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Mentoring and Coaching Skills

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Mentoring and Coaching Skills, principles, best practices and processes, presented and facilitated by Dr Charles Cotter

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Mentoring and Coaching Skills

  1. 1. MENTORING AND COACHING SKILLS CHARLES COTTER PhD, MBA, B.A (Hons), B.A www.slideshare.net/CharlesCotter THABAZIMBI APRIL 2021
  2. 2. TRAINING PROGRAMME OVERVIEW (DAY 1) • Defining mentoring and coaching • Differentiating between mentoring and coaching and their respective roles • The benefits of mentoring • Best practice guidelines for mentoring • Key roles of the mentoring process • Understanding and applying the 4-phase mentoring process • Video clip: What is Mentoring?
  3. 3. TRAINING PROGRAMME OVERVIEW (DAY 2) • Mastering the fundamentals of coaching • Understanding and applying the GROW model of coaching • Applying the coaching process • Mastering and applying the 6-step task/skills based coaching process • Article: Critical conversations • Applying the 5-step task delegation process • Performance Management of Interns • Case study: Poor performance of an Intern
  4. 4. OBJECTIVE #1: MENTORING
  5. 5. AGREE OR DISAGREE? WHY?
  6. 6. INTRODUCTORY LEARNING ACTIVITY • Individual activity: • Complete the statement by inserting one (1) word only. In order to be an effective mentor at Northam Platinum, I need to/to be……………………………………………………… • Jot this word down and find other learners who have written down the same word. • Write this word down on the flip-chart. • You’ll be given the opportunity to substantiate your choice of word.
  7. 7. DEFINING MENTORING • Mentoring is a process for the informal transmission of knowledge, social capital and the psychosocial support perceived by the recipient as relevant to work, career, or professional development. • Mentoring entails informal communication, usually face-to-face and during a sustained period of time, between a person who is perceived to have greater relevant knowledge, wisdom or experience (the mentor) and a person who is perceived to have less (the protégé).
  8. 8. DEFINING COACHING • Coaching, is a teaching, training or development process via which an individual is supported while achieving a specific personal or professional result or goal.
  9. 9. Mentors focus on the person, their career and support for individual growth and maturity whereas the coach is job-oriented and performance oriented. Coaching and mentoring use the same skills and approach, but coaching is short term task-based and mentoring is a longer term relationship.
  10. 10. DIFFERENTIATING BETWEEN MENTORING AND COACHING (CIPD) Mentoring Coaching Ongoing relationship that can last for a long period of time Relationship generally has a set duration Can be more informal and meetings can take place as and when the mentee needs some advice, guidance or support Generally more structured in nature and meetings are scheduled on a regular basis More long-term and takes a broader view of the person Short-term (sometimes time-bounded) and focused on specific development areas/issues Mentor is usually more experienced and qualified than the ‘mentee’. Often a senior person in the organization who can pass on knowledge, experience and open doors to otherwise out-of- reach opportunities Coaching is generally not performed on the basis that the coach needs to have direct experience of their client’s formal occupational role, unless the coaching is specific and skills-focused
  11. 11. DIFFERENTIATING BETWEEN MENTORING AND COACHING (CIPD) Mentoring Coaching Focus is on career and personal development Focus is generally on development/issues at work Agenda is set by the mentee, with the mentor providing support and guidance to prepare them for future roles The agenda is focused on achieving specific, immediate goals Mentoring resolves more around developing the mentee professional Coaching revolves more around specific development areas/issues
  12. 12. THE BENEFITS OF MENTORING
  13. 13. LEARNING ACTIVITY 1 • Group discussion: • By means of a cost-benefit analysis, build a business case (viable, feasible and sustainable) for the merits and value of mentoring – for the mentor; protégé and Northam Platinum.
  14. 14. BEST PRACTICE MENTOR-PROTÉGÉ RELATIONSHIP GUIDELINES • Respect confidentiality. Information shared within the relationship must remain private. • Seek occasional feedback on how the relationship is working, and propose ways that it can be enhanced. • Establish as soon as possible the parameters and expectations of the relationship: How often will you meet? Will you meet over coffee or in an office? Is your partner open to communicating by email or messenger? Is the length of the relationship open-ended, or will it come to an end after, say, two years? • If a third-party inquires about how the relationship is working, always focus on the positive elements.
