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Digital Transformation in Defense: Live, Virtual and Constructive (LVC) Training



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For testing and training applications, the only affordable way to represent the required environment is to introduce simulated systems into live cockpits or with a synthetic, immersive environment due to limitations in physical range space and the number of physical assets available to represent realistic friendly and threat force densities. In some cases, M&S environments can be used to assess test issues that cannot be easily addressed in the real-world environment due to financial, operational security, and/or environmental considerations. Creating augmented live training and synthetic environments for training and exercises also promises to reduce operation tempos while still allowing realistic training at home stations and reducing the wear and tear on valuable equipment.

Digital Transformation in Defense: Live, Virtual and Constructive (LVC) Training

  1. 1. © 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Page 1 of 11 White Paper Digital Transformation in Defense: Live, Virtual and Constructive (LVC) Training “For testing and training applications, the only affordable way to represent the required environment is to introduce simulated systems into live cockpits or with a synthetic, immersive environment due to limitations in physical range space and the number of physical assets available to represent realistic friendly and threat force densities. In some cases, M&S environments can be used to assess test issues that cannot be easily addressed in the real-world environment due to financial, operational security, and/or environmental considerations. Creating augmented live training and synthetic environments for training and exercises also promises to reduce operation tempos while still allowing realistic training at home stations and reducing the wear and tear on valuable equipment.”1 1 Air Force Modeling and Simulation Vision for the 21st Century.”(July 6, 2010). Headquarters U.S. Air Force.
  2. 2. © 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Page 2 of 11 Background The Problem The Department of Defense (DoD) has historically relied heavily on live training but this approach has numerous negative impacts: ● It is expensive ● Consumes limited service life of war fighting platforms ● May not fully or accurately represent enemy capabilities (particularly high-end enemy capabilities)2 ● Can be limited by physical constraints of training infrastructure ● May expose Tactics, Techniques and Procedures (TTP) Live training also generally limits training utility to those directly employing their actual war fighting platforms in each specific training event. The Solution To address these and other issues, the DoD issued updated policies and responsibilities for training (Directive 1322.18 “Military Training”/January 12, 2009). This directive charged secretaries of the military departments with six major functions related to training, one of which is: “Develop and field system interfaces to enable integrated Live, Virtual and Constructive training to stimulate sensors and/or represent synthetic entities and to provide after-action review for the training audience.” The use of Live, Virtual and Constructive (LVC) training techniques can negate many of live training’s negative impacts. This includes directly addressing cost, protecting TTP from compromise and overcoming geographic limitations of existing range infrastructure. For these reasons, “the use of a mix of Live, Virtual and Constructive training has become accepted within the Department of Defense.”3 In addition to the training benefits, LVC also provides the capability to perform design trade studies, Analysis of Alternatives (AOAs), experimentation, testing, and more to help reduce cost throughout the acquisition lifecycle of military systems. This makes LVC beneficial for those acquiring military systems as well as those already operating them. What is Live, Virtual and Constructive Training? Live training involves real people operating real systems (e.g. aircrew flying aircraft). This, naturally, can be expensive and require considerable resources to stage, implement and maintain. Live, Virtual and Constructive Training, however, can provide many of the same benefits without the negative impacts. But what constitutes LVC? It starts with live training but adds two additional layers: 2 “Live, Virtual, Constructive Training Poised for Growth.” (Dec 2015). Jon Harper. National Defense Magazine. Retrieved from 3 “Determining the Right Mix of Live, Virtual and Constructive Training.” Geoffrey A. Frank and Robert F. Helms II, Research Triangle Institute Research Triangle Park, North Carolina and David Voor. Naval Air Warfare Center Training Systems Division, Orlando, Florida. Retrieved from
  3. 3. © 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Page 3 of 11 ● Virtual training that involves real people operating simulated systems (e.g. aircrew operating an aircraft simulator) ● Constructive training that involves simulated people operating simulated systems (e.g., a computer program generating and controlling missile threats presented to real aircrew in an aircraft simulator). Live, Virtual, and Constructive (LVC) training blends these three approaches by using models and simulations individually or together to depict an air, space, land, sea, electronic and cyber operational environment/scenario. Personnel or units not actually participating in a live training event may participate virtually and with constructive simulations that provide the ability to “inject” battlefield effects and simulated or constructed threats into live systems. Warfighting communities across the services utilize various models, simulations and simulators