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Adriana Sales
CEFET-MG
Teaching English
Literature in
Brazilian High
School Classes
I ENTECON
Vale do Aço
Language, Digita...
What is literature?
What is literature?
▪ The Macmillan English Dictionary: Literature (noun) → 1. stories, poems, and
pla...
Why use literature?
▪ Authentic material → unmodified texts can help students to deal with difficult or
unknow language;
▪...
Why use literature?
This relevance of literature as an important tool in the holistic development of students
characterize...
Why use literature?
According to Brazilian documents (PCNs):
Assim, para ensinar um aluno a se envolver no discurso em uma...
Different models of teaching
literature in class
According to Carter; Long and Lazar (1993),there have beendifferentmodels...
Ice-breakers
Start a conversation about literature with students:
▪ Brief classroom discussionon what students have beenre...
Different ages, different texts
Primary School (MOURÃO, 2009):
▪ Traditional tales: fairy tales, folk tales, myths, legend...
Different ages, different texts
Primary School (MOURÃO, 2009):
▪ develop different types of intelligences that contribute
...
Different ages, different texts
Teens and adults (FERRADAS, 2009):
“(…) where referential language informs, representation...
Literature lesson plan
Clandifield (2003):
▪ gives lots of suggestions about how to use: poems, extracts from stories or s...
Literature lesson plan
Choosing materials, think about the following factors when you choose a piece literature:
▪ Do you ...
Dimensions of literary competence
Cognitive understanding & co-creation of meaning: forming mental model, filling gaps, fo...
Functions of leaners’ texts
Motivation through identification, individual expression, and autonomy
Recognition of others’ ...
Reading phases
(1) feellike reading
(2) get into the text
(3) live through the text
(4) realize some
preliminary meaning
(...
Experiences at CEFET-MG Timóteo
Shakespeare – 400 years later:
▪ Movie: Romeo and Juliet
▪ Graded reader: Romeo and Juliet...
Experiences at CEFET-MG Timóteo
Persuasion by Jane Austen:
▪ Graded reader
▪ Tv Series BBC (2009)
▪ Comprehension activiti...
References
BRASIL. Ministério da Educação. ParâmetrosCurriculares Nacionais para o Ensino Fundamental. Brasília: SEF/MEC, ...
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Teaching english literature in brazilian high school classes   adriana sales  2019 Slide 1 Teaching english literature in brazilian high school classes   adriana sales  2019 Slide 2 Teaching english literature in brazilian high school classes   adriana sales  2019 Slide 3 Teaching english literature in brazilian high school classes   adriana sales  2019 Slide 4 Teaching english literature in brazilian high school classes   adriana sales  2019 Slide 5 Teaching english literature in brazilian high school classes   adriana sales  2019 Slide 6 Teaching english literature in brazilian high school classes   adriana sales  2019 Slide 7 Teaching english literature in brazilian high school classes   adriana sales  2019 Slide 8 Teaching english literature in brazilian high school classes   adriana sales  2019 Slide 9 Teaching english literature in brazilian high school classes   adriana sales  2019 Slide 10 Teaching english literature in brazilian high school classes   adriana sales  2019 Slide 11 Teaching english literature in brazilian high school classes   adriana sales  2019 Slide 12 Teaching english literature in brazilian high school classes   adriana sales  2019 Slide 13 Teaching english literature in brazilian high school classes   adriana sales  2019 Slide 14 Teaching english literature in brazilian high school classes   adriana sales  2019 Slide 15 Teaching english literature in brazilian high school classes   adriana sales  2019 Slide 16 Teaching english literature in brazilian high school classes   adriana sales  2019 Slide 17 Teaching english literature in brazilian high school classes   adriana sales  2019 Slide 18
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  1. 1. Adriana Sales CEFET-MG Teaching English Literature in Brazilian High School Classes I ENTECON Vale do Aço Language, Digital Technologies & Critical Thinking
  2. 2. What is literature? What is literature? ▪ The Macmillan English Dictionary: Literature (noun) → 1. stories, poems, and plays specially that are considered to have value as art and not just entertainment. ▪ Literary texts are products that reflect different aspects of society. They are cultural documents which offer a deeper understanding of a country or countries (BASNET; MOUNFOLD, 1993). ▪ Types of literary texts types: poetry, prose and drama. According to Clandifield (2003) ▪ Has been a subject of study in many countries ▪ Only recently has been the emphasis in the EFL/ESL classroom ▪ Since the 1980s that this are attracted more interest among EFL teachers
  3. 3. Why use literature? ▪ Authentic material → unmodified texts can help students to deal with difficult or unknow language; ▪ Encourages interaction → multiple layers of meaning that can encourages discussion and sharing feelings or opinions; ▪ Expands language awareness → ask students to examine sophisticated or non standard examples of language makes them more aware of norms of the language use; ▪ Educates the whole person → by examining values in literary texts, teachers can encourage leaners to develop attitudes towards them. These values and attitudes relate to the world outside the classroom. ▪ Is motivating → literature holds status in many cultures and countries. Students can feel a real sense of achievement at understanding a piece of highly respected literature.