  15. 15. BEST PRACTICE PROTÉGÉ GUIDELINES • Find out if your department has a formal mentoring program in place, but don’t rely on just this one “assigned” mentor. • Identify in advance what specific types of knowledge and guidance you need, and determine which mentor you will approach for each need or cluster of needs. • Before approaching someone to act as your mentor, undertake informal and tactful inquiries to ascertain who would best match each of your identified needs. Consider not only their areas of expertise, but also whether they will “click” with you in terms of temperament. • Tell your mentors clearly and specifically the areas of development you would like to enhance with them, and the areas that you are working on with other mentors.
  16. 16. BEST PRACTICE PROTÉGÉ GUIDELINES • Be inquisitive. When you meet with your mentor, come with questions prepared in advance, and supplement them with other queries that occur on the spot. • Respect the amount of time your mentors can devote to working with you, and be accommodating of their schedules. • Act promptly when a mentor offers to introduce you to another potential mentor, or suggests that you make contact with someone. • Be ready to accept frank feedback with grace and good humour. If need be, ponder such feedback for a few days before responding to it. • Express your gratitude: a verbal thank you, a card at the end of every term, an occasional note, sharing your appreciation of your mentors with their colleagues and so on
  17. 17. BEST PRACTICE PROTÉGÉ GUIDELINES • What should a mentee/intern do?: ❑ Take increasing responsibility for managing the mentoring relationship and setting the agenda for the meetings ❑ Think through the questions and issues you might wish to raise with your mentor prior to the meeting. These might relate to your job or a programme of study ❑ Mentees, like mentors, need to treat all that is exchanged as confidential Listen carefully to the suggestions the mentor makes and clarify any points you do not fully understand ❑ Don’t make impossible demands of the mentor. The mentor is there to guide you but not to do the work for you ❑ Don’t neglect your line manager! Let them know if you are going off to a mentoring meeting
  18. 18. BEST PRACTICE MENTORING GUIDELINES • Advocate for your protégé by putting him or her in touch with other potential mentoring partners. • Estimate how much time you can actually devote to your protégé, communicate that estimate to him or her, and then follow through on it. • Listen carefully and without judgement when meeting with your protégé. • Give concrete and specific advice, as appropriate.
  19. 19. BEST PRACTICE MENTORING GUIDELINES • Give candid, tactful and constructive feedback on those aspects of your protégé’s development that fall within the parameters that you initially agreed upon. • If your protégé asks you for feedback on an area in which you lack expertise, refer him or her to someone who can better help. • Provide emotional support (“morale boosting”), as appropriate. You should not take on the role of therapist for your protégé, but encouragement, reassurance, and empathy will sometimes be as useful as practical career advice. • Help foster your protégé’s mentoring network by introducing him or her to colleagues beyond your department or university.
  20. 20. CHARACTERISTICS OF EFFECTIVE MENTORS • Integrity • Show genuine interest in their protégés as a person • Share their experiences and insights • Ask open questions to encourage reflection • Listen be an objective sounding board • Offer positive (constructive) feedback • Offer only solicited advice • Celebrate and acknowledge achievements
  21. 21. 10 CRITICAL SUCCESS FACTORS OF MENTORSHIP PROGRAMMES #1: Training #2: Rapport #3: Purpose #4: Balance #5: Mentoring requires specific design
  22. 22. 10 CRITICAL SUCCESS FACTORS OF MENTORSHIP PROGRAMMES • #6: Commitment • #7: Mentoring is about relationships • #8: Mentoring requires time • #9: Mentoring is about development • #10: The immediate manager should only be indirectly involved
  23. 23. INFLUENTIAL ROLE OF THE MENTEE’S SUPERVISOR
  24. 24. THE HARMONIOUS RELATIONSHIP TRIANGLE
  25. 25. LEARNING ACTIVITY 2 • Group discussion: • By referring to the best practice guidelines, critically evaluate the current mentorship programme (for interns) at Northam Platinum. Focus on the following key aspects: ❑ Mentor-protégé/intern relationship (refer to paragraph 4.1) ❑ Role of protégés/interns (refer to paragraphs 4.2 and 4.3) ❑ Role and characteristics of mentors (refer to paragraphs 4.4, 4.5 and 4.6)
  26. 26. LEARNING ACTIVITY 2 • Group discussion: • By referring to the best practice guidelines, critically evaluate the current mentorship programme (for interns) at Northam Platinum. Focus on the following key aspects: ❑ Critical Success Factors of the Mentorship programme (for interns) (refer to paragraph 4.7) ❑ The role and responsibilities of the mentee/intern’s immediate supervisor (refer to paragraph 4.8) • Identify gaps and recommend improvement strategies.
