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Endocrine DIseases

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Endocrine diseases and its clinical presentation, signs and symptoms

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Endocrine DIseases

  1. 1. Endocrine Diseases Prepared by: Aubrey Vale Sagun Jeanette Ronquillo
  2. 2. Endocrine System Anatomy & Physiology  The endocrine system is a network of glands that produce and release hormones that help control many important body functions  These hormones regulate the body's growth, metabolism and sexual development and function. The hormones are released into the bloodstream and may affect one or several organs throughout the body.
  3. 3. Endocrine System Anatomy & Physiology • Uses chemical messages (hormones) that are released into the blood • Hormones control several major processes • Reproduction • Growth and development • Mobilization of body defenses • Maintenance of much of homeostasis • Regulation of metabolism
  4. 4. Causes of Endocrine Disorders Endocrine disorders are typically grouped into two categories: • Endocrine disease that results when a gland produces too much or too little of an endocrine hormone, called a hormone imbalance. • Endocrine disease due to the development of lesions (such as nodules or tumors) in the endocrine system, which may or may not affect hormone levels.
  5. 5. Location of Major Endocrine Organs
  6. 6. Pituitary Gland • the “master gland” of the body, it produces many hormones that travel throughout the body, directing certain processes or stimulating other glands to produce other hormones. Hormones produced by Pituitary Gland: Anterior Posterior - TSH - ADH - ACTH - Oxytocin - Growth Hormone - Luteinizing Hormone - FSH - Prolactin
  7. 7. Thyroid Gland • The thyroid gland is a butterfly-shaped organ located in the base of your neck. It releases hormones that control metabolism The thyroid gland uses iodine from the foods you eat to make two main hormones: - Triiodothyronine (T3) - Thyroxine (T4)
  8. 8. Adrenal Gland • The adrenal glands are small glands located on top of each kidney. Hormones produced by Adrenal Gland: - Adrenaline / Nor Adernaline (Adrenal M.) - Aldosterone (Adrenal C.) - Cortisol (Adrenal C.)
  9. 9. Parathyroid Gland • Are four tiny glands, located in the neck, that control the body's calcium levels. Hormones produced by Parathyroid Gland: - Parathyroid hormone (PTH)
  10. 10. Pancreas • the pancreas has two main functions: an exocrine function that helps in digestion and an endocrine function that regulates blood sugar. Hormones produced by Ovary: - Insulin - Glucagon
  11. 11. Testes • Are a pair of ovoid glandular organs that are central to the function of the male reproductive system. • The testes are responsible for the production of sperm cells and the male sex hormone testosterone. Hormones produced by Testes: - Testosterone
  12. 12. Ovary • Is a ductless reproductive gland in which the female reproductive cells are produced. Hormones produced by Ovary: - Estrogen - Progesterone - Prostaglandin
  13. 13. Endocrine Diseases
  14. 14. Pituitary Disorders
  15. 15. Posterior Pituitary Diabetes Insipidus  is a condition characterized by large amounts of dilute urine and increased thirst  The amount of urine produced can be nearly 20 liters per day  Complications may include dehydration or seizures Cause: Central diabetes insipidus occurs when the pituitary gland fails to secrete the hormone vasopressin, which regulates bodily fluids. S/Sx • Polydipsia • Polyuria • Colourless urine instead of pale yellow. • Waking frequently through the night to urinate. • Dry skin • Constipation • Weak muscles • Bedwetting
  16. 16. Anterior Pituitary Hypopituitarism (Panhypopituitarism)  Occurs when your pituitary gland in your brain is not releasing one or more of the eight hormones it should be releasing.  Your body can't work properly when important glands, such as your thyroid gland and adrenal gland, don't get the hormones they need from your pituitary gland. Cause: • Children may have a genetic cause of transcription factor deficiency, resulting in trophic hormone hyposecretion • Pituitary tumors, or adenomas, are the most common cause of hypopituitarism in adults, although traumatic brain injury as a cause is being more frequently recognized. S/Sx • Stomach pain, decreased appetite, nausea and vomiting, and constipation. • Excessive thirst and urination. • Fatigue and/or weakness. • Anemia, meaning weakness from not having enough red blood cells. • Headache and dizziness. • Sensitivity to cold. • Weight loss or weight gain.