  4. 4. Why use literature? This relevance of literature as an important tool in the holistic development of students characterizes indeed the model proposed by Horner (1983). Figure 1. Adapted from Best laid plans: English teachers at work (Horner, 1983)
  5. 5. Why use literature? According to Brazilian documents (PCNs): Assim, para ensinar um aluno a se envolver no discurso em uma língua estrangeira, aquilo do que trata a interação deve ser algo com o qual já esteja familiarizado. Isso pode ajudar a compensar a ausência de conhecimento sistêmico da parte do aluno, além de fazê-lo sentir-se mais seguro para começar a arriscar-se na língua estrangeira. O conhecimento de mundo referido nos textos pode ser ampliado com o passar do tempo e incluir questões novas para o aluno de modo a alargar seus horizontes conceptuais, o que, aliás é uma das grandes contribuições da aprendizagem da Língua Estrangeira (BRASIL, 2001, p. 33).
  6. 6. Different models of teaching literature in class According to Carter; Long and Lazar (1993),there have beendifferentmodels suggested onthe teaching of literature in ESL/EFLstudents: ▪ Culturalmodel → literature as a product.It is treated as a source of information about the target culture. Most traditional approach. Usually examine the social, political and historical background to a text, literary movements and genres.Teacher-centered. ▪ Language model → As students read the text, they pay attention to the way language is used; increase their general awareness of English; teachers can focus on general grammar and vocabulary or use stylistic analysis (meaningful interpretations of the text). Student-centered. ▪ Personalgrowth model → Encourages students to draw on their own opinions, feelings and personalexperiences;aims the interaction betweenthe text and the reader in English. More Student-centered.
  7. 7. Ice-breakers Start a conversation about literature with students: ▪ Brief classroom discussionon what students have beenreading; ▪ ask students to describe a book they like in such a way to make others want to read it; ▪ select a short novel which has been recently made into a film or TV series which with students are familiar. (BOWE;MARKS; 1994) ▪ Make students more interested in reading: using the cover to awaken interest and to let their imagination play a great part in making it interesting; ▪ ask students to predict what the book is about or what will happen in the story to get their attention and participation; ▪ ask students to make up five differentquestions about the book; ▪ match different covers with the titles of the books can be turned in a game that can be appreciated by the students; ▪ read the first and the last chapters, so they can make their own stories about what will happen in the book→ stimulate their imagination. (PROWSE, 2000)
  8. 8. Different ages, different texts Primary School (MOURÃO, 2009): ▪ Traditional tales: fairy tales, folk tales, myths, legends, fables; or pictures books; ▪ storytelling is an accepted and widely used approach in the teaching of English language classroom. ▪ arguments including: linguistic, socio-emotional, cognitive, cultural and aesthetic ones. Some excellent reasons: ▪ children love stories; they are familiar with narrative conventions and listening to stories is something they are used to do at home; ▪ stories help children understand their world and share it with others; ▪ stories provide for shared social experiences; ▪ develop children’s learning strategies: listening, predicting, guessing meaning;
  9. 9. Different ages, different texts Primary School (MOURÃO, 2009): ▪ develop different types of intelligences that contribute to language learning, in particular emotional intelligence; ▪ stories exercise the imagination; ▪ stories provide opportunities for integrating the four language skills, listening and reading, followed by speaking and writing; ▪ helps students to become storytellers; ▪ stories often address universal themes; ▪ reflects the culture of their authors and illustrators; ▪ picture books promote visual literacy.
  10. 10. Different ages, different texts Teens and adults (FERRADAS, 2009): “(…) where referential language informs, representational language involves (apud, MCRAE, 1991). Approaches: ▪ The focus on what language can do, on how language means, highlighting its expressive and poetic functions; ▪ Teachers can encourage different responses and interpretations supported by reference to the text; ▪ Activities based on the text, aiming at language awareness as well as cultural awareness; ▪ Encourage intertextual and intercultural links in the text; ▪ Integrate the four macroskills; ▪ Encourage critical thinking and cultural awareness.
  11. 11. Literature lesson plan Clandifield (2003): ▪ gives lots of suggestions about how to use: poems, extracts from stories or short stories; extracts from plays. ▪ Where to find materials: • www.bookbrowse.com • www.readersread.com • www.favoritepoem.org • www.emule.com/poetry Use basic sequence to approach literature (COSSON, 2009): • Motiviation • Introduction • Reading • Interpretation
  12. 12. Literature lesson plan Choosing materials, think about the following factors when you choose a piece literature: ▪ Do you understand enough about the text to feel comfortable using it? ▪ Is there enough time to work on the text in class? ▪ Does it fit with the rest of your syllabus? ▪ Is it something that could be relevant to the learners? ▪ Will it be motivating for them? ▪ How much cultural or literary background do the learners need to be able to deal with t he tasks? ▪ Is the level of language in the text too difficult (see below) Is the text too difficult? Difficult with vocabulary might not be an obstacle to text comphreension. Try graded readers.
