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Female pelvis

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The female pelvis is ideal for childbearing. Complete knowledge on it helps a obstetrician or midwife to conduct normal labour as well as detect any abnormalities related to abnormal pelvis.

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Female pelvis

  1. 1. PREPARED BY: SRUJANI SWETASINA DASH NURSING TUTOR G.N.M.INSTITUTE A.N.M.M.C.H, GAYA
  2. 2.  NEED FOR STUDY ABOUT PELVIS IN OBSTETRIC  FUNCTIONS OF PELVIS  TYPES OF PELVIS  STRUCTURE OF FEMALE PELVIS  JOINTS  ANATOMICAL DIVISION  BONY LANDMARKS  DIAMETERS OF TRUE PELVIS  SUMMARY  BIBLIOGRAPHY
  3. 3.  INTRODUCTION: Obstetric is branch of medical science which deals with the pregnancy, childbirth and postpartum period. The female pelvis act as birth canal during childbirth and it also provides space for growth and development of fetus. Therefore it is necessary to know the structure of normal female pelvis for conducting deliveries.
  4. 4.  Allow movement of the body especially walking and running.  Permits person to sit and kneel.  Female pelvis is adapted for childbearing.  Transmits the weight of trunk to the legs.  Takes weight (ischial tuberosity)of the body while in sitting.  Protects the pelvic organs.
  5. 5. According to the shape of brim of pelvis, it is divided into four types- 1. Gynaecoid Pelvis (Female pelvis) 2. Android Pelvis (Male Pelvis) 3. Anthropoid Pelvis 4. Platypelloid Pelvis (Abnormal Pelvis)
  6. 6. Formed by four bones- 1. Innominate bone (Hip Bone) -2 2. Sacrum -1 3. Coccyx -1
  7. 7.  Also known as hip bone or coxal bone.  It has 3 parts- Ilium, Ischium and Pubis.  There is a cup shaped depression on the lateral side of innominate bone called as “acetabulum”. The ilium, ischium and pubis fused to form the acetabulum. The head of the femur articulates in this part.  There is a foramen at the inferior portion known as “obturator foramen” ILIUM  Ilium is the upper flat portion of innominate bone.  It has a superior border called as “iliac crest”  The flat surface of ilium is called as “iliac fossa”  It has four spines- 1.Anterior superior iliac spine- anterior end of iliac crest 2.Anterior inferior iliac spine - below anterior superior spine 3.Posterior superior iliac spine- posterior end of iliac crest 4.Posterior inferior iliac spine- below posterior superior spine
  8. 8. ISCHIUM  It is the posteroinferior part of innominate bone.  The thick part of ischium is called as “ischial tuberosity”.  The posterior border of ischium has a spine called as “ischial spine”.  There are two curvature above and below the ischial spine- a. Greater sciatic notch (above) b. Lesser sciatic notch (below) PUBIS  It is the anteroinferior part of innominate bone.  It has a body, superior ramus and inferior ramus.  The superior border of the body is known as the pubic crest.  The inferior ramus unites to form pubic arch.
  9. 9. SACRUM  Wedge shaped bone with concave anterior surface.  Composed of five fused rudimentary vertebrae.  The upper border of the first sacral vertebra protrudes inward and forms “sacral promontory”.  The lateral part of sacrum is called as wing or ala.  Upper part of sacrum is called as base which articulates with L5 and the lower end is apex which articulates with coccyx  There are five sacral foramen are present in each side. COCCYX  Triangular in shape.  Composed of four fused rudimentary vertebrae.
  10. 10. There are four joints-  Sacroiliac joint (2) - Joint between innominate bone and sacrum  Sacrococcygeal joint (1) - Joint between sacrum and coccyx  Symphysis Pubis (1) - Cartilaginous joint between both the pubis Sacrococcygeal joint
  11. 11. Pelvis is anatomically divided into two parts from the level of the brim - 1. False Pelvis 2. True Pelvis False Pelvis  It is the part above the brim of pelvis.  Formed by iliac portions of innominate bone and is limited above by the iliac crests.  It’s function is to support the enlarged uterus during pregnancy. It has no role as birth canal. True Pelvis  It is the part below the brim of pelvis.  Anteriorly it is shallow, formed by the symphysis pubis and measures 4 cm.  Posteriorly it is deep, formed by sacrum and coccyx and measures 11.5cm.  It is divided into Inlet (Brim), Cavity and Outlet for descriptive purpose.  It forms the birth canal through which fetus pass during childbirth.
  12. 12.  There are certain landmarks on the brim of pelvis.  Sequence from anterior to posterior- 1. Upper border of symphysis pubis 2. Pubic crest 3. Pubic tubercle 4. Pectineal line 5. Ilio pubic eminence 6. Ilio pectineal line 7. Sacroiliac joint 8. Anterior border of ala of sacrum 9. Sacral promontory
  13. 13.  True pelvis has inlet (brim), cavity and outlet.  There are three diameters in each of the part- a. Anteroposterior b. Oblique c. Transverse
  14. 14. INLET/BRIM CAVITY OUTLET ANTERO- POSTERIOR Distance between the midpoint of sacral promontory to the upper boder of symphysis pubis. Circular in shape and is not possible to measure. Distance between the lower border of symphysis pubis to sacrococcygeal joint. 11cm 12cm 13cm OBLIQUE Distance between sacroiliac joint of one side to the ilio pubic eminence of opposite side. Circular in shape and is not possible to measure. Distance between the obturator foramen to the sacro spinous ligaments although there is no fixed point. 12cm 12cm 12cm TRANSVERSE Distance between two farthest points over iliopectineal line. Circular in shape and is not possible to measure. Distance between two ischial spines. 13cm 12cm 11cm
  15. 15.  Female pelvis is significant in obstetrical standpoint because it provides passage for the fetus to come out during delivery and is ideal for childbirth.  A midwife must be competent to recognise a normal pelvis in order to conduct normal labour and able to detect deviations from normal.
  16. 16.  Dutta D.C, “Textbook Of Obstetrics”, Jaypee Brothers , The Health Science Publishers, 8th edition, Pg.98-105  Jacob Annamma, “A Comprehensive Textbook of Midwifery”, Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers(P)LTD, 2nd edition, Pg.43-51  Elizabeth Marie, “Midwifery for Nurses”, CBS Publishers and Distributors Pvt Ltd, 2nd edition, Pg.90-96
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The female pelvis is ideal for childbearing. Complete knowledge on it helps a obstetrician or midwife to conduct normal labour as well as detect any abnormalities related to abnormal pelvis.

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