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Dr Ambika Jawalkar
 Discovered ABO Blood
group system in 1901
 Discovered Rh factor in
1930 along
with Alexander S. Wiener
 Noble prize in...
•The differences in human blood are due to the
presence or absence of certain protein molecules
called antigens and antibo...
• There are more than 20 genetically determined
blood group systems known today
• The AB0 and Rhesus (Rh) systems are the
...
 If an antigen /agglutinogen is present on the
red cell membrane of an individual, the
corresponding antibody/agglutinin ...
MAJOR
 ABO
 Rh (Rhesus)
MINOR
 MN
 li
 P
 Lewis
 Duffy
 Kidd
 Kell
 Lutheran
 The most important in assuring a safe blood
transfusion.
 Is based on presence or absence of A & B
antigens on red cell...
Blood group A
If you belong to the blood
group A, you have A antigens
on the surface of your RBCs
and B antibodies in your...
Blood group AB
If you belong to the blood group
AB, you have both A and B antigens
on the surface of your RBCs and no
A or...
•The table shows the four ABO phenotypes ("blood
groups") present in the human population and the
genotypes that give rise...
• The "A“ and "B" antigens are also produced
by some other plants and microorganisms.
Thus, individuals who do not recogni...
 The ABO gene locus is located on the
chromosome 9
 A and B blood groups are dominant over the
O blood group
 A and B g...
FATHER
MOTHER
one alleles from Mother and one
from Father.
The alleles for Blood
group are in the same
place on the
chromo...
Parent
Allele
A B O
A AA AB AO
B AB BB BO
O AO BO OO
Possible Blood group Genotypes
Rh antigen – C,D,E, c,d & e
 Some of us have it, some of us don't.
If it is present, the blood is RhD positive, if not it...
Rh antibodies
 No natural antibodies
 But are produced only when Rh+ blood is given to
a Rh- person
 Once produced they...
 In Blood transfusion
 In preventing hemolytic disease
 In paternity disputes
 In medicolegal cases
 In knowing susce...
 H antigen / H substance is absent
 first discovered in Bombay, now known
as Mumbai by Dr.Y.M. Bhende
 present in about...
Glucose
Galactose
N-acetylglucosamine
Galactose
H antigen
RBC
Fucose
 The H antigen is the foundation upon which A
and B antigens are built
 A and B genes code for enzymes that add a
sugar ...
Glucose
Galactose
N-acetylglucosamine
Galactose
RBC
Fucose
N-acetylgalactosamine
Glucose
Galactose
N-acetylglucosamine
Galactose
RBC
Fucose
Galactose
 RBCs with no H, A, or B antigen (patient types
as O)
 Bombay RBCs are NOT agglutinated with anti-
A, anti-B, or anti-H ...
 Another Bombay
 Group O RBCs cannot be given because they still
have the H antigen
 You have to transfuse the patient ...
 Occurs due to Rh incompatibility between mother
& fetus
 anti-A or anti-B antibodies are of the IgM class
(large molecu...
First pregnancy Anti-Rh+
antibodies
Possible
subsequent
pregnancies
This happens when Rh- mother carries an Rh+ baby
 Erythroblastosis fetalis
 Icterus gravis neonatorum
 Kernicterus
 Hydrops fetalis
Prevention &Treatment:
• Injecting ...
People with blood group O
are called "universal
donors" and people with
blood group AB are called
"universal receivers."
B...
 Blood Loss
 For quick restoration of haemoglobin
 Exchange transfusion
 Blood diseases
DONOR
RECIPIENT
 Absolute indication
 Cross matching
 Rh+ blood should never be given to Rh- person
 Donor’s blood should always be sc...
Cross matching
Major Cross matching –
mixing of donor’s cells with recipient’s
plasma
Minor crossmatching -
mixing of re...
1. Mismatch transfusion reactions
* Agglutination
*Tissue ischemia
* Haemolysis
*Haemolytic jaundice
*Circulatory shock
* ...
2. Circulatory overload
3.Transmission of blood-borne infections
4. Pyrogenic reaction
5. Allergic reactions
6. Hyperkalem...
THANKYOU
Blood groups
Blood groups
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  1. 1. Dr Ambika Jawalkar
  2. 2.  Discovered ABO Blood group system in 1901  Discovered Rh factor in 1930 along with Alexander S. Wiener  Noble prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1930 KARL LANDSTEINER (1886-1943)
  3. 3. •The differences in human blood are due to the presence or absence of certain protein molecules called antigens and antibodies. •The antigens are located on the surface of the RBCs and the antibodies are in the blood plasma. •Individuals have different types and combinations of these molecules. •The blood group you belong to depends on what you have inherited from your parents.
  4. 4. • There are more than 20 genetically determined blood group systems known today • The AB0 and Rhesus (Rh) systems are the most important ones used for blood transfusions. • Not all blood groups are compatible with each other. Mixing incompatible blood groups leads to blood clumping or agglutination, which is dangerous for individuals.
  5. 5.  If an antigen /agglutinogen is present on the red cell membrane of an individual, the corresponding antibody/agglutinin will be absent in the plasma.  If an antigen / agglutinogen is absent on the red cell membrane of an individual, the corresponding antibody / agglutinin will be present in the plasma.
  6. 6. MAJOR  ABO  Rh (Rhesus) MINOR  MN  li  P  Lewis  Duffy  Kidd  Kell  Lutheran
  7. 7.  The most important in assuring a safe blood transfusion.  Is based on presence or absence of A & B antigens on red cell membrane.  There are 4 bloog groups according to this system  A, B, AB & O
  8. 8. Blood group A If you belong to the blood group A, you have A antigens on the surface of your RBCs and B antibodies in your blood plasma. Blood group B If you belong to the blood group B, you have B antigens on the surface of your RBCs and A antibodies in your blood plasma.
