(Chrysanthemum morifolium /Dendranthema grandiflora)
Chrysanthemum is a popular commercial flower crop of the many countries.
It is next only to rose in value of flower trade in the world market.
The word Chrysos means „golden‟ and anthos means „flower‟.
It is commonly known as „Queen of East/ autumn queen/ guldaudi.
Japanese National Flower.
• It originated in Europe and Asia (China).
• Species involved in the development are C. sinense, C. indicum, C. japonicum,
C. ornatum, C. maxima
IMPORTANCE AND USES
• Chrysanthemum ranks 2nd after rose.
In India too, chrysanthemum occupies a place of pride both as a commercial crop
and as a popular exhibition flower.
It has a wide range of type, size and colour and also “forms‟.
Short day plant – “Photo sensitive‟ (10 hours day light)
Tall growing type suitable for background planting in borders.
Dwarf growing for flower beds and pot culture (pot mums)
Loose flowers – garland, veni, worship etc.
Long stem flowers – cut flowers for Bouquet, Vase etc.
The decorative and fluffy bloomed small-flowered cultivars are ideal for
garland making and hair decoration.
The extra large-bloomed cultivars for their exhibition value.
Chrysanthemum morifolium is also an important source of essential oil and
The species like Chrysanthemum cinerariifolium and C. coccineum are also being
cultivated as sources of pyrethrum and an important insecticide.
Chrysanthemum with a shallow but fibrous root system is sensitive to
waterlogging and prone to attack by diseases, such as root rot and wilt due to lack
Clay and clay loam soils retain too much of moisture and thereby hinder proper
aeration, resulting in rotting of roots.
Sandy soils drain too quickly and require frequent irrigation and also suffer
from loss of nutrients due to leaching.
Sandy loam soils are ideal for chrysanthemum growing.
pH ranging between 6.2 and 6.7
Light and temperature are the two important environmental factors
influencing the growth and flowering.
As far as light is concerned, both photoperiod and the intensity have profound
effects on growth and flowering of chrysanthemum.
It is a short-day plant normally initiates and flowers during Novemenber to
February under Chhattisgarh conditions.
Chrysanthemum is a short day plant.
For its vegetative growth it requires long day with bright sunlight and high
temperature ranging from 20 to 27 °C.
During growing period if the atmospheric humidity remains 70 to 90 per cent,
it helps in vigorous vegetative growth of plant.
For bud formation and flowering it requires short day and low temperature
ranging from 10 to 27 'C.
Hence, planting during June- July is recommended.
Chrysanthemum can be propagated both by vegetative and sexual methods.
Maintain the purity of cultivar seeds are used to develop hybrids.
• Suckers arise from the underground stem and these are separated and planted in
prepared nursery beds during January for stock plants.
• Regular pinching is performed in these plants for vigorous and profuse branching
Some of these stock plants are used for preparation of cuttings.
• The first pinching is performed in April, followed by monthly pinching up to June.
• After 3rd pinching in June, cuttings are taken from these mother plants.
• Cuttings of 5-7 cm in length are taken form healthy stock plants in June.
• The cuttings are prepared removing basal leaves and reducing the leaf area of remaining
leaves to half.
• The basal portions (less than half inch) of cuttings are dipped rooting hormone (1000 ppm
solution of IBA) for better rooting.
• Sometimes the lower portion of cuttings is treated with some copper fungicide to avoid
• These rooted cuttings are ready for planting in the field.
3. Micro propagation
Among these, propagation through cutting is the most common and popular method.
• June-July planting resulted in well developed plants with good flowers.
Cut flower production was the highest from June plantings.
90,000 to 1, 10,000 suckers or slips obtained from 15 cents of the previous crops are
required to plant one hectare.
Before planting, the roots of the suckers or slips are dipped in wet Cerasan or Agallol
0.1% to protect against wilt.
The field has to be ploughed thrice during May-June and beds or ridges and furrows
Chrysanthemum requires well prepared soil for proper growth and development.
The field should be ploughed 2 to 3 times before preparing the beds and leveled well.
A basal dose of well decomposed FYM should be applied @ 5kg/meter square.
Addition of peat or organic matter improves the soil structure & helps in the development
of the plant.
Proper soil sterilization with carbendazim should be done before planting to avoid soil
MANURING AND FERTILIZATION
• Chrysanthemum is a heavy feeder and requires large amount of both Nitrogen
• Nitrogen is required at early stage and the plants need P throughout the growth
• As the buds appear, the proportion of K should be increased and N should be
• Chrysanthemums are heavy feeders and hence they are to be adequately
• 25 t of FYM along with 200:200:250 kg NPK/ha.
• Half of the N and K and the entire quantity of P are to be applied basal by just
• The other half of N K is to be applied 30 days after planting the suckers.
• The same dose can be repeated if a ratoon crop is raised and hoeing should be
done once in a month.
• Micronutrient application ZnSO4 0.25% + MgSO4 0.5%
The plants need adequate water during active vegetative growth when new
leaves are being formed.
After the formation of flower buds no further leaf is formed and less amount of
water is needed.