  13. 13. Dimensions of literary competence Cognitive understanding & co-creation of meaning: forming mental model, filling gaps, forming hypotheses Linguistic-discursive competence: in reading, follow-up communication, and negotiation of meaning Motivation & orientation: getting involved in a text, finding pleasure in reading, recognizing relevance of literature Subjective response and participation in interpersonal and intercultural perspectives Reflection on and critical judgment of moral values and actions Cognitive-aesthetic understanding and evaluation Creative production through (re-)writing literary texts (narrative, performative, and poetic competence)
  14. 14. Functions of leaners’ texts Motivation through identification, individual expression, and autonomy Recognition of others’ perspectives, supporting empathy and tolerance Meaningful communication addressed to peers (and the teacher) Challenging but playful experiment with language and culture Object of mutual reflection and trigger of linguistic and cultural awareness Holistic learning that combines affect, cognitive insight, and imagination Opportunity to give feedback; for appreciation, assessment, and evaluation
  15. 15. Reading phases (1) feellike reading (2) get into the text (3) live through the text (4) realize some preliminary meaning (5) reviewing experience and preliminary grasps (6) modifying and Expanding understanding
  16. 16. Experiences at CEFET-MG Timóteo Shakespeare – 400 years later: ▪ Movie: Romeo and Juliet ▪ Graded reader: Romeo and Juliet ▪ British council’s pack: https://www.britishcouncil.org.br/atividades/shakespeare-lives/materiais-didaticos Emma by Jane Austen: ▪ Episodes from Emma (2009) BBC ▪ Text about Jane Austen ▪ Resources from: https://www.teachingenglish.org.uk/article/jane-austen%E2%80%99s-emma https://en.islcollective.com/english-esl-worksheets/grammar/past-simple-tense/jane-austen-reading/99756
  17. 17. Experiences at CEFET-MG Timóteo Persuasion by Jane Austen: ▪ Graded reader ▪ Tv Series BBC (2009) ▪ Comprehension activities ▪ Audio’s book ▪ Infographic North and South by Elizabeth Gaskell: ▪ Graded reader ▪ Tv Series BBC (2005) ▪ Comprehension activities ▪ Discussion group ▪ Oral presentation
  18. 18. References BRASIL. Ministério da Educação. ParâmetrosCurriculares Nacionais para o Ensino Fundamental. Brasília: SEF/MEC, 2001. CARTER, R.; LONG, M. Teaching literature. Longman:London,1991. CLANFIELD, L. Teaching materials: using literature in the EFL/ESL classroom. One Stop English. 2003. Disponível em: < http://www.onestopenglish.co m/methodology/methodology/teaching-materials/teaching-materials-using-literature-in-the-efl/-esl-classroom/146508.article>. Acesso em: 24 de outubro de 2019. CORCHS, M. O uso de textos literários no ensino de língua inglesa. Dissertação de Mestrado, Mestrado Acadêmico em Linguística Aplicada, UECE, 2006.Disponível em:<http://www.uece.br/posla/dmdocuments/MargaretCorchs.pdf>.Acesso em:24 de outubro de 2019. COSSON, R. Letramento literário: teoria e prática. São Paulo:Editora Contexto, 2009. DUFF, A; MALLEY, A. Literature. Resource books for teachers.Oxford University Press:Oxford, 2007 FERRADAS, C. Enjoying literature with teens and young adults in the English language class. In: BRITISH COUNCIL, BritLit: using literature in the EFL classrooms.British Council:London,2009. FRAHNKE, K. Reading together. Reading activities text. Cambridge UniversityPress:Cambridge, 2001. HORNER, S. Best laid plans: English teachers at work for school council. York: Longman,1983. LAZAR, G. A window on literature. Cambridge UniversityPress:Cambridge, 1999. LAZAR, G. Literature and language teaching. A guide for teachers and trainers. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, 2004. Maley, A. Literature in the language classroom' in The Cambridge Guide to Teaching ESOL, Cambridge University Press, 2001. McRae, J. Literature with a small ‘l’. Macmillan Education. 1994. Pulverness, A. Literature' in English Teaching Professional, October, Issue 29, Modern English Publishing, 2003. MOURÃO, S. Using stories in the primary classroom. In: BRITISH COUNCIL, BritLit: using literature in the EFL classrooms. British Council: London, 2009.
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  • lucianaviter

    Nov. 19, 2019

Teaching Literature in Brazilian High School Classes

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