrylamides (PAM)
d) Blendi...
Where do we get the virgin
fibers from?
MALAYSIA - SOURCES OF IMPORTED
                VIRGIN PULP
                          Others,
                           11...
“Let the building and
  other critically wood-
                   wood-
dependent industries use
  wood. Pulp and paper
 i...
Pulp from oil palm
biomass as
reinforcement in
recycled fibers
Palm oil constitutes only 10% of the palm
production while the rest is biomass
The biomass (waste residues) generated
from...
BIOMASS/PRODUCTS FROM
     OIL PALM TREE


                      Fronds



                                    Empty Fruit...
§ An estimation, based on a planted area of
  25,700 million m2, and a production rate of dry
  oil palm biomass of 20,336...
OCC FIBER




           +
EFB PULP




   =
           PAPER ROLL
EFFECT ON BURST STRENGTH

              160
              140
Burst Strength kPa


              120
              100
   ...
EFFECT ON RING CRUSH

             60
RING CRUSH (N)


             40




             20



                 0

        ...
Sustainable Development
For a sustainable pulp production
§ other than a continuous supply and availability
  of raw materials,
§ the processes in...
Kraft, Sulfite

                 Pulping


 Raw material                    Unbleached Pulp




                          ...
These processes (esp. bleaching) are
known to generate serious environmental
drawbacks
§ Chlorine reacts with lignin, to f...
§ And to reduce these shortcomings,
  it is imperative that alternative
  methods which are cleaner and
  environmentally ...
ENVIRONMENTAL
       SUSTAINABILITY
§ Environmental sustainability is
  defined as the ability of the
  environment to con...
CLEAN TECHNOLOGIES
      CONCEPT
“manufacturing processes or product
technologies that reduce pollution or
waste, energy use, or material use in
comparison...
CLEAN TECHNOLOGY FOR
               PULP PRODUCTION

  Oil Palm                   Pretreatment
                       1. S...
COMPARISON OF PAPER PROPERTIES
     FROM OIL PALM EFB AND
  COMMERCIAL HARDWOOD PULPS
         (UNBLEACHED)
            Te...
COMPARISON OF PAPER PROPERTIES
       FROM OIL PALM EFB AND
    COMMERCIAL HARDWOOD PULPS
            (BLEACHED)
         ...
POTENTIAL PRODUCT APPLICATION(S)

  Unbleached virgin pulp (Unbleached
  EcoPalm Pulp™) which can be used in
             ...
Yield Pt.               NSSC

                                 KLB

                                 UKP
Load
            ...
MECHANICAL
            PULPS




CHEMICAL
  PULPS


                   63
Alkaline Peroxide
 Mechanical Pulping
       (APMP)
process involves the impregnation
of the chips with an alkaline
peroxi...
Attractive Features of
            APMP
§ High yield (85% on average), compared
  to 50% or lower yield of chemical pulpin...
DESIGN
SUSTAINABILITY
Packaging Source
  Reduction
§ Avoid unnecessary components
  § Eg: Toothpaste boxes have been
    eliminated in countries...
Nike
“Lightweighting”
§ Lightweight packages produce less
  waste than packages manufactured from
  heavyweight materials
  § R...
NESTLE MINERAL WATER
Design for Reuse
diverted 20 tons of plastic bags from
landfills two years after the launch of its
reusable grocery bag program.
Design for
Biodegradable
- use of natural fibers
- degradable polymers
(biopolymers)
 biopolymers)
Dell introduces packaging
   made from bamboo




               Packaging Digest, 11/17/2009
Coca-Cola begins global
 launch of PlantBottle




               Packaging Digest, 11/16/2009
USE OF
NANOMATERIALS
IN PACKAGING
§ bottles made with nanocomposites that minimize
  the leakage of carbon dioxide out of the bottle; this
  increases the s...
§ Nanopartcles (eg. nanoCeO2 and TiO2)
  have been used to increase UV
  resistance in plastic packaging
§ Other nanomater...
Use of Nanomaterials
INNOVATIVE NEW FIBERS
    FOR PACKAGING
    through Surface
    Functionalization/derivatization
§   Moisture stable
§   B...
Real problem with
sustainable paper
packaging in Malaysia is
Raw Material