  17. 17. Pituitary Adenoma PITUITRAY TUMORS  benign, slow-growing tumors that arise from cells in the pituitary gland. Cause: The cause of uncontrolled cell growth in the pituitary gland, which creates a tumor, remains unknown. A small percentage of pituitary tumor cases runs in families, but most have no apparent hereditary factor. Still, scientists suspect that genetic alterations play an important role in how pituitary tumors develop. S/Sx • Nausea and vomiting • Weakness • Feeling cold • Less frequent or no menstrual periods • Sexual dysfunction • Increased amount of urine • Unintended weight loss or gain
  18. 18. Prolactinoma (or Hyperprolactinemia)  is a benign noncancerous tumor of the pituitary gland that produces a hormone called prolactin. Cause: Although research continues to find causes of disordered cell growth, the sources of many pituitary tumors, including prolactinomas, still remain unknown. Most pituitary tumors appear sporadically, meaning that no one else in the family has had a pituitary tumor. S/Sx IN FEMALE • Oligomenorrhea) or Amenorrhea • Galactorrhea when not pregnant or breast-feeding • Painful intercourse due to vaginal dryness • Acne and excessive body and facial hair growth (hirsutism) IN MALE • Erectile dysfunction • Decreased body and facial hair • Gynecomastia
  19. 19. Acromegaly  is a hormonal disorder that develops when your pituitary gland produces too much growth hormone during adulthood. Cause: In adults, a tumor is the most common cause of too much GH production Most cases of acromegaly are caused by a noncancerous (benign) tumor (adenoma) of the pituitary gland. The tumor secretes excessive amounts of growth hormone S/Sx • enlarged bones in the face, feet, and hands • excessive hair growth in women • an enlarged jaw or tongue • a prominent brow • excessive growth spurts, which are more common in people who’ve had abnormal growth before adolescence • weight gain • swollen and painful joints that limit movement • spaces between the teeth
  20. 20. Dwarfism  is short stature that results from a genetic or medical condition. Dwarfism is generally defined as an adult height of 4 feet 10 inches (147 centimeters) or less. Cause: Causes of proportionate dwarfism include metabolic and hormonal disorders such as growth hormone deficiency S/Sx • A very short trunk. • A short neck. • Shortened arms and legs. • Average-size hands and feet. • Broad, rounded chest. • Slightly flattened cheekbones. • Opening in the roof of the mouth (cleft palate) • Hip deformities that result in thighbones turning inward.
  21. 21. Cushing Disease  is a serious condition of an excess of the steroid hormone cortisol in the blood level caused by a pituitary tumor secreting adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). Cause: In some people, the cause of Cushing syndrome is excess cortisol secretion that doesn't depend on stimulation from ACTH and is associated with disorders of the adrenal glands. The most common of these disorders is a noncancerous tumor of the adrenal cortex, called an adrenal adenoma. S/Sx • weight gain. • obesity. • fatty deposits, especially in the midsection, the face (causing a round, moon-shaped face), and between the shoulders and the upper back (causing a buffalo hump) • purple stretch marks on the breasts, arms, abdomen, and thighs. • thinning skin that bruises easily. • glucose intolerance • Cognitive dysfunction
  22. 22. Thyroid Gland Diseases
  23. 23. Goiter  Is a swelling in the neck resulting from an enlarged thyroid gland.A goitre is associated with a thyroid that is not functioning properly. Cause: Iodine deficiency is the major cause of goiter worldwide, but this is rarely a cause in more economically developed countries where iodine is routinely added to salt. Hyperthyroidism, or an overactive thyroid gland, is another cause of goiter. Too much thyroid hormone is produced. S/Sx • palpitations • Hyperactivity • heat hypersensitivity • fatigue • increased appetite • hair loss • weight loss