at different levels of fidelity. LVC technologies can replicate realistic mission conditions using real or simulated people, systems, threats and environments. LVC capabilities can also provide flexible, cost-effective means to develop skills, maintain proficiency, refine TTPs and rehearse missions. The various DoD services are still working to ensure they have the right mix of live, virtual, and constructive training in order to maximize cost savings but they are committed to finding that balance in order to be more cost effective.4 It is expected that the optimal mix will change over time, and from platform to platform, depending on the state of technology available and employed. Why LVC? In a recent interview with National Defense, Rear Adm. Michael Manazir, Director of Air Warfare in the Office of the Chief of Naval Operations, stated that the “live, virtual, constructive integrated concept … is one of my top priorities.” In describing a potential LVC training scenario, he added “imagine that you are flying in an F-35 live on a range in [Naval Air Station] Fallon and your wing man is a guy in a simulator sitting in Fallon on the ground. Yet in the airplane when you look through your visor into the airspace you see your wingman in the visor [even though] he’s not really there and in the simulator bubble he sees you flying and everything that you do. And then both of you are presented with the same constructive scenario.”5 Direct Benefits of LVC The convergence of numerous factors, including tighter fiscal constraints and heightened mission demand, have driven the DoD to utilize a blended mix of Live, Virtual and Constructive methods to meet training requirements. This approach provides many direct benefits to the DoD, including: ● Reduced live training and associated cost - In many cases the virtual training environment has become the training domain of choice.6 The Army, for example, now views virtual or simulated training as a cost effective alternative to live training. This can be clearly illustrated via the cost for live training in an actual helicopter (approximately $6,000 per hour) as compared to a cost to train in a simulator (approximately $500 per hour). 4 “Determining the Right Mix of Live Virtual, and Constructive Training.” Geoffrey A. Frank and Robert F. Helms II, Research Triangle Institute Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, David Voor Naval Air Warfare Center Training Systems Division, Orlando, Florida. Retrieved from 5 “Live, Virtual, Constructive Training Posed for Growth.” (Dec 2015). Jon Harper. National Defense. Retrieved from 6 “Simulators Division SML’s Perspective.” (June 2016). Col Dan Marticello USAF. NTSA Conference Orlando FL. Retrieved from
  4. 4. © 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Page 4 of 11 ● Safer training environments - Virtual environments are much safer, providing a level of physical protection that could never be achieved in a live training scenario. A good example of this capability is the training of aircrews to handle major emergencies using a simulator instead of actual aircraft.7 As military systems, such as fighter aircraft, become increasingly complex and expensive to operate, LVC becomes more important for providing adequate operator training. ● More efficient use of training ranges – Key training ranges are often quite large and expansive. The National Training Center in California consists of nearly 1,000 square miles (640,000 acres) of land. The Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR) associated with Nellis Air Force Base in Nevada provides the largest contiguous air and ground space for military training in the world. The NTTR encompasses 4,531 square miles (2.9 million acres) of land and 5,000 square miles of airspace restricted solely for military use plus 7,000 square miles of airspace shared by military and civilian aircraft. The NTTR includes several ranges, more than 1,200 targets, four remote communications sites and a simulated air defense system. The Navy’s Fallon Range Training Complex (FRTC) in Nevada encompasses more than 13,000 square miles of special use airspace and 365 square miles (234,000 acres) of land. Instrumentation and precision timing are critical to successful range operations and integration of live systems with virtual and constructive components. Navy ranges such as the Southern California Offshore Range (SCORE) even includes 680 square miles (435,000 acres) of underwater ranges. Improved range area networking, communications and security are critical at geographically expansive ranges. Additionally, ranges must have secure and effective networking and communications with other geographic sites and to virtual training sites. LVC will enable live range events to be leveraged by personnel training in networked simulators and also tie together geographically dispersed units. For example, a Navy air defense ship at sea or in port may be able to participate in a strike training event staged in simulators and at a live range such as Fallon or Nellis. Networking virtual and constructive training elements will also enable constructive events that overcome challenges centering on protection of TTPs or representation of long range threats and engagement windows. As a result of LVC’s inheirant benefits, the RAND Corporation determined that, “in the long run, development of the LVC ability to inject simulated and constructive threats into live aircraft may be the only fiscally responsible approach to improving training.”8 LVC Training: Interoperability The U.S. Air Force envisions a LVC framework that links space, cyber, aircraft, datalinks, radar, sensors, ranges, models, simulations and networks. This vision includes achieving agility via interoperability and modularity. Interoperability is key to LVC; simulators should be able to operate together across networks without the additional development of translators or gateways. The DoD is pursuing training investments that eliminate “after-the-fact” interoperability solutions for training capabilities and is breaking down stovepipes to achieve an efficient yet realistic training environment.9 7 “PEO STRI Desk-Side Reference Guide 2013-2014.” (2014). Dr. James T. Blake. U.S. Army Program Executive Office for Simulation, Training and Instrumentation. Retrieved from 8 “Investment Strategies for Improving Fifth-Generation Fighter Training.” (2011). John A. Ausink, William W. Taylor and James H. Bigelow, Kevin Brancato. RAND Corporation. Retrieved from
