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Presentation on pigeon pea

Presentation on pigeon pea

  1. 1. PRESENTATION ON Pigeon pea – Cajanus cajan AGRN-723 Agronomy of Major Cereals and Pulses
  2. 2. Classification and Introduction Kingdom : Plantae Order : Fabales Family : Fabaceae Genus : Cajanus Species : cajan Red gram is an important pulse crop in India. It is also known as Pigeonpea, congo pea Arhar and Tur. Red gram is mainly cultivated and consumed in developing countries of the world. This crop is widely grown in India. India is the largest producer and consumer of Red gram in the world. The pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan L.) is a perennial legume from the family fabaceae. Its seed have become a common food grain in Asia, Africa and America. The centre of origin of pigeon pea is eastern part of India.
  3. 3. Pigeon peas are very drought-resistant, so can be grown in areas with less than 650 mm annual rainfall. Pigeon peas are both a food crop (dried peas, flour, or green vegetable peas) and a forage/cover crop. In combination with cereals, pigeon peas make a well-balanced human food. World production of pigeon peas is estimated at 4.98 million tons. About 77% of this is grown in India. Nutritional Value Protein : 22.3% Calcium : 73 mg/ 100g Fat : 1.7% Phosphorous : 304 mg/ 100g Minerals : 3.5% Iron : 5.8mg/ 100g Fiber : 1.5% Carbohydrate : 57.6% Source : https://wikipedia.org
  4. 4. •Pigeon pea contains vitamins and minerals such as thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B-6, vitamin A along with calcium, iron, magnesium, phosphorous, potassium zinc and sodium. •Pigeon peas are also helpful in liver protection if we consume on regular basis. Source : https://agropedia.org
  5. 5. Uses : In India, split pigeon peas, called Togari bele in Kannada, Tuvara Paripp in Malayalam, toor dal in Urdu, Kandhi pappu in Telugu and Tuvaram paruppu in Tamil are one of the most popular pulses, being an important source of protein in a mostly vegetarian diet. In regions where it grows, fresh young pods are eaten as a vegetable in dishes such as sambar. In Ethiopia, not only the pods, but also the young shoots and leaves are cooked and eaten. Pigeon peas are in some areas an important crop for green manure, providing up to 90 kg nitrogen per hectare. The woody stems of pigeon peas can also be used as firewood, fencing and thatch. Seeds of the pigeon pea
  6. 6. Uttar Pradesh: Recommended Varieties UPAS-120 - It is an extra early maturing (120-125 days) selection evolved at Pantnagar. Plants are medium tall, open and of semi-spreading type. Standard color is yellow with red streaks on it. The average yield is 16-20 quintals per hectare. It escapes frost due to its extra maturity duration. It is most suitable for double cropping with wheat in the northern parts of the country. It is susceptible to sterility mosaic disease. It is mainly grown in western Uttar Pradesh, Haryana Punjab, Delhi, Rajasthan. This variety is crossed by selection from germplasm (P 4758). . Pusa-855- Mutant of T 21.It is an improved early variety of pigeon pea released during 1993 for growing in Punjab, Haryana, Western Uttar Pradesh and North Western Rajasthan.. The variety matures in 140-150 days. The variety has been found moderately resistant to disease like : o sterility mosaic virus, o phytophthora stem blight and o wilt Yield potential of the variety is 22-25 quintals per hectare.
  7. 7. Type-17 - It is a selection and a late maturing type (270 days). Plants are tall and semi spreading. Seeds are medium sized (74 g per 1000 seeds) and brown in color. It is moderately resistant to wilt. The grains have very good palatability. An average crop yields 16-20 quintals per hectare. It is suitable for the plains of Uttar Pradesh. Type-7 - It is a late maturing selection (260-270 days) with tall, erect and robust plants. Plants are erect and compact making it ideal for mixed cropping. Seeds are very bold (120 g per 1000 seeds) and brown in color. The crop yields 15-20 quintals per hectare. It is suitable for plains of Uttar Pradesh, particularly for mixed cropping with Jowar, Bajra or other kahrif legumes. Type-21 - It is an early maturing variety taking 160-165 days to mature. The plants are tall, indeterminate and semi spreading type. The fruiting is well distributed in the branches and therefore, the incidence of pod borer is low. The grains are small and light brown in color. The yield potential of grain per hectare is 16-20 quintals. It is suitable for cultivation in north western and central parts of the country. Seeds are medium bold (72 g per 1000 seeds).