  24. 24. Hyperthyroidism  is a condition in which your thyroid gland produces too much of the hormone thyroxine.  It can accelerate your body's metabolism significantly, causing sudden weight loss, a rapid or irregular heartbeat, sweating, and nervousness or irritability. Cause: A number of conditions, including Graves' disease, toxic adenoma, Plummer's disease (toxic multinodular goiter) and thyroiditis, can cause hyperthyroidism. S/Sx • Tremor — usually a fine trembling in your hands and fingers • Sweating • Increased sensitivity to heat • Changes in bowel patterns • An enlarged thyroid gland (goiter), which may appear as a swelling at the base of your neck • Fatigue, muscle weakness • Skin thinning • Fine, brittle hair
  25. 25. Graves-Basedow disease  also known as toxic diffuse goiter, is an autoimmune disease that affects the thyroid. It frequently results in and is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism. Cause: Graves' disease is caused by a malfunction in the body's disease- fighting immune system, although the exact reason why this happens is still unknown. S/Sx • Bulging eyes • Gritty sensation in the eyes • Pressure or pain in the eyes • Puffy or retracted eyelids • Reddened or inflamed eyes • Light sensitivity • Double vision • Vision loss
  26. 26. Toxic-Multinodular Goiter  represents a spectrum of disease ranging from a single hyperfunctioning nodule (toxic adenoma) within a multinodular thyroid to a gland with multiple areas of hyperfunction. Cause: In most cases, the cause of a multinodular goiter is unknown. In addition, iodine deficiency can cause multinodular goiters, but this is very rare S/Sx • difficulty breathing or swallowing • feeling like you have food stuck in your throat • having a “full” feeling in your neck
  27. 27. Hypothyroidism  also called underactive thyroid or low thyroid, is a disorder of the endocrine system in which the thyroid gland does not produce enough thyroid hormone. Cause: The most common cause of hypothyroidism is Hashimoto's thyroiditis (or autoimmune hypothyroidism), a form of thyroid inflammation caused by your own immune system. Hypothyroidism results when the thyroid gland fails to produce enough hormones. S/Sx • Puffy face • Hoarseness • Muscle weakness • Elevated blood cholesterol level • Muscle aches, tenderness and stiffness • Pain, stiffness or swelling in your joints • Heavier than normal or irregular menstrual periods • Thinning hair • Slowed heart rate
  28. 28. Thyroid Cancer  is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the thyroid gland. Cause: Thyroid cancer develops when cells genetically mutate or change. The abnormal cells begin multiplying in your thyroid and, once there are enough of them, they form a tumor. S/Sx • Neck, throat pain • Swollen lymph nodes or enlarged thyroid gland • Lump in your neck • Difficulty swallowing • Vocal changes, hoarseness • Cough
  29. 29. Adrenal Gland Disorders
  30. 30. Addison’s Disease  also known as primary adrenal insufficiency  a disease in which the adrenal glands do not produce sufficient glucocorticoids Cause: A common cause is an autoimmune disease that causes the immune system to attack healthy tissues. In the case of Addison’s disease, the immune system turns against the adrenal gland(s). S/Sx • Extreme fatigue. • Weight loss and decreased appetite. • Hyperpigmentation • Low blood pressure, even fainting. • Salt craving. • Low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) • Nausea, diarrhea or vomiting. • Abdominal pain.