  5. 5. © 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Page 5 of 11 The services’ simulator acquisition authorities are also emphasizing modularity of simulators so that they can more easily be configured, maintained and upgraded to remain synchronized and representative of actual fielded aircraft. Given the commitment to LVC, the services are also aggressively trying to reduce the acquisition, maintenance and upgrade costs of simulators and simulations. The reuse of simulations and modularity of simulators will facilitate easier upgrade of systems and help reduce cost. The services are also striving to engineer the training systems more efficiently. As a result, open architecture, open systems and system of systems engineering techniques are very important to their efforts. LVC Training: Information Technology Commercial off the Shelf (COTS) technologies COTS will play an increasingly critical role in LVC systems as the government and its integrators attempt to reduce development and upgrade costs by leveraging the advances in commercial Information Technologies. The DoD will not usually drive the IT industry but rather will inherit what commercial industry drives in the IT industry. So to be successful, LVC training must leverage COTS IT capabilities and solutions to drive cost effectiveness and to fuel innovation. Some of the COTS IT technologies that may greatly benefit LVC training operations, support and delivery are: ● Computing ● Edge Computing ● Optical Networking ● Land Mobile Radios ● Wireless ● Collaboration Computing: Advances in server technology allow the combination of computing, networking and storage infrastructure with management and virtualization to offer exceptional speed, simplicity and scalability. Today, virtualization extends all the way to actual server chassis. There simplified, stateless blades and a blade server chassis that is centrally provisioned, configured and managed delivers a unified system that significantly reduces the number of components while offering just-in- time provisioning. This allows systems to be deployed or reconfigured in minutes, rather than hours or days. This method of server abstraction reduces the opportunity for human error and greatly speeds up provisioning. This is because server identity, policies for I/O properties, power, cooling, security, identity, hardware health and Ethernet and storage networking, is abstracted (or seperated) from the physical hardware and encapsulated into a service profile. High-performance computing fabric and centralized management across an entire data center infrastructure then allow rapid configuration and simplified management while application-centric policies allow automatic configuration of hardware. 9 “Air Force Training Actions Needed to Better Manage and Determine Costs of Virtual Training Efforts.” (July 2012). GAO-12- 727, Report to Congressional Committees. Retrieved from
  6. 6. © 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Page 6 of 11 Today’s advances in server technology allow data centers to be rapidly reconfigured from one set of training scenarios or configurations to another in a matter of minutes. The rapid configurability afforded by service profiles optimizes the utility of the computing infrastructure and minimizes cost as well as data center space, weight and power. Hardware can now be programmed as if it were software and every identity and configuration setting of every device in the system is software defined through service profiles and a control plane that is accessible through open APIs. This orchestration of the IT technology stack as a whole is critical to the ability of the system to respond to rapidly changing training needs with minimal opportunity to introduce errors. “LVC training has accelerated in recent years and has been fueled by two factors,” said Greg Schmidt, vice president and general manager for mission solutions and readiness at Northrop Grumman Technical Services. “First is the availability of technologies, including wearable devices and networking technologies, some of which has been adapted from the entertainment and gaming industries. The second is the current budget environment. LVC training provides very realistic training opportunities at significantly reduced costs.”10 Other computing technologies that have evolved significantly over the past several years to meet a variety of customer needs are Hyperconverged Infrastructure (HCI) and Software-Defined Infrastructure (SDI). HCI fits into the overall portfolio of compute infrastructure options as it is important that the entire portfolio of compute platforms work together seamlessly. The ability to scale compute, caching and storage independently is critical to cost efficiency and provides optimal operational efficiency. First generation HCI helps do this by bringing together computing and storage in a cluster, simplifying the process of deploying virtualized clusters. The next generation of HCI disaggregates all resources so that they can be composed into a cluster that allows precise control over the balance of computing, networking, storage and even performance resources. This environment supports virtualized environments as well as those that reside in operating system containers and on bare-metal servers, allowing all to share the solid platform created by cluster software (and that incorporates a high-availability data engine and enterprise class features). First-generation HCI moved storage back into servers. Now a fabric-based solution moves the network into the compute. This approach enables precise, micro-converged integration of computing, storage and networking resources for extremely tight coupling of resources to application demands. LVC users will likely require multiple compute form factors, such as traditional blade servers, HCI and embedded servers. In such mixed compute environments a single management capability across all form factors will greatly reduce complexity and workload. 10 “LVC for Integrated Training.” (December 15, 2015). Peter Buxbaum. Military Training International. Retrieved from
