• According to ,
• According to ,
• According to ,
Training is a follow-up of selection procedure.
Training brings about an improvement of the quality and quantity of
output by increasing the skill of the employees.
Trained personnel will be able to make much better and more economical
use of materials and equipment than untrained employees, thus reducing
the cost of production.
Since trained personnel commit few mistakes, they will require less
Training can help reduce turnover, absenteeism, accidents, grievances
The training will create a feeling among the workers that they are being
properly cared for, and that the employer is sincere to them.
As employees acquire new knowledge and job
skills, they increase their market value and
wage-earning power. This increases their pay
The possession of useful skill enhances their
value to their employer and thereby increases
their job security.
Training also qualify them for promotion to
more responsible jobs.
Training is a costly and
Training may result in
dislocation of work and loss of
output because regular office
work is likely to be interrupted
or delayed because of the
time spent in training.
It is difficult to obtain good
training instructors and
Self-reliance and capacity for
new ideas might be stifled.
1. Training must conform to the individual intelligence and efficiency of
2. Training must be supported by motivation. Motivation enables the
trainees to learn quickly.
3. Training must be imparted by qualified and well-trained trainers and
4. Every trainee must be provided with course of progress reports. This
enables the trainees to improve and rectify themselves.
5. The training of a complex and complicated jobs should be provided
6. Trainees must be encouraged to have sufficient practice.
7. Rewards and punishments must follow the process of training.
8. The approach of training should be systematic and authentic.
: Training increases the knowledge and skills of
Therefore, well-trained employees give better performance on the Job. Training results in higher
quantity and quality of output.
: Training builds self-confidence in the employees and enables
achieve the required level of performance. Their enthusiasm pride and interest in the job and
their morale goes up. Their attitude becomes more positive and co-operative. Turnover and
absenteeism are reduced.
: Generally, trained employees are less accident-prone
than the untrained ones. Proper training develops safety attitudes and helps to reduce the
:Well-trained employees make better use of
machines and materials. As a result the rate of spoilage or wastage of materials is reduced.
There is less breakage of machinery and tools. The maintenance cost is reduced and life of
machines is increased. Cost of production per unit is reduced.
: Trained employees need less
guidance. Therefore, need for supervision is reduced. The span of supervision can be
increased and the costs of supervision reduced.
: An organisation with trained personnel can
introduce latest technology to reduce costs of production. Trained employees show
less resistance to change. The enterprise can easily adjust to short-term variations in
the volume of work.
: Trained employees are self-dependent
and can perform routine work independently. Therefore, superiors can
easily delegate authority and reduce their workload. They can practise management
by exception and devote their time and energy to more important policy matters.
: An enterprise having a pool of trained
personnel can maintain its effectiveness despite the loss of key personnel. It can more
easily replace executives. It can also meet the personnel needs for growth and
expansion. Training provides a second line of personnel which helps to ensure long-term
stability and growth of the organisation.
In this method the trainee is placed on a regular job and taught the skills necessary
to perform it. The trainee learns under the guidance and supervision of the
superior or an instructor. The trainee learns by observing and handling the job.
Therefore, it is called .
Several methods are used to provide on-the-job training, e.g
A popular form of on-the-job training is Job Instruction Training (JIT) or step by
OJT method provides immediate feedback, permits quick correction of errors and
provides extra practice when required. But it needs skilled trainers and
preparation in advance.
In order to make on-the-job training successful, some conditions must be satisfied:
(a) what and how to teach should be carefully, decided, (b) the instructor should be
carefully selected and trained, and (c) a definite follow-up schedule should be used
to judge the results of training.
The main advantages of OJT is that the
. He gets a feel of the actual job.
Therefore, he is better motivated to learn and there is no problem of transfer of
training skills to the job.
Secondly, this because no additional space,
equipment, personnel or other facilities are requird for training. The trainee
produces while he learns.
Fourthly, this is which
can be acquired through personal observation in a relatively short time period. It is
widely used for unskilled and semiskilled jobs,
Fifthly their subordinates.