Solution: Use Oil Palm
Biomass Fibers as raw
ma...
Any Burning
Questions?
 wanrosli@usm.my
ALEXANDER GRAHAM BELL
"Don't keep forever on the public
  road, going only where others
            have gone.
Leave the beaten track occasional...
DESCRIPTION OF
       THE
ENVIRONMENTALL
    FRIENDLY
  TECHNOLOGY
   PROCESSES
ENVIRONMETALLY FRIENDLY
               TECHNOLOGY

  Oil Palm                   Pretreatment
                       1. Soa...
STAGE 1:
PRETREATMENT OF
    RAW MATERIAL

 (i) Soaking
 (ii) Washing
 (iii) Mechanical process
EFBs are obtained following the extraction
of the palm oil, nevertheless, part of the oil still
remains, which, if not rem...
Fig. 1: The brown       Fig. 2: The after washed
coloured      washed    and unwashed EFB fibre
water, suspected of     st...
As with most non-woody material,
EFB also contains a substantial amount
of 1% silica, which can increase liquor
viscosity ...
As part of the technology, a simple
mechanical      process     has    been
developed that could remove almost
80% of the ...
Plate 1: Initial surface of EFB (P)     Plate 2: Cracks attributable to
          with silica lodged            mechanical...
STAGE 2: PULPING
Pulping chemicals used:
                  used:
  sodium hydroxide and anthraquinone but
  with extensive modifications of...
STAGE 3:
BLEACHING
The brown color of unbleached pulp is
mainly associated with its lignin component.
                                  compo...
Sequences and optimization of parameters
are of paramount importance for a
successful bleaching process; failure in
      ...
Any Burning
Questions?
 wanrosli@usm.my
Load-elongation curve of paper at different
humidities. The ends of the curves
correspond to specimen rupture
Diagrammatic representation of changes in
paper properties with relative humidities
Effect of Recycling on paper properties
H2O
WATER


O---H---O

H BOND




            106
Other potential uses of
oil palm biomass
TOTAL POTENTIAL UTILIZATION

                           OIL PALM BIOMASS (OPB)



                                 OPB PUL...
Cellulose Derivatives
 • Cellulose Acetate (CA)
 • Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC)
 • Cellulose Phosphate
BIOMEDICAL
APPLICATIONS
§ cellulose acetate an acetylated cellulose used as
  a hemodialyzer membrane.
§ oxidized cellulose an absorbable oxidatio...
§ cellulose phosphate an insoluble material which
  has the potential to be used in orthopedic
  applications
§ Microcryst...
CONCLUSIONS
§ Pulp mills based on the oil palm biomass
  are attractive to our palm oil industry
  because of several benefits.
  v Fi...
§ However, the use of conventional technology in
  processing oil palm biomass is of little interest due
  to the overwhel...
Being both a tree-free and
                   tree-
  hazardous-
  hazardous-free paper, this
  product (EcoPalm Paper™)
 ...
TQ
Sustainable Paper Packaging
Sustainable Paper Packaging
Sustainable Paper Packaging
Sustainable Paper Packaging
Sustainable Paper Packaging
Sustainable Paper Packaging
Sustainable Paper Packaging
Sustainable Paper Packaging
Sustainable Paper Packaging
Sustainable Paper Packaging
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Sustainable Paper Packaging