  7. 7. © 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Page 7 of 11 Edge Computing: Advanced computing power is a key ingredient in effective LVC training. Servers provide tremendous flexibility and are even available in form factors to be embedded in routers, allowing a minimized form factor. For example, a blade server embedded in a router can provide virtualization-ready and application-centric network, compute and storage capacity for high-performance application hosting such as essential infrastructure services and mission-critical applications. Not only can servers be easily distributed in the network by embedding them into existing network components like this but servers can also be distributed to the warfighting platforms and training devices themselves. And embedded/hardened servers deployed into the warfighting platforms can support software based or virtual routers, firewalls, WAN optimization and application acceleration devices, etc. Virtual devices can also be used to create an NSA approved Commercial Solutions for Classified (CSfC) enabled secure transport from the platforms to the training networks. Optical Networking: Range communications systems will require network connectivity to other systems and data centers. Optical networking can provide high data rate connectivity over significant distances that may be encountered on the large training ranges described earlier. Optical networking can also help reduce effects of Electromagnetic Influence (EMI) and help avoid Transient Electromagnetic Pulse Standard (TEMPEST) issues, increasing overall range security. Land Mobile Radios: Range operations effectiveness and safety depend on reliable communications across varied terrain, various mediums and an array of existing and future communication systems across both fixed and mobile assets. Fixed and mobile sites can utilize Land Mobile Radios (LMR) for communications between geographically dispersed and mobile personnel. But interoperability may be an issue when multiple organizations bring their own LMRs or when LMRs of various radio vendors are mixed. Gateways that bridge LMR communications to Voice over IP (VoIP) and 4G networks, allow communications to be abstracted from the distinctive characteristics of each radio system to solve interoperability challenges. Gateways that are built on open standards allow easier integration with multivendor radio networks, without the need for manual intervention. They also enable easier integration with applications that extend LMR communications to additional devices other than radios (e.g. tablets, PCs, etc.). Wireless: Wireless networks may be used to enable mobility across training sites, providing delivery of access indoors, outdoors and in industrial environments. In the case of DoD training exercises, networks are likely to experience fluctuations in high-density demand due to lots of devices moving in and out of a network. Wireless access points can overcome this, automatically self-optimizing during times of high-density demand and flexibly changing radio assignments when large numbers of devices are connected to a network. In addition, outdoor and industrial access points can provide wireless access even in rugged and hazardous environments while providing support for the 4.9 GHz public safety band. This lets first responders leverage wireless IP connectivity and services. Wireless access points also provide highly accurate location services. This capability can be used to maintain situational awareness (where personnel, devices and other assets are located). For asset management, wireless
  8. 8. © 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Page 8 of 11 networking coupled with Radio Frequency Identifier (RFID) tags can enable personnel to pinpoint where key equipment is located, greatly reducing labor associated in manually finding and inventorying resources. Operators can also greatly enhance the safety of DoD personnel by tracking their movements. This includes the capability to monitor and provide alert notifications of any personnel accessing hazardous or high-security areas. Today’s wireless networking can enable location accuracy of less than 1 meter and is improving in accuracy. And some access switches can even provide unified access and management for both wired and wireless devices, eliminating the need for additional wireless controllers. This can allow DoD services to greatly reduce space requirements while minimizing network and device management workload. Collaboration: As noted earlier, the DoD considers an after action review for training audiences as a key function. And a great benefit of LVC is that it empowers training across many sites and across great distances. IP based collaboration and conferencing also optimizes the ability of remotely located personnel to collaborate and prepare for training events. Also, to debrief and share lessons learned while minimizing the expense of remote collaboration. The end points used to achieve