  27. 27. MENTORING PROCESS
  28. 28. 4-PHASE MENTORING PROCESS Phase 4 Closure and Evaluation of the mentoring relationship Phase 3 Facilitating learning, advocacy and professional networking Phase 2 Negotiating and Contracting the mentorship relationship Phase 1 Preparing and Initiation of mentorship
  29. 29. PHASE 1: PREPARING AND INITIATION OF MENTORSHIP • Invest time and careful planning to ensure that the mentor and mentee have an open and trusting space in which to explore the best ways to work together. • In conducting a self-assessment, mentors can explore the following areas: ❑ Exploring their personal motivation to be a mentor ❑ Becoming clear about the expectations and role of a mentor ❑ Determining readiness to become a mentor • Preparation: ❑ Staff ❑ Workplace environment – physical, psychological and emotional ❑ Provision of Information ❑ Documentation
  30. 30. PHASE 1: ASSIGN A MENTOR • A specific boss or mentor who is committed to the intern's learning is essential. • Provide internship programme supervision and mentorship throughout the internship experience. • Most interns are new to the workplace environment, so organizations should offer direction and support to maximize interns’ productivity. • However, it is also important to offer interns autonomy and responsibilities. • The interns will improve their skills and learn to problem solve on their own. • Give the interns meaningful responsibilities and projects with foreseeable deadlines in order to build a sense of task accomplishment and completion. • This will motivate the interns to think outside the box and bring fresh, creative ideas into the organization.
  31. 31. PHASE 2: NEGOTIATING AND CONTRACTING THE MENTORSHIP RELATIONSHIP • Negotiation is the phase of the relationship when mentoring partners reach agreement on: ❑Learning goals ❑Define the content and process of the relationship • The development of the Learning Plan • Conducting the first meeting ❑Confidentiality ❑Boundaries ❑Meetings Management
  32. 32. • “The initiation phase seems to have two components – rapport- building and direction setting” (David Clutterbuck, 2004)
  33. 33. PHASE 3: FACILITATING LEARNING, ADVOCACY AND PROFESSIONAL NETWORKING • Mentors are facilitators of learning and must be resources for learning: ❑Establish a supportive climate conducive to learning ❑Involve learners in planning how and what they will learn ❑Encourage learners to identify and use a variety of resources to accomplish their objectives ❑Help learners implement and evaluate their goals and aspirations for the mentorship • Advocacy, promotion of mentee’s best interests • Creating professional networking opportunities
  34. 34. PHASE 4: CLOSURE AND EVALUATION OF THE MENTORING RELATIONSHIP • The final stage/phase indicates that an evaluation of the relationship (reflection) and process should be carried out. • Mentor and mentee should: ❑ Critically analyse their relationship and how it has developed ❑ Identifying the goals that have been achieved and those that haven’t ❑ They should reflect on the process, identifying areas where they could have done better • A good exit strategy and process can answer the following three questions: ❑ Have we followed a helpful approach for reflecting on learning outcomes and discussed a process for integrating what was learned? ❑ Have we decided on a meaningful way to celebrate the successes within the mentorship? ❑ Have we had a conversation to redefine our relationship and to acknowledge this transition? Has our conversation included a focus on talking about whether it will move from a professional mentoring relationship to colleagues, friendship, to staying in contact, etc. and where to go from here? • Both formative and summative evaluation data are useful for process improvement and reporting results.