  31. 31. Adrenal crisis  a disease in which the adrenal glands do not produce sufficient glucocorticoids Cause: Body’s inability to produce a sufficient amount of cortisol. S/Sx • extreme weakness • mental confusion • dizziness • nausea or abdominal pain • vomiting • fever • a sudden pain in the lower back or legs • a loss of appetite • extremely low blood pressure
  32. 32. Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia  is a group of inherited genetic disorders that affect the adrenal glands Cause: mutations in genes that code for enzymes involved in making steroid hormones in the adrenal glands. The most common enzyme defect, 21-hydroxylase deficiency, leads to excess amounts of male hormones being produced by the adrenal glands. S/Sx • Due to inadequate mineralocorticoids:  vomiting due to salt-wasting leading to dehydration and death • Due to excess androgens:  functional and average sized penis in cases involving extreme virilization (but no sperm)  ambiguous genitalia  early pubic hair and rapid growth in childhood  precocious puberty or failure of puberty to occur (sexual infantilism: absent or delayed puberty)  excessive facial hair, virilization, and/or menstrual irregularity in adolescence • Due to insufficient androgens and estrogens:  Undervirilization in XY males, which can result in apparently female external genitalia  In females, hypogonadism can cause sexual infantilism or abnormal pubertal development, infertility, and other reproductive system abnormalities
  33. 33. Hyperaldosteronism  a condition in which aldosterone is over-produced Cause: Common conditions causing the overproduction of aldosterone include: A benign growth in an adrenal gland (aldosterone-producing adenoma) — a condition also known as Conn's syndrome. Overactivity of both adrenal glands (idiopathic hyperaldosteronism) S/Sx It can be asymptomatic, but these symptoms may be present: • Fatigue • Headache • High blood pressure • Hypokalemia • Hypernatraemia • Hypomagnesemia • Intermittent or temporary paralysis • Muscle spasms • Muscle weakness • Polyuria • Polydipsia
  34. 34. Hypoaldosteronism  a condition in which aldosterone is under-produced Cause: There are several causes for this condition, including adrenal insufficiency, congenital adrenal hyperplasia, and some medications such as certain diuretics, NSAIDs, and ACE inhibitors. S/Sx • Anorexia • Asthenia • weight loss • Hyperpigmentation • postural hypotension
  35. 35. Diseases of Adrenal Medulla
  36. 36. Pheochromocytoma  Is a rare tumor of adrenal gland tissue. It results in the release of too much epinephrine and norepinephrine, hormones that control heart rate, metabolism, and blood pressure. Cause: Researchers don't know what causes a pheochromocytoma. The tumor develops in specialized cells, called chromaffin cells, situated in the center of an adrenal gland. These cells release certain hormones, primarily adrenaline (epinephrine) and noradrenaline (norepinephrine) S/Sx • The signs and symptoms of a pheochromocytoma are those of sympathetic nervous system hyperactivity, including: • Skin sensations • Flank pain • Elevated heart rate • Elevated blood pressure, Palpitations • Anxiety often resembling that of a panic attack • Diaphoresis • Headaches – most common symptom • Pallor • Weight loss
  37. 37. Paraganglioma  is a rare neuroendocrine neoplasm that may develop at various body sites (including the head, neck, thorax and abdomen)  A paraganglioma is a type of tumour that arises from the peripheral nervous system Cause: It is unclear why paragangliomas occur. However, in some cases, defects in certain genes increase the chance that someone may develop a paraganglioma. S/Sx • Most paragangliomas are either asymptomatic or present as a painless mass.
  38. 38. Parathyroid Disorders
  39. 39. Hyperparathyroidsim  is an excess of parathyroid hormone in the bloodstream due to overactivity of one or more of the body's four parathyroid glands. These glands are about the size of a grain of rice and are located in your neck. Cause: Hyperparathyroidism is caused by factors that increase the production of parathyroid hormone. S/Sx • Fragile bones that easily fracture (osteoporosis) • Kidney stones • Excessive urination • Abdominal pain • Tiring easily or weakness • Depression or forgetfulness • Bone and joint pain • Frequent complaints of illness with no apparent cause • Nausea, vomiting or loss of appetite