  9. 9. Blood group AB If you belong to the blood group AB, you have both A and B antigens on the surface of your RBCs and no A or B antibodies at all in your blood plasma. Blood group O If you belong to the blood group O (null), you have neither A or B antigens on the surface of your RBCs but you have both A and B antibodies in your blood plasma.
  10. 10. •The table shows the four ABO phenotypes ("blood groups") present in the human population and the genotypes that give rise to them. Blood Group Antigens on RBCs Antibodies in Serum Genotypes A A Anti-B AA or AO B B Anti-A BB or BO AB A and B Neither AB O Neither Anti-A and anti-B OO
  11. 11. • The "A“ and "B" antigens are also produced by some other plants and microorganisms. Thus, individuals who do not recognize one or more of these antigens as "self" will produce antibodies against the plant or microbial antigens. • These antibodies will also react with human antigens of the same kind whether introduced via a blood transfusion or a tissue graft. Why do individuals produce antibodies to antigens they do not have?
  12. 12.  The ABO gene locus is located on the chromosome 9  A and B blood groups are dominant over the O blood group  A and B group genes are co-dominant  Each person has two copies of genes coding for theirABO blood group (one maternal and one paternal in origin)
  13. 13. FATHER MOTHER one alleles from Mother and one from Father. The alleles for Blood group are in the same place on the chromosome 9. However the genes have a different code giving the different blood group A B
  14. 14. Parent Allele A B O A AA AB AO B AB BB BO O AO BO OO Possible Blood group Genotypes
  15. 15. Rh antigen – C,D,E, c,d & e  Some of us have it, some of us don't. If it is present, the blood is RhD positive, if not it's RhD negative. So, for example, some people in group A will have it, and will therefore be classed as A+ (or A positive). While the ones that don't, are A- (or A negative). And so it goes for groups B, AB and O.
  16. 16. Rh antibodies  No natural antibodies  But are produced only when Rh+ blood is given to a Rh- person  Once produced they persist for years & can produce serious reactions during 2nd transfusion  85% of the population is Rh positive, the other 15% of the population is Rh negative
  17. 17.  In Blood transfusion  In preventing hemolytic disease  In paternity disputes  In medicolegal cases  In knowing susceptibility to disease Group O- duodenal cancer Gropu A- Carcinoma of stomach, pancreas & salivary glands
  18. 18.  H antigen / H substance is absent  first discovered in Bombay, now known as Mumbai by Dr.Y.M. Bhende  present in about 0.0004%
  19. 19. Glucose Galactose N-acetylglucosamine Galactose H antigen RBC Fucose
  20. 20.  The H antigen is the foundation upon which A and B antigens are built  A and B genes code for enzymes that add a sugar to the H antigen  Immunodominant sugars are present at the terminal ends of the chains and confer the ABO antigen specificity
  21. 21. Glucose Galactose N-acetylglucosamine Galactose RBC Fucose N-acetylgalactosamine
  22. 22. Glucose Galactose N-acetylglucosamine Galactose RBC Fucose Galactose
  23. 23.  RBCs with no H, A, or B antigen (patient types as O)  Bombay RBCs are NOT agglutinated with anti- A, anti-B, or anti-H (no antigens present)  Bombay serum has strong anti-A, anti-B and anti-H, agglutinating ALL ABO blood groups  What blood group would you use to transfuse this patient??
  24. 24.  Another Bombay  Group O RBCs cannot be given because they still have the H antigen  You have to transfuse the patient with blood that contains NO H antigen
  25. 25.  Occurs due to Rh incompatibility between mother & fetus  anti-A or anti-B antibodies are of the IgM class (large molecules) and these do not cross the placenta  Rh antibodies are IgG type & can cross placenta
  26. 26. First pregnancy Anti-Rh+ antibodies Possible subsequent pregnancies This happens when Rh- mother carries an Rh+ baby
  27. 27.  Erythroblastosis fetalis  Icterus gravis neonatorum  Kernicterus  Hydrops fetalis Prevention &Treatment: • Injecting single dose of Rh antibodies (Anti-D) to the mother soon after delivery • Exchange transfusion
  28. 28. People with blood group O are called "universal donors" and people with blood group AB are called "universal receivers." Blood transfusions – who can receive blood from whom?
  29. 29.  Blood Loss  For quick restoration of haemoglobin  Exchange transfusion  Blood diseases DONOR RECIPIENT
  30. 30.  Absolute indication  Cross matching  Rh+ blood should never be given to Rh- person  Donor’s blood should always be screened  Bloodbg/bottle should be checked  Should be given at slow rate  Proper aseptic measures should be followed  Careful watch on recipient’s condition
  31. 31. Cross matching Major Cross matching – mixing of donor’s cells with recipient’s plasma Minor crossmatching - mixing of recipient’s cells with donor’s plasma
  32. 32. 1. Mismatch transfusion reactions * Agglutination *Tissue ischemia * Haemolysis *Haemolytic jaundice *Circulatory shock * Renal vasoconstriction * Haemoglobinuria * Renal tubular damage * Acute renal shutdown * Uremia
  33. 33. 2. Circulatory overload 3.Transmission of blood-borne infections 4. Pyrogenic reaction 5. Allergic reactions 6. Hyperkalemia 7. Hypocalcemia 8. Reduced tissue oxygenation 9. Haemosiderosis 10.Thrombophlebitis 11. Air embolism
  34. 34. THANKYOU
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