• In on-the-job training, the learner finds it
due to noise of the
• Secondly, this method is
. The superior or experienced
employee may not be a good trainer.
• Thirdly, in this method
• In this method a
• Expert trainers are
employed to provide
training with the help of
equipment and machines
which are identical with
those used at the
• The main advantage of vestibule training is that the trainee can
without disturbance of the workplace noise.
• Secondly, as the real
job conditions are duplicated.
• Thirdly, this method is essential in cases where on-the-job training might
result in a serious injury, a costly accident, or the destruction of valuable
equipment and material, e.g., aeronautical industry.
• Fourthly, by the trained
instructor who knows how to teach.
and ridiculed by the superior/co-worker.
. This method is
also useful when it is not advisable to put the burden of training on line
supervisors and when special coaching is needed. It is often used to train
clerks, bank tellers, inspectors, inactive operators, testers, typists, etc
• Vestibule training is the
because of additional investment in
classroom, equipment and expert trainers.
• Secondly, the is somewhat
and the trainee does not get a feel of
the real job.
may lead to
problems in the organisation.
• In this method,
In India the Government has established Industrial
Training Institutes (ITIs) for this purpose. Under the
Apprenticeship Act, 1962 employers in specified
industries are required to train the prescribed number
of persons in ‘designated trades’.
• The aim is to develop all-round craftsmen. Generally a
stipend is paid during the training period. Thus, it is an
The main advantage of this method is that
Secondly, the which are valuable in the job market.
Thirdly, apprenticeship programmes provide .
Apprenticeship training . Many persons
leave the training programme midway as the training period ranges from
one year to five years.
Apprenticeship training is the oldest method of training. It is particularly suitable
for learning crafts and technical trades wherever job proficiency is the result of a
relatively long training period. Draughtsman, machinist, printer, tool maker,
pattern designer, mechanic, carpenter, weaver, fitter, jeweller, engraver,
electrician, etc. are examples of such areas.
Under this method, training is provided in company
are used to explain knowledge and skills to the trainees.
Classroom training is suitable for
It is also useful for
Some companies maintain their own training institutes or
schools. Special training courses are designed,
Courses in retraining and upgrading may also be conducted.
Small firms depend on outside schools and courses.
It is a of training in which educational
institutions and business firms cooperate.
carry on regular studies for the
They also work in some factory or office to acquire practical
knowledge and skills.
This method helps to provide
. But it involves a long time period due
to slow process.
This method of training
Induction or orientation refers to the activities involved in
to the organisation and its
policies, procedures, rules and regulations.
The main are as follows:
Clarifying the job,
Developing realistic expectations about the organisation,
Reducing the amount of stress and anxiety of the new
Reducing start up costs, and
Strengthening the relationships between new employee,
his superior and peers.
• In small firms the orientation is generally informal.
• But in big organizations it may be a formal programme of two to
four weeks. When a formal orientation course is to be conducted
several days after the new employee joins duty, initial introduction
should be given by the supervisor of the new employee. He should
be given a friendly welcome and introduced to the other
employees. He should be given a general idea about the rules,
regulations, working conditions, etc.
• A formal orientation programme is necessary because the early job
experiences have significant impact on the long-term career
commitment of the individual. In the absence of a formal
programme, the new employee may form wrong impressions and
he may take a lot of time in adjusting himself in new surroundings.
1. The history of the organisation,
2. Products and services of the company,
3. Organisation structure of the enterprise, -”
4. Location of departments and units,
5. Personnel policies and practices,
6. Employee’s facilities and services,
7. Rules and regulations,
8. Grievance procedure,
9. Safety measures, and
10. Standing orders.
: Training is a process of increasing
knowledge, skills and attitude of an employee to
do a particular job.
: Main aim of training is to increase the
knowledge of a person to do a particular job.
: Training is obtained in a institute or at a
: Training is, a liability of the employer
: Expenses of training are
generally borne by enterprises.
: Training increases ability and
: Training is a narrow term and is limited
to a particular aspect.
: Training is of practical nature.