  40. 40. Hypercalcaemia  A condition in which the calcium level in your blood is above normal Cause: Commonly results from overactive parathyroid glands S/Sx • Excessive thirst • Frequent urination • Stomach upset • Nausea • Vomiting • Weakening of bones • Muscle weakness • Lethargy • fatigue
  41. 41. Hypocalcaemia  is an electrolyte imbalance and is indicated by a low level of calcium in the blood S/Sx • confusion or memory loss. • muscle spasms. • numbness and tingling in the hands, feet, and face. • depression. • hallucinations. • muscle cramps. • weak and brittle nails. • easy fracturing of the bones
  42. 42. Hypoparathyroidsim  is the state of decreased secretion or activity of parathyroid hormone (PTH). This leads to decreased blood levels of calcium (hypocalcemia) and increased levels of blood phosphorus (hyperphosphatemia). Cause: Hypoparathyroidism occurs when your parathyroid glands don't secrete enough parathyroid hormone S/Sx • Tingling or burning (paresthesia) in your fingertips, toes and lips. • Muscle aches or cramps in your legs, feet, abdomen or face. • Twitching or spasms of your muscles, particularly around your mouth, but also in your hands, arms and throat. • Fatigue or weakness • Patchy hair loss • Dry, coarse skin • Brittle nails • Depression or anxiety
  43. 43. Parathyroid Carcinoma  Parathyroid carcinoma is an extremely rare but aggressive and life-threatening form of primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT).  Is a rare malignant neoplasm resulting in parathyroid adenoma to carcinoma progression. Cause: Is a rare cause of primary hyperparathyroidism, which is usually caused by a parathyroid adenoma and occasionally by primary parathyroid hyperplasia. S/Sx • Most patients experience moderate to severe hypercalcemia and high parathyroid hormone levels. A large mass in the neck is often seen, and renal and bone abnormalities are common
  44. 44. Tetany  These cramplike spasms of your hands and fingers can be prolonged and painful. Tetany might also include muscle discomfort and twitches or spasms of the muscles of your face, throat or arms.  When these spasms occur in your throat, they can interfere with breathing, creating a possible emergency. Cause: Hypocalcemia is the primary cause of tetany The usual cause of tetany is lack of calcium. An excess of phosphate (high phosphate-to- calcium ratio) can also trigger the spasms underfunction of the parathyroid gland can lead to tetany. S/Sx • Numbness and tingling sensations in the perioral area or in the fingers and toes. • Muscle cramps, particularly in the back and lower extremities; may progress to carpopedal spasm (ie, tetany) • Wheezing; may develop from bronchospasm. • Dysphagia.
  45. 45. Metabolic Bone Diseases
  46. 46. Osteoporosis  is a disease where increased bone weakness increases the risk of a broken bone.[3] It is the most common reason for a broken bone among the elderly.  Osteoporosis may be due to lower than normal maximum bone mass and greater than normal bone loss. Bone loss increases after menopause due to lower levels of estrogen. Cause: Most osteoporosis has no specific cause (primary osteoporosis) but there are a number of reasons why some people are more likely to have osteoporosis than others. • high levels of parathyroid hormone (primary hyperparathyroidism) • overactive thyroid (hyperthyroidism) • excess cortisol production (Cushing's syndrome) • low levels of testosterone. S/Sx • Osteoporosis has no symptoms (asymptomatic) until fractures occur. Any fracture that occurs following minor injury should raise suspicion of underlying osteoporosis.
  47. 47. Osteitis deformans (Paget’s disease)  Paget’s disease is a common, chronic bone disorder  In Paget’s disease, the internal structure of bones is disrupted, resulting in possible deformity and weakening. It is most commonly found in the spine, thigh, skull, pelvis and sternum bones. Cause: There is no known cause for the development of Paget's Disease. As of late, studies have shown that some genes re linked with this disease to include the Sequestrosome-1 gene on chromosome 5. A viral infection is also a causative factor for development of Paget's disease in people who have these genes. S/Sx • The majority of patients have no symptoms and many individuals are unaware that they have the disease until it is discovered when the patient is being examined for other reasons. • Pain arising from the affected bone is the commonest symptom and bones that support body weight may deform into a bowed or bent shape.