collaboration can vary; from a mobile device or VoIP phone, to a vivid fully immersive collaboration experience - one that provides uncompromised and immersive user experience with lifelike interaction for individuals and teams alike. IP collaboration services also enable multi-site conferencing and collaboration while providing the best experience for the users’ site environments and can bridge existing communications infrastructure. Collaboration also provides instant communications to optimize range safety and operations as well as allowing visual observations from remote sites. Cybersecurity Given the inherently connected and networked nature of LVC and the increasing dependence on COTS, cybersecurity is a critical consideration. In today’s digital training environment, LVC systems will stretch from the aircraft, ship or vehicle to the network, connecting them to the training range and other live systems. Ranges will connect to simulator complexes. Simulator complexes will connect to each other and constructive components. Various elements of LVC training will either encompass or connect to a data center. And Pre- and Post-mission data and analysis will reside in a data center. This results in a significant amount of communications and data and it all must be protected in order to prevent the compromise of any classified or sensitive information. Plus, LVC systems must, by their nature, be connected and networked; depending heavily on software and COTS IT capabilities to do so. As a result, an effective Cybersecurity solution that provides protection across the entire attack continuum is absolutely essential to the success of LVC training within the DoD. More broadly, value chain security and security/trust of COTS equipment are crucial considerations. LVC providers and users must know: ● The pedigree of their systems; what policies, processes and technologies their systems integrators and COTS providers utilized to ensure availability, integrity and confidentiality of their systems ● Why they should trust a COTS component provider or why they should not. And LVC acquisition commands should: ● Be intimately familiar with how a COTS company builds critical components, both hardware and software
  9. 9. © 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Page 9 of 11 ● Know how a company would respond when vulnerabilities or compromises are discovered ● Understand how their provider integrates technology into products to ensure integrity of both software and hardware ● Fully understand how COTS providers’ Security and Trust will impact their ability to effectively deliver secure training and operations. Cybersecurity: Network as a Sensor and Enforcer As discussed earlier, increased security and protection of TTPs, Concepts of Operations (CONOPS) and weapons performance data are key elements of deploying any LVC training. Because of this, security of the LVC training environment is critical. Cyber threats are continually evolving and dictate that LVC environments be well architected and enable a secure digital network. Because of LVC’s dependence on networked connectivity across numerous remote sites and platforms, the network is the key to defending the LVC environment. Why? Because the network can provide broad and deep visibility into network traffic flow patterns and rich threat intelligence information that allows faster identification of security threats. The network can also be used to: ● Dynamically enforce security policy with software-defined segmentation designed to reduce the overall attack surface ● Contain attacks by preventing the lateral movement of threats across the network and minimize the time needed to isolate threats when detected ● Enable switches, routers and wireless solutions to work together to allow the network to serve as a sensor grid and also serve as a security and policy enforcement mechanism. Visibility is primary to cybersecurity. Detailed security analytics and contextual data policy, coupled with real-time monitoring and alerts, enable you to determine a normal baseline for the network and then provide the essential ability to detect malicious activities, abnormal data movements, suspicious traffic and advanced threats anywhere in the environment. Advanced threats will demand rapid discovery and identification of malicious behavior on the LVC network. Using your network as a sensor and an enforcer is possible through: ● The distributed network’s ability to baseline normal behavior and sense deviations, allowing it to serve as an ideal enforcer to apply security policies, control access to resources and block attacks ● The capability of a LVC network to segment and utilize identity services for enforcement of role-based, topology-independent and access-independent control ● Access to network segments and resources determined by context and user, device and location - all according to your flexible and agile security policy ● A centralized policy engine that can drive real-time access control decisions and by policies that can be rapidly updated when new threats are identified (efficient dynamic policy capability is essential to grant the right level of access to the right users and devices plus to limit the impact of data breaches through software-defined segmentation and real-time threat response). Protection of Classified Information Ensuring the protection of classified information has always been a cornerstone of our nation’s cyberdefense. To aid in this effort, the National Security Administration (NSA) developed the Commercial Solutions for Classified (CSfC) program as a faster way to deliver secure solutions. This is done by leveraging industry innovation to protect and defend information (and information systems) by ensuring confidentiality, integrity, authentication, availability and non-repudiation. This is also known as Information Assurance (IA).