  35. 35. PHASE 4: SCOPE OF THE EXIT INTERVIEW • What has the intern learned and how has he/she developed over the internship; • How well he/she has met the objectives set at the beginning of or during the internship; • What have been the proudest achievements; • What projects have been completed or contributed to; • In what ways is the intern better prepared for the job market after completing this internship; • How well in general he/she has performed; • What are his/her main strengths and development areas?
  36. 36. LEARNING ACTIVITY 3 • Group discussion: • Apply the 4-phase Mentoring process within the Northam Platinum working environment. ❑ Phase 1: Preparing and Initiation of mentorship ❑ Phase 2: Negotiating and Contracting the mentorship relationship ❑ Phase 3: Facilitating learning, advocacy and professional networking ❑ Phase 4: Closure and Evaluation of the mentoring relationship
  37. 37. VIDEO CLIP • What is Mentoring? https://www.youtube.co m/watch?v=qoy5MifHuLs • Debriefing: Extract the lessons from this video clip
  38. 38. OBJECTIVE #2: COACHING
  39. 39. TYPES OF COACHING • Personal/Life • Business • Executive • Skills/Task- oriented • Performance- based • Career
  40. 40. THE PURPOSE AND VALUE OF COACHING • Coaching often provides positive feedback about employee contributions. • Regular coaching brings performance issues to an employee's attention when they are minor, and assists the employee to correct them. • The goal of coaching is to work with the employee to solve performance problems and improve the work of the employee, the team and the department. • Coaching offers the vehicle to accelerate employee development towards the achievement of individual and organizational effectiveness. • The core of coaching is building rapport, asking powerful questions and setting goals.
  41. 41. THE DISTINCTIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF COACHING • It consists of one-to-one developmental discussions. • It provides people with feedback on both their strengths and weaknesses. • It is aimed at specific issues/areas. • It is a relatively short-term activity, except in executive coaching, which tends to have a longer timeframe. • It is essentially a non-directive form of development. • It focuses on improving performance and developing/enhancing individual’s skills. • It is used to address a wide range of issues.
  42. 42. THE DISTINCTIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF COACHING • Coaching activities have both organizational and individual goals. • It assumes that the individual is psychologically healthy and does not require a clinical intervention. • It works on the premise that clients are self-aware or can achieve self-awareness. • It is time-bound. • It is a skilled activity • Personal issues may be discussed but the emphasis is on performance on work.
  43. 43. GUIDING PRINCIPLES OF EFFECTIVE COACHING • Strengthen communication between you and the intern • Help the intern attain performance objectives • Increase intern motivation and commitment • Maintain and increase the intern’s self-esteem • Provide support
  44. 44. KEY ELEMENTS OF THE COACHING PROCESS • Coach when you want to focus attention on any specific aspect of the employee's performance. • Observe the employee's work and solicit feedback from others. • When performance is successful, take the time to understand why. • Advise the employee ahead of time on issues to be discussed. • Discuss alternative solutions. • Agree on action to be taken. • Schedule follow-up meeting(s) to measure results. • Recognize successes and improvements. • Document key elements of coaching session.
  45. 45. COACHING QUESTIONS • How is the employee expected to perform? • Does the employee understand these expectations? If not, why not? • Does the employee know what successful results look like? How do you know? • Does the employee know the performance is marginal? How do you know? • Are there obstacles beyond the employee's control? Can you remove them? • Has the employee ever performed this task satisfactorily? • Is the employee willing and able to learn? • Does satisfactory performance result in excessive work being assigned? • Does unsatisfactory performance result in positive consequences such as an undesirable task being reassigned?
  46. 46. BEST PRACTICE COACHING BEHAVIOURS • Focus on behaviour, not personality. • Ask the intern for help in problem identification and resolution. • Set specific goals and maintain communication. • Use reinforcement techniques to shape behaviour. • Use active listening to show you understand.
