Department of Pharmacy
• Deodorant and Antiperspirant
• Components of sweat
• Odor & Methods of Reduce it
• Ingredients & Formulation of Deodorants
• Evaluation of Deodorants
• Formulation of Antiperspirant Sticks
• Active Ingredients & Evaluation of Antiperspirant
• Choosing Deodorant over Antiperspirant
• Perfume & Its Classification
• Talcum Powder & Its Merits
Deodorant and Antiperspirant
• A deodorant is a products applied to the body
to prevent body odor caused by the bacterial
breakdown of perspiration in armpits , feet ,
and other areas of the body and do not
• A subgroup of deodorant , antiperspirant ,
affects odor as well as prevent sweating by
affecting sweat glands .
Properties of Deodorants and
• It should not be irritant to the skin .
• It should not deteriorate clothing.
• It should be safe and nontoxic.
• Easy to use and adhere well on skin.
• Mask body odor with perfume.
• Absorb perspiration or inhibit the activity of
gram+ ve bacteria , which cause body
Difference between Deodorants
Components of Sweat
Ethnicity: hypotonic liquid form of blood plasma.
Acidic substance which is the degree of acidity is
between 4 and 6. It consists mainly of 99% water
and some mineral salts, which are sodium chloride,
potassium, and bicarbonate.
It also contains inorganic compounds such as lactic
acid, urea, and ammonia which secreted by sweat
Numerous odors substances are responsible:
• decomposition of the proteins
• lower fatty acids, steroids and lactones(have
no smell , but they fix the odor
• combined action of food
• physical and psychological conditions
• individual property (dog detection)
Method to reduce or control
1-Reduce apocrine sweating
2-Remove the secretions
3-Impede bacterial growth
4-Absorb body odor
● According to Gomes, Drucker & liley, infections
caused by anaerotic bacteria often produce
strong odor due to production of short chain
fatty acids, sulfur compounds, ammonia &
● Chlorine through its lethal activity on micro
organism & oxidative action on dead tissue &
bacterial products, eliminate the fetid odor
produced by necrosis.
Evaluation of Deodorants:
• Both in vivo and in vitro methods are available.
But In vitro techniques do not provide a reliable
indicator of clinical effectiveness.
• The two principal methods for the in vivo
evaluation of deodorant efficacy are-
1. Determination of the effect of treatment on the skin
2. Olfactory assessment of the effects on skin odours.
• In the other method, olfactory assessment of the
effect of deodorants
on body odours may be performed by
direct armpit sniffing or by indirect sniffing of pads.
Formulation of Antiperspirant
Antiperspirant sticks consist of
• The active drug ingredients that control
• Gelling agents that form the stick matrix;and
• Other ingredients, such as fragrance or
colorants, that make the product aesthetically
Active ingredient will diffuse into the sweat &
apocrine glands & insoluble hydroxide gel will be
produced in sweat pores & thus physically blocking
the release of secretory products by constricting
the opening of the sweat gland ducts.
• The FDA publishes an Over the Counter (OTC) Drug
monograph that lists which ingredients are approved for
• The ingredients on this list are limited to:
- natural antimicrobial agents: aluminum chlorhydrate,
- aluminum chloride (must be non aerosol) and
- aluminum zirconium complexes.
• of these compounds, the most commonly used is
aluminum zirconiumtetrachlorohydrex glycine.
• Most of these materials are supplied as powders, and
they are typically used at levels of 8-25%based on
the weight of the finished product. 21
• Alcohol is an ingredient present in some roll-ons,
aerosols and gels.
• The active ingredients of antiperspirants and
deodorants are often dissolved in alcohol
because it dries quickly once applied to the skin
and gives an immediate sense of coolness.
• The bulk of the formulation consists of waxy or
fatty materials that are gelled to form a solid stick.
• Common examples include:
- stearyl alcohol
- cetyl alcohol
- hydrogenated castor oil, and glyceryl stearate.
• These waxy materials are blended with lubricating
oils and emollients such as cyclomethicone,
• In addition, talc, starches, or other powders may be
added to control stick consistency and to give the
product a dry feel.
Other Ingredients :
• Fragrance and colorants may be added to
the formula to improve its odour or
• Some additives as calcium pantothenate may be
added,Calcium pantothenate in antiperspirants
is claimed to soothe irritated skin and to
promote wound healing, which often occurs
with underarm shaving.
Evaluation of Antiperspirant:
• Antiperspirants aim to bring about a temporary
decrease in sweatproduction in the axillae.
• The most widely used procedure for efficacy te
sting of antiperspirants is a gravimetric method
which involves the
collection and weighing of axillary sweat under
Why choose a Deodorant over an
• Deodorants work by neutralizing the smell of the sweat
and by antiseptic action against bacteria.
• Deodorants are preferable because they don't interfere
with sweating, a natural cooling process.
• Antiperspirants, because of their ability to reduce
perspiration and thus diminish the medium that is a
factor in the development of axillary odour, can also
claim to be a deodorant.
• However, because a deodorant product only reduces
the body odour and does not reduce perspiration it can
only be labeled as a deodorant.