  1. 1. SUSTAINABLE PAPER PACKAGING (PEMBUNGKUSAN KERTAS LESTARI) INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON CURRENT ADVANCEMENT AND RESEARCH IN TEXTILE & PACKAGING TECHNOLOGY Wan Rosli Wan Daud Universiti Sains Malaysia
  2. 2. Packaging falls into a number of categories: § Primary –packaging in contact with the product. § Secondary –‘outers’ which hold a number of packed products as a unit of say 10 or 12. § Tertiary –stretch wrapped pallets which hold perhaps 100 ‘outers’ or cases.
  3. 3. PACKAGING Purposes: § Contain § Inform § Protect § Transport § Display
  4. 4. PACKAGING put in another way: § is a means of ensuring safe delivery of a product to the ultimate user in a sound condition at a minimum overall cost § Science § Art § Technology
  5. 5. ELEMENTS OF PACKAGING: § Materials § Design - address the issue of wastage - under-packaging cause damage and spoilage to contents - over-packaging wasting resources - goal is “RIGHT SIZE” packaging - packaging design software eg PIQET, Australia (Packaging Impact Quick Evaluation Tool); TOPS, USA (Total Optimization ); Packaging Software)
  6. 6. Materials § Metals (aluminum & steel) § Glass § Polymers (Plastics) § Wood/Composites § Paper
  7. 7. SUSTAINABILITY
  8. 8. § Measures taken by various sectors to allay fears of sustainability centers around the traditional waste management hierarchy – 3R’s § Reduction § Reuse § Recycling/Recovery
  9. 9. Sustainable Development Entered the public debate after the World Commission on Env. And Dev. Published their landmark report “OUR COMMON FUTURE “ in 1987 Reiterates the most often quoted definition (Brundtland Commission (United nations, 1983): “meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs” needs”
  10. 10. Sustainable packaging § Is beneficial, safe & healthy for individuals and communities throughout its life cycle; § Meets market criteria for performance and cost; § Is sourced, manufactured, transported, and recycled using renewable energy; § Optimizes the use of renewable or recycled source materials; § Is manufactured using clean production technologies and best practices; § Is made from materials healthy in all probable end-of- life scenarios; § Is physically designed to optimize materials and energy; § Is effectively recovered and utilized in biological and/or industrial closed loop cycles. www.sustainablepackaging.org
  11. 11. Sustainable Development Most often quoted definition (Brundtland Commission (United nations, 1983): “meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs” needs” Can be conceptually broken into three constituent parts: § environment, § economic and § social
  12. 12. Sustainable Development Model of sustainable development: at the confluence of three constituent parts
  13. 13. § With paper packaging there has never been an issue regarding sustainability – its always sustainable § WHY?
  14. 14. Environmental Dependable § Made from renewable resources § One of the highest recovery rate of all packaging - almost 60% of paper are recycled § Almost total compostable
  15. 15. Socially Dependable § Produced by manufacturers who practised high safety standards – ISO 9000 series § Charitable donations from companies to community § Industry involve educating the public the importance of recycling through school and outreach programs
  16. 16. Economically Dependable § Contributing to the nations’ economy § Creation of jobs
  17. 17. So what’s the problem? §Paper packaging consumption steadily rising over the years
  18. 18. CONSUMPTION OF CORRUGATING MEDIUM IN MALAYSIA X000 TONNES 600 400 200 0 1992 1996 2000 2004 2008 YEAR Asian paper Packaging Historical Data, 2009
  19. 19. §Problems in sourcing of and quality of raw material §Issue of Raw Material Sustainability
  20. 20. Social Environmental sustainability sustainability SUSTAINABLE PAPER PACKAGING Raw material Economic sustainability sustainability FACTORS IMPACTING SUSTAINABLE PAPER PACKAGING, AND THEIR INTERDEPENDENCE
  21. 21. RAW MATERIAL SUSTAINABILITY