  47. 47. THE GROW MODEL OF COACHING • As a leader, one of your most important roles is to coach your people to do their best. By doing this, you'll help them make better decisions, solve problems that are holding them back, learn new skills and otherwise progress their careers. • The GROW Model is a simple yet powerful framework for structuring your coaching or mentoring sessions. • Goal • Reality • Obstacles/options • Way Forward
  48. 48. COACHING PATHWAY WHERE THE MAGIC HAPPENS
  49. 49. LEARNING ACTIVITY 4 • Group discussion: • Discuss the merits and utility value of coaching in the Northam Platinum working environment. • Discuss the merits and utility value of adopting the GROW coaching model in the Northam Platinum working environment.
  50. 50. EFFECTIVE AND SUPPORTIVE COACHING • Show confidence in the intern's ability and willingness to solve the problem. • Describe the performance problem. • Determine whether issues exist that limit the intern's ability to perform the task or accomplish the objective. • Discuss potential solutions to the problem or improvement actions to take. • Agree on a written action plan that lists what the employee, the supervisor, and possibly, the HR professional, will do to correct the problem or improve the situation. • Set a date and time for follow-up.
  51. 51. STEPS OF A PERFORMANCE-BASED COACHING SESSION (CONSTRUCTIVE FEEDBACK) • Describe the positive performance result or work habit using specific details. • Solicit your employee's opinion of the same product or behaviour. • Ask the employee to identify elements that contributed to success • Discuss ways in which you and the employee can support continued positive results. • Reinforce for the employee the value of the work and how it fits in with the mission, vision, values and goals of the work unit or department. • Show your appreciation of the positive results and your confidence that the employee will continue to perform satisfactorily. • Document your discussion for the employee's file, as you would all coaching and counseling sessions, noting day, date, time and key elements.
  52. 52. STEPS OF A PERFORMANCE-BASED COACHING SESSION (CAPABILITY) • Describe the issue or problem, referring to specific behaviours • Involve the intern in the problem-solving process • Discuss causes of the problem • Identify and write down possible solutions • Decide on specific actions to be taken by each of you • Agree on a follow-up date • Document key elements of the session
  53. 53. STEPS OF A PERFORMANCE-BASED COACHING SESSION (CONDUCT) • Describe in detail the poor work habit observed • Say why it concerns you. Tie it to the performance standards and goals. • Ask why it occurred and listen non-judgmentally to the explanation. Describe the need for change and ask for ideas. • Discuss each idea and offer your help • Agree on specific actions to be taken and set a specific follow-up date • Document results from the session
  54. 54. CORRECTIVE FEEDBACK (B-E-E-R TECHNIQUE) • BEHAVIOUR • EFFECT • EXPECTATION • RESULT
  55. 55. LEARNING ACTIVITY 5 • Group discussion: • As a manager, describe how you will conduct a session, by referring to the coaching process: ❑Before the coaching session ❑During the coaching session ❑Follow-up discussion
  56. 56. WE HAVE TO TALK: A STEP-BY-STEP CHECKLIST FOR DIFFICULT CONVERSATIONS (Judy Ringer) • Working on Yourself: How to Prepare for the Conversation • Before going into the conversation, ask yourself some questions • 4 Steps to a Successful Outcome ❑ Step #1: Inquiry ❑ Step #2: Acknowledgment ❑ Step #3: Advocacy ❑ Step #4: Problem-Solving • Practice, Practice, Practice • Some additional tips and suggestions • How Do I Begin? • Write a possible opening for your conversation
  57. 57. LEARNING ACTIVITY 6 • Group Discussion: • Review the article and extract the most relevant coaching lessons within the Northam Platinum work environment.
  58. 58. STEPS OF THE SKILLS/TASK-ORIENTED COACHING PROCESS • Step 1: Needs/skills gap analysis • Step 2: Task analysis and explanation of task requirements • Step 3: Demonstrating/Presenting the task • Step 4: Trying out performance • Step 5: Assessment of learner’s competence • Step 6: Self Evaluation
  59. 59. SKILLS/TASK-ORIENTED COACHING PROCESS - ILLUSTRATED
  60. 60. DELEGATION PROCESS
  61. 61. DELEGATION PROCESS FLOW
  62. 62. DECIDING WHAT JOBS TO DELEGATE?