1. Aluminum toxicity
Aluminum itself adversely affects the blood – brain
barrier, is capable of causing DNA damage, and has
adverse epigenetic effects.
2. Breast cancer
2004 and 2005 studies led by researcher Philippa
Darbre, hypothesizes that particular substances in
deodorants, such as preservatives called parabens, or
bolts such as aluminum chloride used in antiperspirants,
get into the bloodstream or accumulate in breast tissue,
where they enhance or emulate the effects of estrogen,
which stimulates the growth of cancerous breast cells.
3. The agency warns people with renal dysfunction
to consult a doctor before using antiperspirants
4. Deodorant crystals containing synthetically
made potassium alum were found to be a weak
irritant to the skin. Alcohol-free deodorant is
available for those with sensitive skin.
# Perfume is a mixture of fragrant essential oils or
aromatic compounds, fixatives and solvents used to
give the human body, animal, food objects and living
spaces a pleasant scent.
# It has been used for centuries by mankind.
# Perfumes are supposed to release a continuous
pleasant fragrance that will provide a long lasting
feeling of freshness.
# Initially it was only used for religious purpose but
now it has become an ornament of sophistication
for both men and women.
Classification of Perfume
• Perfumes are classified into five major groups on the basis of
concentration of fragrance and duration of lasting:
Class of aromatic compound % Duration(hours)
Perfume(perfume) 20-30 6-8
Eau de perfume 15-20 4-5
Eau de toilette 5-15 2-3
Eau de cologne 2-4 2
• Perfumes can further be classified into following classes:
1. Bright floral: Fragrance from one or several flowers. e.g. Estee
2. Green: Fragrance from cut grass or leaf. e.g. Calvin Klein’s
3. Aquatic: A clean smell reminiscent of ocean. e.g. Davidoff Cool
4. Citrus: Has freshening effect. E.g. Faberge Brut
5. Fruity: Aromas of fruits other than citrus. E.g. Ginestet Botrytis
6. Gourmand: Scent with edible or desert like qualities. E.g.
Thierry Mugler’s Angel.
Classification of Perfume
Fragrances used in perfume can be found from following sources:
a) Plant Source: Barks, flowers, blossoms, fruits, resin, roots,
seeds, woods etc.
b) Animal Source: Musk, civet, honeycomb etc.
c) Synthetic Source: Calone, synthetic terpenes etc.
INGREDIENTS CAUSING ALLERGIC REACTION
1.Sandalwood Fragrance: Hypersensitivity.
2.Limonene: Slightly astringent smell Irritates the skin.
3.Benzyl alcohol: Fixative Skin irritant causing redness and pain.
4.Benzyl Benzoate:Fixative; sweet balsamic odor. Skin irritation
like blister .
5.Acetone Solvent Inhalation cause dryness of mouth & throat.
6.Ethyl Acetate Solvent Defatting effect on skin & may cause
drying & cracking
Perfumes can be manufactured by following steps:
Before manufacturing process begins the sources of suitable
fragrances are collected in the manufacturing centre.
Oils are extracted from plants and other substances by several
a. Steam distillation:
steam is passed through plant materials held in a still, whereby
the essential oil turns to gas.
This gas is then passed through tubes, cooled, liquefied and
b. Solvent extraction:
The flower parts are dissolved in benzene or petrolatum that
retains the fragrance of the flower.
Alcohol is used to dissolve the fragrance and heated to obtain it
after evaporation of alcohol.
Flowers are kept in glass sheet with grease that absorb the
fragrance of flowers.
The citrus fruits or plants are manually or mechanically pressed
until all the oil is squeezed out.
Talcum powder is the refined, powdery form of the
softest mineral on earth: talc. Talc is an “inert”
ingredient, meaning it does not generate a chemical
reaction when ingested or used on the skin. People
have taken advantage of its natural smoothness,
safety and absorbency since ancient Egyptian times.
Talc is found in rock deposits all over the planet and
is mined like many other minerals. Only
pharmaceutical grade talc is used in our baby
How is talcum powder made?
Once it is taken from the earth, talc is partially
crushed, sorted and assigned a grade. The talc ore
that meets our standards is then milled to a
powder, tested for particle size and confirmed to
meet Johnson & Johnson’s purity requirements.
Is Talc Safe?
1.Talc has been used for centuries.
It’s the softest mineral on earth, and has been
used for a variety of applications dating back to
2.Talc is more common than you think.
It’s in the foods we eat, including chewing gum,
rice and olive oil, and many products we use
every day (like makeup, soap and antiperspirant.)
3.Talc is safe. Research, clinical evidence
and nearly 40 years of studies by independent
medical experts around the world continue to
support the safety of talc. 39
4.Talc has been studied by independent
authorities around the world.
Government and non-governmental
agencies, such as the U.S. Food and Drug
Administration and Cosmetic Ingredient
Review Expert Panel have all investigated
the potential harmfulness of talc and determined that talc is
6.Talc does not cause cancer.
The National Cancer Institute’s Physician Data
Query Editorial Board concluded that the
weight of evidence does not support an
association between perineal talc exposure and increased risk of
ovarian cancer 40