  22. 22. Raw material for paper and paper packaging are the cellulose fibers § hygroscopic property (absorb moisture)
  23. 23. Malaysia being in the equatorial region has high humidity § effect on paper strength properties
  24. 24. How to overcome this problem? Yield Pt. NSSC KLB UKP Load 1 Stretch High Humidity Resistance of Various Pulps
  25. 25. Another critical issue relating to raw material sustainability is Quality of raw material § Basically most of all paper packaging in Malaysia uses recycled fibers § Problem of strength
  26. 26. Strength of paper diminishes upon recycling
  27. 27. KRAFT PULP 32
  28. 28. due to HORNIFICATION
  29. 29. § Loss of swelling ability of cellulosic fiber upon drying § due to the closure of pore spaces in the cell walls, plus § the inability of many of the pores to reopen if the fibers are rewetted
  30. 30. WETTING A B DRYING Progressive swelling of fibre wall: from A to D Progressive shrinkage of fibre wall: from D to A C D 35
  31. 31. DRIED FIBRES NEVER-DRIED FIBRES CHEMICAL PULP FIBRES 36
  32. 32. Factors that influence Hornification § High-yield pulps, such as thermomechanical pulp (TMP), appear to be much less susceptible to changes when they are dried
  33. 33. MECHANICAL PULPS CHEMICAL PULPS 38
  34. 34. RESTORATIVE TREATMENTS a) Refining b) Fractionation c) Chemical additives § Starches § Polyacrylamides (PAM) d) Blending with virgin fibers
  35. 35. Where do we get the virgin fibers from?
  36. 36. MALAYSIA - SOURCES OF IMPORTED VIRGIN PULP Others, 11% Chile, 4% Canada, 5% Thailand, 7% USA, 59% New Zealand, 14% Importation of wood pulp to Malaysia is dominated by USA Total imports of wood pulp in 2002 is ca. RM138 Million with a growth of 5.6% compared to 2001
  37. 37. “Let the building and other critically wood- wood- dependent industries use wood. Pulp and paper industry should opt to non- non-wood and wastes for sustainability” sustainability” Ako Norlander, Appita J. 2008
  38. 38. Pulp from oil palm biomass as reinforcement in recycled fibers
  39. 39. Palm oil constitutes only 10% of the palm production while the rest is biomass The biomass (waste residues) generated from this industry throughout harvesting and processing activities as well as during replanting is enormous § Estimated to be 60-100 million tonnes (wet) 60- Forms of waste residues: § Empty fruit bunches (EFB) § Fronds § Trunks
  40. 40. BIOMASS/PRODUCTS FROM OIL PALM TREE Fronds Empty Fruit Bunch Fresh Fruit Bunch Crude Palm Oil Oil Palm Tree Trunk
  41. 41. § An estimation, based on a planted area of 25,700 million m2, and a production rate of dry oil palm biomass of 20,336 kg per 10,000 m2 per year, shows that Malaysian palm oil industry produced approximately 56.9 million tonnes of lignocellulosic biomass in 2000. § Taking into account the proportion of useful fibrous elements that can be extracted from various oil palm components, an overall recovery rate of 75% and a pulp yield of 45%, the net useful bleached pulp would amount to about 14.8 million tonnes § VERY SUSTAINABLE
  42. 42. OCC FIBER + EFB PULP = PAPER ROLL
  43. 43. EFFECT ON BURST STRENGTH 160 140 Burst Strength kPa 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Pulp addition
  44. 44. EFFECT ON RING CRUSH 60 RING CRUSH (N) 40 20 0 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% % Pulp addition
  45. 45. Sustainable Development
  46. 46. For a sustainable pulp production § other than a continuous supply and availability of raw materials, § the processes involved in the production of pulp and paper have to be environmentally friendly § Nevertheless, process(es) must be economic viable, if not it will just be an academic study, without having much impact on the society in the long term
  47. 47. Kraft, Sulfite Pulping Raw material Unbleached Pulp Cl2 & derivatives Bleached Pulp PRODUCTION OF PULP
  48. 48. These processes (esp. bleaching) are known to generate serious environmental drawbacks § Chlorine reacts with lignin, to form chlorinated organic compounds (e.g., dioxin) dioxin) o believed to be carcinogenic to humans based on results of laboratory studies with animals § The presence of these chlorinated compounds has also been linked to adverse ecological effects on wildlife in receiving waters