  48. 48. Rickets  Is the softening and weakening of bones in children, usually because of an extreme and prolonged vitamin D deficiency Cause: Rickets can occur if your child’s body doesn’t get enough vitamin D or if his/her body has problems using vitamin D properly S/Sx • Delayed growth • Pain in the spine, pelvis and legs • Muscle weakness • Bowed legs • Thickened wrist and ankles • Breastbone projection
  49. 49. Osteomalacia  Refers to softening of your bones, often caused by a Vitamin D deficiency Soft bones are more likely to bow and fracture than harder and healthy bones Cause: Osteomalacia can occur if don’t get enough calcium and phosphate in your diet or if your body doesn’t absorb them properly S/Sx • In the early stages, you may have no osteomalacia symptoms • As osteomalacia worsens, you may experience bone pain and muscle weakness • The dull, aching pain associated with osteomalacia most commonly affects the lower back, pelvis, hips, legs and ribs
  50. 50. Osteitis fibrosa cystica (von Recklinghausen's disease)  is a skeletal disorder resulting in a loss of bone mass, a weakening of the bones as their calcified supporting structures are replaced with fibrous tissue (peritrabecular fibrosis), and the formation of cyst-like brown tumors in and around the bone. Cause: Osteitis fibrosa cystica is the result of unchecked hyperparathyroidism, or the overactivity of the parathyroid glands, which results in an overproduction of parathyroid hormone (PTH). PTH causes the release of calcium from the bones into the blood, and the reabsorption of calcium in the kidney. Thus, excess PTH in hyperparathyroidism causes elevated blood calcium levels, or hypercalcemia.There are four major causes of primary hyperparathyroidism that result in OFC: S/Sx • The major symptoms of OFC are bone pain or tenderness, bone fractures, and skeletal deformities such as bowing of the bones. The underlying hyperparathyroidism may cause kidney stones, nausea, constipation, fatigue and weakness. X-rays may indicate thin bones, fractures, bowing, and cysts. Fractures are most commonly localized in the arms, legs, or spine
  51. 51. Renal osteodystrophy  Is a bone disease that occurs when your kidneys fail to maintain proper levels of calcium and phosphorus in the blood. It's common in people with kidney disease and affects most dialysis patients. Cause: Renal osteodystrophy has been classically described to be the result of hyperparathyroidism secondary to hyperphosphatemia combined with hypocalcemia, both of which are due to decreased excretion of phosphate by the damaged kidney. S/Sx • Bone pain • Joint pain • Bone deformation • Bone fracture
  52. 52. Diabetes Mellitus
  53. 53. Diabetes Type 1  also known as type 1 diabetes, is a form of diabetes mellitus in which not enough insulin is produced by the pancreas This results in high blood sugar levels in the body Cause: The exact cause of type 1 diabetes is unkown Scientists do know that in people with type 1 diabetes, the body’s own immune system mistakenly destroys the insulin-producing cells in the pancreas. S/Sx • Increased thirst • Frequent urination • Extreme hunger • Weight loss • Fatigue • Irritability or unusual behavior • Blurred vision
  54. 54. Diabetes Type 2  Is a chronic condition in which the body fails to properly use and store glucose Cause: Diabetes results when the body doesn't produce enough insulin and/or is unable to use insulin properly (this is also referred to as 'insulin resistance') S/Sx • Increased thirst • Frequent urination • Extreme hunger • Weight loss • Fatigue • Slow-healing sores or frequent infections • Blurred vision • Areas of darkened skin
  55. 55. Gestational Diabetes  Develops during pregnancy  Affects how the cells use sugar. It causes high blood sugar that can affect your pregnancy and your baby’s health Cause: Researchers don’t know why some women develop gestational diabetes S/Sx • For most women, gestational diabetes doesn’t cause noticeable signs or symptoms
  56. 56. Hypoglycemia - Condition characterized by an abnormally low level of blood sugar S/Sx: -Heart palipitations -Fatigue -Pale skin -Shakiness -Anxiety -Hunger -Irritability -Tingling sensation around the mouth Insulinoma - is a tumor of the pancreas that is derived from beta cells and secretes insulin. It is a rare form of a neuroendocrine tumor. Most insulinomas are benign in that they grow exclusively at their origin within the pancreas S/Sx: - convulsions or seizures - a rapid heart rate (greater than) (95 beats per minute ) - difficulty concentrating - loss of consciousness or coma - abdominal pain - back pain - diarrhea - jaundice, or yellowing of the skin and eyes Glucagonoma - Glucagonoma is a rare tumor involving the pancreas. S/Sx: - high blood sugar - excessive thirst and hunger due to high blood sugar - frequently waking up at night to urinate - diarrhea - a skin rash, or dermatitis, on the face, belly, buttocks, and feet that’s often crusty or filled with pus - unintentional weight loss - blood clots in the legs, which is also called deep vein thrombosis
  57. 57. Disease of Testes
  58. 58. Orchitis  Inflammation of one or both testicles Cause: It is usually caused by a bacterial infection or by the mumps virus S/Sx • tenderness in the scrotum • painful urination • painful ejaculation • a swollen scrotum • blood in the semen • abnormal discharge • an enlarged prostate • swollen lymph nodes in the groin • a fever
  59. 59. Testicular Torsion  occurs when a testicle rotates, twisting the spermatic cord that brings blood to the scrotum. The reduced blood flow causes sudden and often severe pain and swelling. Cause: It's not clear why testicular torsion occurs. Most males who get testicular torsion have an inherited trait that allows the testicle to rotate freely inside the scrotum. This inherited condition often affects both testicles. But not every male with the trait will have testicular torsion. S/Sx • Sudden, severe pain in the scrotum the loose bag of skin under your penis that contains the testicles • Swelling of the scrotum • Abdominal pain • Nausea and vomiting • A testicle that's positioned higher than normal or at an unusual angle • Frequent urination • Fever
  60. 60. Testicular Microtlihiasis  is an uncommon condition — diagnosed during a testicular ultrasound — in which small clusters of calcium form in the testicles. Cause: The cause is unknown, but this condition has been associated with testicular cancer in a small group of individuals, cryptorchidism, mumps, infertility and intraepithelial germ cell neoplasia. S/Sx • It is an asymptomatic, non-progressive disease.