  10. 10. © 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Page 10 of 11 “U.S. Government customers increasingly require immediate use of the market's most modern commercial hardware and software technologies within National Security Systems (NSS) in order to achieve mission objectives. Consequently, the National Security Agency/Central Security Service (NSA/CSS) is developing new ways to leverage emerging technologies to deliver timelier IA solutions for rapidly evolving customer requirements.”11 Properly configured and layered solutions can provide the appropriate protection of classified data in a variety of applications. The NSA’s CSfC program was designed in such a way as to enable commercial products to also be used in layered solutions to protect classified National Security Systems data. This will provide the ability to securely communicate based on commercial standards using a solution that can be fielded in mere months instead of years. To promote this approach, the NSA has developed, approved and published solution-level specifications called Capability Packages which envelope Mobile Access, Virtual Private Network, Campus Wireless LAN and Data at Rest. Physical Security and Safety LVC training will often involve hazardous operations in rough terrain, where harsh weather and a challenging environment is combined with live ordinance and weapons platforms. So physical security will be critical to protect participants and support personnel, protect high value assets and ensure that unauthorized personnel do not access sensitive or dangerous areas. Fortunately, physical security can be greatly enhanced by IP video surveillance and analytics through combination with Internet of Things (IoT) sensors that can detect critical changes in temperature, sound, atmospheric composition, pressure, etc. Access control devices can also be connected to the IP network to enhance the overall security posture, allowing door hardware, locks and badge readers to be collectively monitored. By combining access control and video surveillance DoD can greatly improve efficiency and effectiveness of security and safety personnel across large, distributed training facilities. Operations, security and safety personnel can also benefit from enhanced collaboration and communication capabilities enabled by the IP network. Dispatch operations and response to incidents, emergencies and facility events can be greatly improved by bridging LMR systems, mobile phones, IP phones and PCs regardless of location or device connectivity. And rich media support can give dispatchers the power to consolidate information relating to an incident and instantly share that information with all other incident participants. This can be combined with flexible, scalable communications interoperability capabilities such as: ● Instant chat ● Push to talk calls 11 Commercial Solutions for Classified (CSfC). (Jan 2, 2014). NSA Information Assurance Service Center. Retrieved from Commercial Solutions for Classified Program (CSfC). NSA/CSS. Retrieved from
  11. 11. © 2016 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Page 11 of 11 ● Presence ● Automatic Virtual Private Network (VPN) connectivity ● Broadcast ● Directory access ● Mapping ● Low bandwidth audio ● Private calls ● Encryption ● High availability and open application programming interfaces (API) for easy integration of third-party applications. Data Analysis As mentioned earlier, LVC training will generate massive amounts of data. Experience in commercial sectors such as oil and gas, mining and transportation shows that most data will go untapped unless a concerted effort is made to optimize the data architecture, preparation and analytics. Data virtualization capabilities offer agile data integration and easy access to data, no matter where it resides, reducing costs by eliminating unnecessary data replication and consolidation. Yet at the same time it enabes the query of all types of data, regardless of where the data resides, without physically moving the data. Enhanced decision-making will optimize the benefits received from LVC training events so data preparation is critical to efficient analysis. Data preparation speeds difficult and time-consuming data gathering, exploration, cleansing and enrichment, letting you accelerate analysis of training events. Edge analytics can also enhance LVC effectiveness and optimize network traffic by enabling capture, storage and analysis of data where it is actively created – outside the walls of the data center. Data is filtered, aggregated or compressed at the edge or in the data center as appropriate. Analysis at the edge of massive amounts of machine- generated data in a complex, distributed environment can provide immediate value and insight into optimal weapons employment, sensor integration or decision-making. Conclusion The military is increasing use of a combination of Live, Virtual and Constructive (LVC) training modes to deliver training solutions. By utilizing a variety of training systems and delivery techniques, the DoD can provide more realistic, safer and more secure training at a lower cost. In addition, the use of Commercial off the Shelf (COTS) Information Technology (IT) solutions will be key to making DoD LVC training effective, agile, efficient and secure. By incorporating COTS IT solutions, the DoD can provide critical connectivity and interoperability, flexible computing, effective collaboration and in depth data analysis to their agencies, all in a more and cost effective manner.