  49. 49. § And to reduce these shortcomings, it is imperative that alternative methods which are cleaner and environmentally friendly are used § ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE
  50. 50. ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY § Environmental sustainability is defined as the ability of the environment to continue to function properly indefinitely § Goal to minimize environmental degradation, and to halt and reverse the processes they lead to § Clean Technologies for Pulp Production
  51. 51. CLEAN TECHNOLOGIES CONCEPT
  52. 52. “manufacturing processes or product technologies that reduce pollution or waste, energy use, or material use in comparison to the technologies that they replace” process(es) must be economic viable, if not it will just be an academic study, without having much impact on the society in the long term environmentally friendly – SULFUR FREE PULPING AND CHLORINE FREE BLEACHING
  53. 53. CLEAN TECHNOLOGY FOR PULP PRODUCTION Oil Palm Pretreatment 1. Soaking Empty Fruit 2. Washing Oily substance removal Bunch 3. Mechanical process – silica removal (In strand form) Unbleached Pulping EcoPalm Pulp™ Extended Soda Anthraquinone TCF Bleaching 1. Oxygen Bleached 2. Ozone EcoPalm Pulp™ 3. Hydrogen Peroxide
  54. 54. COMPARISON OF PAPER PROPERTIES FROM OIL PALM EFB AND COMMERCIAL HARDWOOD PULPS (UNBLEACHED) Tensile Tear Index Burst Index (mN.m2g-1) Index (Nm/g) (kPa.m2g-1) Commercial 13.21 3.14 1.0 Hardwood Empty Fruit 15.81 3.85 1.20 Bunch
  55. 55. COMPARISON OF PAPER PROPERTIES FROM OIL PALM EFB AND COMMERCIAL HARDWOOD PULPS (BLEACHED) 25 20 15 10 5 0 Tensile Index Tear Index Burst Index Brightness (Nm/g) (mN.m2g-1) (kPa.m2g-1) (x 10%) Commercial Hardwood Pulp 19.55 2.6 1.4 8.43 Empty Fruit Bunch Pulp 20.41 2.72 2.46 8.33
  56. 56. POTENTIAL PRODUCT APPLICATION(S) Unbleached virgin pulp (Unbleached EcoPalm Pulp™) which can be used in Pulp™) full or mixed with wastepaper depending on the final product Bleached virgin pulp (Bleached EcoPalm Pulp™) which can be used in Pulp™) the production of writing and printing paper
  57. 57. Yield Pt. NSSC KLB UKP Load 1 Stretch High Humidity Resistance of Various Pulps
  58. 58. MECHANICAL PULPS CHEMICAL PULPS 63
  59. 59. Alkaline Peroxide Mechanical Pulping (APMP) process involves the impregnation of the chips with an alkaline peroxide bleach liquor in one or more steps prior to atmospheric refining, hence combining pulping and bleaching in a single operation
  60. 60. Attractive Features of APMP § High yield (85% on average), compared to 50% or lower yield of chemical pulping § High brightness – use of peroxide § Can also be use for newsprint
  61. 61. DESIGN SUSTAINABILITY
  62. 62. Packaging Source Reduction § Avoid unnecessary components § Eg: Toothpaste boxes have been eliminated in countries with strict waste laws § Reduce amount of material § Eg. Nike
  63. 63. Nike
  64. 64. “Lightweighting” § Lightweight packages produce less waste than packages manufactured from heavyweight materials § Requires new designing and technolgies since lightweight material generally are not stronger § Softdrink manufacturers have manage to reduce PET up to 5%
  65. 65. NESTLE MINERAL WATER
  66. 66. Design for Reuse
  67. 67. diverted 20 tons of plastic bags from landfills two years after the launch of its reusable grocery bag program.
  68. 68. Design for Biodegradable - use of natural fibers - degradable polymers (biopolymers) biopolymers)
  69. 69. Dell introduces packaging made from bamboo Packaging Digest, 11/17/2009
  70. 70. Coca-Cola begins global launch of PlantBottle Packaging Digest, 11/16/2009
  71. 71. USE OF NANOMATERIALS IN PACKAGING
  72. 72. § bottles made with nanocomposites that minimize the leakage of carbon dioxide out of the bottle; this increases the shelf life of carbonated beverages without having to use heavier glass bottles or more expensive cans § food storage bins with silver nanoparticles embedded in the plastic. The silver nanoparticles kill bacteria from any food previously stored in the bins, minimizing harmful bacteria. § CONCERNS: Because the particles are so small, these materials might be able to migrate into food