  8. 8. Azad - This variety matures in 260-270 days. It is suitable for growing in plains of Uttar Pradesh. Wheat can be planted timely in the same field after harvest of this variety. Yield potential is 18-20 quintals per hectare. Narendra Arhar-1 - This variety matures in 260-270 days. It is suitable for growing in Uttar Pradesh. The variety is resistant to:o sterility mosaic disease and o wiltYield potential is 25-30 quintals per hectare. Amar - This variety matures in 260-270 days. It is suitable for growing in whole Uttar Pradesh. This variety is resistant to o sterility mosaic disease and o wilt.Yield potential is 25-30 quintals per hectare. Source : www.agropedia.ac.in
  9. 9. Climatic and Soil Requirements Arhar needs moist and warm weather during germination (30-35 ̊ C), slightly lower temperature during active vegetative growth (20-25 ̊ C) but about (15-18 ̊ C) during flowering and pod setting, however, at maturity it needs higher temperature of around (35-40 ̊ C). Water logging, heavy rains, frost are very harmful for the crop. The crop may be grown on any type of soil but sandy loam to clayey loam soils to be best. Soil must be very deep, well drained and free from soluble salts in them. The pH range is 4.5-8.4 most ideal for this crop. Source : www.indiaagronet.com
  10. 10. LAND PREPARATION Red gram or toor dal being a deep rooted crop respond well to proper tilth. So land is prepared by at least one ploughing during the dry season followed by 2 or 3 harrowing and disc ploughing. 1. Organic manure may be applied 2-4 week before sowing. 2. Soil should be well leveled so that water stagnation does not take place. 3. Weeds should be properly removed. Source : www.agrifarming.in
  11. 11. Spacing of Plants in Toor Dal Farming Long duration varieties of pigeon pea which are tall, spreading and occupy the field for about 250-270 days are planted at wider row spacing of 90-120 cm and about 30 cm between the plants particularly under rain fed conditions. Early maturing varieties under irrigated conditions are planted at a row spacing of 50-75 cm and plant to plant spacing of 15-20 cm. In case of April planted pigeon pea, a row spacing of 90-120 cm is recommended as the vegetative growth is much higher than June planted pigeon pea. If it is a Black soil a spacing of 90 x 20 cm is normally recommended. In red soils 60 x 20 cm spacing usually followed. Source : www.agrifarming.in
  12. 12. Benifits/Advantages of Toor Dal Farming are: 1. Survive in poor soil conditions and tolerant of dry weather 2. Nutritious and high-protein pulse crop 3. Leaves can be used for animal feed or fodder 4. The fast-growing plants make good shade for other crops, e. g. vegetables, herbs, vanilla 5. Perennial for up to 5 years 6. Woody parts can be used for firewood 7. Water and nutrients from deep in the soil can be caught by its deep taproot 8. Plants can be used along contour barriers for erosion control 9. Helps in agro-ecology, performance of Pigeon Pea as an intercrop is remarkable and even after the harvesting of the intercrops it continues protecting the soil. Source : www.agrifarming.in
  13. 13. Seed Treatment in Toor Dal Farming Treat the seeds with Carbendazim or Thiram @ 2 g/kg of seed 24 hours before sowing (or) with powder formulation of Trichoderma viride @ 4g/kg of seed (or) Pseudomonas fluorescens @ 10 g/kg seed. Treated seeds of suitable variety having high germination and high real value should be selected for sowing the crop. Seeds should not be more than two season old. Probably it should be produced during the previous season Use bolder seeds for better germination and more vigorous seedlings Pigeon pea or Toor Dal is a traditionally Kharif crop sown in June-July with onset of Monsoon in various agro-climatic zones of India. Planting of early pigeon pea or Toor Dal before the onset of monsoon in the month of June is recommended for higher yields. Source : www.agrifarming.in
  14. 14. Manuring in Toor Dal Farming 15 kg N and 45 kg P2O5 per hectare is sufficient for this crop. Sowing Time In the rainfed and dry areas pigeon pea are sown with the onset of the monsoon. Earlier sowing gives higher yields in India. When sowing extra - early and early - maturing varieties in the 1st fortnight of June , the field is available for post rainy season crops by the end of November. Therefore , sowing should not be delayed beyond June. Seed Rate Generally seed rate of pigeon pea is 12-15 kg/ha. Source : www.agropedia.ac.in
  15. 15. Weed Control in Toor Dal Farming :- Pigeon pea grows very slowly during their early growth period of 45 – 50 days. This makes pigeon pea less competitive with weeds. If weeds are not controlled in time, it can cause up to 90% reductions in seed yield. Therefore it is advisable to keep the field free from weeds. Weed free condition may be achieved by giving two hand weedings once about 25-30 days and another about 45-50 days after sowing the crop. Source : www.agropedia.ac.in
  16. 16. Harvesting and Storing of Pigeon pea :- In Toor Dal Farming, Green pigeon pea pods are harvested for different purposes. Fully developed, bright green seed is preferred for use as a vegetable. Hence, pods should be harvested just before they start loosing their green color. For this normally hand picking is followed. Pigeon pea should be harvested when 75-80% of the pods turn brown and are dry.Delayed harvesting, during bad-weather, may increase the risk of damage to mature seed. Traditionally pigeon pea plants are harvested by cutting the stem at the base with a sickle, but occasionally machines are used for cutting and followed by drying and threshing.The harvested plants are bundled and placed upright to dry for a week depending on the weather conditions. Pods and grain are separated by beating the dry plants with sticks or by using a thresher. In some places by cattle trampling seeds are separated. Pigeon pea is usually stored for long periods to ensure availability of whole seed at the time of sowing, and as a dal to meet consumer requirement. Source : www.agrifarming.in
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