  61. 61. Hydrocele Testis  Is a type of swelling in the scrotum that occurs when fluid collects in the thin sheath surrounding a testicle. Hydrocele is common in newborns and usually disappears without treatment by age 1. Older boys and adult men can develop a hydrocele due to inflammation or injury within the scrotum Cause: Occurs when fluid collects in the thin sheath surrounding a testicle. S/Sx • Usually, the only indication of a hydrocele is a painless swelling of one or both testicles. • Adult men with a hydrocele might experience discomfort from the heaviness of a swollen scrotum. Pain generally increases with the size of the inflammation. Sometimes, the swollen area might be smaller in the morning and larger later in the day.
  62. 62. Orchialgia  is long-term pain of the testes. It is considered chronic if it has persisted for more than 3 months. Cause: May be caused by injury, infection, surgery, cancer or testicular torsion and is a possible complication after vasectomy. S/Sx • The complaint is of a squeezing deep ache in the testis like the day after you got kicked there, often bilateral or alternating from one side to the other, intermittent, and, most commonly, associated with lower back pain. • Sometimes it feels like the testicle is pinched in the crotch of the underwear but trouser readjustment does not help. There may also be pain in the inguinal area but no nausea or other symptoms. • Back pain may be concurrent or absent and some patients have a long history of low back pain.
  63. 63. Epididymitis  is infection or less frequently, inflammation of the epididymis Cause: The majority of men that develop epididymitis develop it because of a bacterial infection. S/Sx • A swollen, red or warm scrotum • Testicle pain and tenderness, usually on one side, that usually comes on gradually • Painful urination or an urgent or frequent need to urinate • Discharge from the penis • Pain or discomfort in the lower abdomen or pelvic area • Blood in the semen • Less commonly, fever
  64. 64. Hypogonadism  Is a condition that occurs when the testicles (also called gonads) do not produce enough testosterone. Cause: Primary hypogonadism occurs when there is a problem or abnormality in the testicles themselves. Secondary hypogonadism occurs when there is a problem with the pituitary gland in the brain, which sends chemical messages to the testicles to produce testosterone. S/Sx • Erectile dysfunction (the inability to achieve or maintain an erection) • Infertility • Decreased sex drive • Decrease in beard and growth of body hair • Decrease in size or firmness of the testicles • Decrease in muscle mass and increase in body fat • Lose of bone mass (osteoporosis) • Enlarged male breast tissue
  65. 65. Disease of Ovaries
  66. 66. Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome  is a hormonal disorder common among women of reproductive age. Women with PCOS may have infrequent or prolonged menstrual periods or excess male hormone (androgen) levels. The ovaries may develop numerous small collections of fluid (follicles) and fail to regularly release eggs.  Cause: The exact cause of PCOS is unknown. S/Sx • Irregular periods. Infrequent, irregular or prolonged menstrual cycles are the most common sign of PCOS. For example, you might have fewer than nine periods a year, more than 35 days between periods and abnormally heavy periods. • Excess androgen. Elevated levels of male hormone may result in physical signs, such as excess facial and body hair (hirsutism), and occasionally severe acne and male-pattern baldness. • Polycystic ovaries. Your ovaries might be enlarged and contain follicles that surround the eggs. As a result, the ovaries might fail to function regularly.