  73. 73. § Nanopartcles (eg. nanoCeO2 and TiO2) have been used to increase UV resistance in plastic packaging § Other nanomaterials have the potential to improve a variety of packaging- packaging-performance attributes such as oxygen and moisture blockage, ink or dye-free coloration dye- and increased strength while lightweighting.
  74. 74. Use of Nanomaterials
  75. 75. INNOVATIVE NEW FIBERS FOR PACKAGING through Surface Functionalization/derivatization § Moisture stable § Breathable § Enhanced strength properties to allow for lightweighting § Paper foam packaging § Controlled diffusion packaging
  76. 76. Real problem with sustainable paper packaging in Malaysia is Raw Material Solution: Use Oil Palm Biomass Fibers as raw material
  77. 77. Any Burning Questions? wanrosli@usm.my
  78. 78. ALEXANDER GRAHAM BELL
  79. 79. "Don't keep forever on the public road, going only where others have gone. Leave the beaten track occasionally and dive into the woods. You will be certain to find something you have never seen before.“
  80. 80. DESCRIPTION OF THE ENVIRONMENTALL FRIENDLY TECHNOLOGY PROCESSES
  81. 81. ENVIRONMETALLY FRIENDLY TECHNOLOGY Oil Palm Pretreatment 1. Soaking Empty Fruit 2. Washing Oily substance removal Bunch 3. Mechanical process – silica removal (In strand form) Unbleached Pulping EcoPalm Pulp™ Extended Soda Anthraquinone TCF Bleaching 1. Oxygen Bleached 2. Ozone EcoPalm Pulp™ 3. Hydrogen Peroxide
  82. 82. STAGE 1: PRETREATMENT OF RAW MATERIAL (i) Soaking (ii) Washing (iii) Mechanical process
  83. 83. EFBs are obtained following the extraction of the palm oil, nevertheless, part of the oil still remains, which, if not removed will cause considerable reduction in pulp quality and its subsequent products. Hence, the first step is minimizing the oil content in the raw material
  84. 84. Fig. 1: The brown Fig. 2: The after washed coloured washed and unwashed EFB fibre water, suspected of strands. containing some oily substance, water- soluble lignin, and extractive
  85. 85. As with most non-woody material, EFB also contains a substantial amount of 1% silica, which can increase liquor viscosity thus posing problems in chemical recovery. In addition, its presence could cause abrasion of metals during papermaking and also reduce paper quality.
  86. 86. As part of the technology, a simple mechanical process has been developed that could remove almost 80% of the silica present. It is postulated that during this mechanical treatment, the silica is dislodged from the fiber surfaces as evident from the scanning electron microscope pictures (Fig. 3) and later washed out during the washing stages
  87. 87. Plate 1: Initial surface of EFB (P) Plate 2: Cracks attributable to with silica lodged mechanical treatment as evident on Q Fig. 3: The Effect of Mechanical Treatment on EFB fiber Plate 3: Removal of metals by washing assisted dislodge of silica.
  88. 88. STAGE 2: PULPING
  89. 89. Pulping chemicals used: used: sodium hydroxide and anthraquinone but with extensive modifications of the pulping parameters (henceforth called Extended Soda Anthraquinone Pulping) Either the cooking time for pulping or the pulping temperature is increased to provide extended delignification. delignification.
  90. 90. STAGE 3: BLEACHING
  91. 91. The brown color of unbleached pulp is mainly associated with its lignin component. component. To reach an acceptable brightness level, this residual lignin has to be removed through a series of bleaching sequences. sequences. Common bleaching chemicals today are chlorine and chlorine dioxide, which has been blamed for the environmental issues created. created.