  63. 63. LEARNING ACTIVITY 7 • Group discussion: • Apply the 5-step delegation process within the Northam Platinum working environment to a defined task with the objective of performance/skills improvement of interns.
  64. 64. OBJECTIVE #3: Performance Management
  65. 65. PERFORMANCE EQUATION
  66. 66. PERFORMANCE REVIEW/APPRAISAL • Monitoring, Measuring/Evaluatin g performance against the pre- determined performance goals/objectives and standards and criteria.
  67. 67. PERFORMANCE REVIEW OF INTERNS • Schedule regular performance reviews to provide students with an honest critique so they can measure how they are doing. • A good performance review is an opportunity to help then intern learn and gives them a true measure of if they are meeting an employer's expectations. • Don’t make the mistake of using a performance review to outline everything the intern is doing wrong. • You’ve probably heard of the sandwich approach used when evaluating employees or when giving constructive criticism, so be sure to use this approach when evaluating your intern. • This is a very simple approach where you offer your intern praise on work he or she has accomplished so far, then add some constructive criticism to help them to improve, followed by more praise to let them know they are doing well and are meeting expectations. • Communicate and meet with the interns regularly to review progress and plan ahead. • Communication is the key to building trust between the interns and the employers so that the interns can effectively make progress and accomplish tasks. • Interns are eager to receive affirmation that their mentors are pleased with their work. Mentor and support the interns to maximize the interns’ potential and to maximize the value of the internship program for both the organization and the intern.
  68. 68. CAUSES OF POOR INTERN PERFORMANCE ❑#1: Skills/competence ❑#2: Personal problems ❑#3: Lack of resources ❑#4: Organizational factors
  69. 69. PERFORMANCE MATRIX – APPLYING COTTER’S 4 C’s (2018) CAREER FLUIDITY COUNSELING CAPITALIZING COACHING
  70. 70. PERFORMANCE COUNSELING PROCESS • Preparing for a Performance Counseling session • Conducting a Performance Counseling session (Interview) • Performance Improvement Action Plan • Monitor, review and evaluate the effectiveness of the Performance Improvement Action Plan
  71. 71. LEARNING ACTIVITY 8 • Group discussion: • By referring to the performance equation, by using a 10-point scale (1 = very poor; 5 = average to 10 = excellent), calculate your intern’s performance potential score. Identify gaps and recommend improvement strategies. • Apply performance management principles to the four (4) quadrants of the Performance Matrix to the performance management of interns at Northam Platinum. Describe your performance management strategies in each of the 4 quadrants.
  72. 72. LEARNING ACTIVITY 9 • Group Discussion: • Answer the following 5 questions: • 1. Critically evaluate the proposed approach/procedure recommended by Elaine, the HR Manager, to David in addressing Carol’s poor performance. • 2. What are the likely causes of Carol’s poor performance? Differentiate between capability and conduct-related causes. What is the actual cause of Carol’s poor performance • 3. Critically evaluate the performance counselling session conducted by David. • 4. What are the benefits of the approach adopted and applied by David in managing Carol’s poor performance? • 5. What post-counseling monitoring and evaluation measures has David proposed? Do you believe that these are effective? Motivate your answer.
  73. 73. CONCLUSION • Key points • Summary • Questions • Training evaluation
  74. 74. DR CHARLES COTTER’S CONTACT DETAILS AND SOCIAL MEDIA PRESENCE • Mobile number: +2784 562 9446 • Email address: charlescotterhrdconsultant@gmail.com • YouTube: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCMtDro7N29l3KTat-rtRuGQ • LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/charlescotter/ and https://www.linkedin.com/company/dr-charles-cotter-and-associates • Twitter: @Charles_Cotter • Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/CharlesACotter/ • SlideShare: www.slideshare.net/CharlesCotter

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