Hence, chrysanthemum are to be irrigated twice a week in the first two weeks
and subsequent by at weekly intervals.
Chrysanthemum roots are very sensitive to water logging but tolerate water
Different systems of irrigation are prevalent in various part of the world.
These include overhead mist spray lines.
Sprinkler and self-travelling sprayers.
The best plant population was 32 cuttings/m2.
For cv. Chandrama, a large flowered cultivar, spacing of 30 x 30 cm.
The suckers or slips are planted at a spacing of 30 x 20 cm on one side of the
Pinching is one of most important operations in chrysanthemum culture.
The operation of removal of terminal growing portion of stem pinching reduces plant
height and promotes axillary branches.
Time and severity of pinching depend on the type of chrysanthemum and the desired
After planting, the growth is mostly upward with very little branching.
To arrest such tall growth, a simple procedure called “pinching‟ is used. It is also called
Only soft vegetative shoot tips 1.5 to 3 cm long are removed.
Pinching is most essential for small flowered chrysanthemum.
First pinching is done when the plants reach a height of 15-20 cm with 3-4 pairs of leaves.
A second pinching may be necessary if the plants make straggly and lean growth.
Pinching increases the number of flowering stems in each plant; it can indirectly control
flowering date and bloom quality; and the number of stems to a plant can easily be
Two types of pinching are performed:
(a) Soft pinching: By this pinching the top soft tips of the shoot along with 2-3 open
leaves are removed;
(b) Hard pinching: It means removing a longer portion upto hard shoot.
• Single pinching is done, if two flowers are desired, whereas double pinching is
done for four flowers.
• In spray chrysanthemum numerous small to medium sized flowers are produced,
therefore, two pinchings are required to encourage lateral growth.
• As a general rule rooted cuttings are pinched two weeks after planting or
approximately 100 days before full bloom.
DISBUDDING AND DE-SHOOTING
These operations are mostly performed for large flowering of decorative type
Many of the standard type varieties are disbudded in which the largest terminal bud is
reserved and all auxiliary buds are removed.
Disbudding of spray varieties is very easy because in this case only the large apical bud
is removed and the auxiliary buds are allowed to develop. For taking three blooms per
plant, three lateral strong shoots are allowed to grow and others are removed.
Lateral buds and side shoots are removed at their early stage of growth from time to
For taking one bloom per plant no pinching is done. Only the main stem is allowed to
Removal of undesirable lateral buds and shoots are done.
Dis-shooting is practiced to reduce the number of branches for improving the size and
form of the flower.
• During the vegetative growth phase, plants grow upward.
• New suckers continue to develop from base of plants.
• For proper and vigorous growth of plants, suckers are removed from time to
• It is practiced to allow single stem to develop up to a certain height.
• Without de-suckering the main plant will loose vigour and becomes weak
STAKING OF PLANTS
Staking is necessary to keep plants erect and to maintain proper shape of plants and
Stakes are prepared mostly from bamboo sticks.
• Weeding and hoeing are generally done manually as and when required, normally 8-10
• Crop growth regulation and flowering can be modified or controlled by use of
Flower quality and yield can be improved by the use of regulators.
The plant starts flowering from 3rd months onwards.
GA3 50 ppm can be sprayed at 30, 45 and 60 days after planting to increase the
1. Main crop : 9-10t/ha.
2. Ratoon crop : 4-5 t/ha.
3. Sprays- 1, 00,000 stems can be obtained from one ha.
HARVEST AND YIELD:
Decorative types are harvested when the petals in the centre of the topmost
flower is almost fully developed.
In standards, harvesting is generally done when outer ray florets ceases to
Pot-mums are sent to the market with half to fully opened flowers.
Spray mums are generally harvested at the two thirds to three-fourths open
standard mums at the three-fourths to full open stage of development.
Yield start from 3-4 months after planting.
Main crop duration 6 months.
Ratoon crop 4 months.
Total duration (6+4) 10 months
CLASSIFICATION BASED ON PLANT GROWTH
1.Standards – plants with single flower, other buds are removed if
arise from the laterals and produce big flower.
2.Spray – The main apex bud is removed and lateral buds are
3.Pot mums – Small flowered mums with 6-9” height are beautiful
in decorating the places
BASED ON USAGE.
• Cut flowers –
• Loose flowers
• Potted/bed plants
Most often standard chrysanthemum are placed in sleeves and packed in
display boxes measuring 91 x 43 x 15cm.
They are placed in the boxes according to the grades.
For bulk packing of the spray chrysanthemums, 10, 15 or 20 stems are
placed in sleeves according to the grades.
Six sleeves, three at each end, are generally packed in each box,
measuring 80 x 50 x 23cm.
EXPORT STANDARDS FOR CHRYSANTHEMUM:
Parameter Standard Spray Dwarf
Stem Length 88-100 cm 75-88 cm 25-38 cm
Weight 30g/stem (90cm) 30g/stem (85 cm) 15g/stem(30 cm)
No. of flowers Only 1 flower 10 flowers 10-12 flowers
With 5 buds with 5-8 buds