  92. 92. Sequences and optimization of parameters are of paramount importance for a successful bleaching process; failure in process; either of these two aspects will contribute to an inferior quality cellulose pulp resulting in a low -grade end product. low- product. In tandem with global requirements, the bleaching treatment put forward in this work is of the following sequence: Oxygen (O), sequence: Ozone (Z) and Peroxide (P), with inclusion of several chemicals to increase the reactivity of each step. In addition the pulp was step. washed in between the processes. processes.
  93. 93. Any Burning Questions? wanrosli@usm.my
  94. 94. Load-elongation curve of paper at different humidities. The ends of the curves correspond to specimen rupture
  95. 95. Diagrammatic representation of changes in paper properties with relative humidities
  96. 96. Effect of Recycling on paper properties
  97. 97. H2O WATER O---H---O H BOND 106
  98. 98. Other potential uses of oil palm biomass
  99. 99. TOTAL POTENTIAL UTILIZATION OIL PALM BIOMASS (OPB) OPB PULP Black liquor Polymer Unbleached Bleached/ Cellulose Composite Pulp Diss. Pulp Derivatives Thermoplastic Thermoset Rubber Lignin Glaze material Effluent treatment using AC Lignin based Products Glaze products Soda lignin Vanillin Oil-water Anti corrosion Emulsion agent
  100. 100. Cellulose Derivatives • Cellulose Acetate (CA) • Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) • Cellulose Phosphate
  101. 101. BIOMEDICAL APPLICATIONS
  102. 102. § cellulose acetate an acetylated cellulose used as a hemodialyzer membrane. § oxidized cellulose an absorbable oxidation product of cellulose, used as a local haemostatic cellulose, (also in wound dressing) § Carboxymethylcellulose a substituted cellulose polymer of variable size, used as the sodium or calcium salt as a pharmaceutical suspending agent, tablet excipient, and viscosity-increasing agent; the viscosity- former is also used as a laxative. laxative. § cellulose sodium phosphate an insoluble, nonabsorbable cation exchange resin prepared from cellulose; it binds calcium and is used to prevent formation of calcium-containing renal calculi. calcium-
  103. 103. § cellulose phosphate an insoluble material which has the potential to be used in orthopedic applications § Microcrystalline (MMC), is widely used in the pharmaceutical and food industries for several applications and enjoys the generally recognized as safe (GRAS) status § Cellulose viscose sponges have also been proposed as implantable tissue matrices for connective tissue regeneration. § Cellulose regenerated by the viscose process has also been investigated as an implantable material in orthopedic surgery, as a sealing material for the femoral component in hip prostheses, in place of acrylic cement.
  104. 104. CONCLUSIONS
  105. 105. § Pulp mills based on the oil palm biomass are attractive to our palm oil industry because of several benefits. v Firstly, it will help to decrease rural depopulation v Secondly, there will be a reduction in the outflow of the currency due to fewer imports of paper and paper products. v Thirdly, it will help create new pulp and paper technologies and also new products which are currently being developed in our laboratories. v And, finally, it will create economic growth for the nation.
  106. 106. § However, the use of conventional technology in processing oil palm biomass is of little interest due to the overwhelming environmental problems generated. v Thus to promote sustainable development, the pulp mill based on oil palm biomass should be able to operate free from sulphur and chlorine and its derivatives and the cellulose pulp produced should be of comparable quality to its woody counterparts. § The proposed environmentally friendly technology consisting of the three or five sequences meets these demands and probably even more. § Sustainable pulp production from oil palm biomass using the proposed environmentally friendly technology is definitely close to reality.
  107. 107. Being both a tree-free and tree- hazardous- hazardous-free paper, this product (EcoPalm Paper™) (EcoPalm Paper™) fulfills itself as one of the truly environmentally friendly paper of our time.
  108. 108. TQ
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