  67. 67. Ovarian Cyst  Ovarian cysts are fluid-filled sacs that affect women of all ages, though mostly women of child- bearing age. Cysts are very common—and they can range in size from a pea to a grapefruit. The majority of cysts are harmless Cause: Most ovarian cysts develop as a result of your menstrual cycle (functional cysts). S/Sx • abdominal bloating or swelling • painful bowel movements • pelvic pain before or during the menstrual cycle • painful intercourse • pain in the lower back or thighs • breast tenderness • nausea and vomiting
  68. 68. Amenorrhea  A menstrual condition characterized by absent menstrual periods for more than three monthly menstrual cycles. Amenorrhea may be classified as primary or secondary. Cause: Hormonal imbalance or side effect of medication or a sign of medical problem. S/Sx • Milky nipple discharge. • Hair loss. • Headache. • Vision changes. • Excess facial hair. • Pelvic pain. • Acne.
  69. 69. Hirsuitism  This condition is defined by excessive hairiness in children and women in areas where terminal hair does not normally grow. Cause: Excessive production of androgen S/Sx • Deepening voice. • Balding. • Acne. • Decreased breast size. • Increased muscle mass. • Enlargement of the clitoris.
  70. 70. Premature Ovarian Failure  is also known as ovarian hypofunction. It relates to the reduced function of the ovaries including decreased production of hormones in the female reproduction system. Cause: Ovarian hypofunction can be caused by genetic endocrine disorders and factors such as chromosome abnormalities, or it may occur with certain autoimmune disorders that disrupt normal ovarian function. Additionally, women undergoing chemotherapy or radiation therapy for cancer treatment may experience premature ovarian failure. S/Sx • Irregular or skipped periods (amenorrhea) • Difficulty conceiving. • Hot flashes. • Night sweats. • Vaginal dryness. • Irritability or difficulty concentrating. • Decreased sexual desire.
  71. 71. Hypoestrogeninsm  refers to a lower than normal level of estrogen, the primary sex hormone in women. In general, lower levels of estrogen may cause differences in the breasts, genitals, urinary tract, and skin. Cause: Such conditions as hypothalamic-pituitary insufficiency, ovarian failure and iatrogenic treatment (surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy) can cause hypoestrogenism. S/Sx • Higher chances of urinary tract infections (UTIs), primarily due to the thinning of the urethra. • Irregular periods • Painful sex due to lack of vaginal lubrication, a condition called ‘vaginal dryness’ • Hot flashes • Breast softness • Headaches or migraines
  72. 72. Kallman Syndrome  is a genetic disorder that prevents a person from starting or fully completing puberty. Kallmann syndrome is a form of a group of conditions termed hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Cause: The underlying cause is a failure in the correct production or activity of gonadotropin-releasing hormone by the hypothalamus. This results in low levels of the sex hormones testosterone in males or oestrogen and progesterone in females. S/Sx • Failure to start or fully complete puberty.Irregular periods • Primary amenorrhoeaHot flashes • Anosmia • Poor balance or coordination due to cerebral ataxia. • Eye defects such as coloboma or ptosis. • Manual synkinesis (mirror movements of hands) • Missing teeth (hypodontia)
  73. 73. Ovarian Cancer  is a disease that affects women. In this form of cancer, certain cells in the ovary become abnormal and multiply uncontrollably to form a tumor Cause: Cancers occur when a buildup of mutations in critical genes—those that control cell growth and division or repair damaged DNA—allow cells to grow and divide uncontrollably to form a tumor. Most cases of ovarian cancer are sporadic S/Sx • pain in the pelvis, the lower abdomen, or the lower part of the body • back pain • indigestion or heartburn • feeling full rapidly when eating • more frequent and urgent urination • pain during sexual intercourse • changes in bowel habits, such as constipation

Editor's Notes

  • Is the decreased (hypo) secretion of one or more of the eight hormones normally produced by the pituitary gland
    If there is decreased secretion of one specific pituitary hormone, the condition is known as selective hypopituitarism.
    If there is decreased secretion of most or all pituitary hormones, the term panhypopituitarism (pan meaning "all") is used
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