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Cereal based cropping system in india

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Cereal based cropping system in india

  1. 1. CEREAL BASED CROPPING SYSTEMS IN INDIA ALEX .K.GEORGE BSF-10-002 Done by,
  2. 2. MAJOR CEREALS • Cereals are cultivated grasses(poaceae) with starchy grains. • They are staple food to may areas. • Some of them are • rice Oryza sativa • Wheat Triticum aestievm • Maize Zeya mays
  3. 3. Cropping systems  Cropping system is a critical aspect in developing an effective ecological farming system to manage and organize crops so that they best utilize the available resources.(soil, air, sunlight, water, labour, equipments)  It represents cropping patterns used on a farm and their interaction with farm resources and farm enterprises and available technology which determine their makeup. It is executed in the field level.
  4. 4. Basic principles of croppinsg systems  Chose the crop that complement to each other.  Choose crops and a cropping rotation which utilize available resources efficiently.  Choose crops and a cropping system that maintain and enhance soil fertility.  Choose crops which have a diversity of growth cycles.  Choose a diverse species of crops.  Keep the soil covered.  Strategically plan and modify cropping system as needed.
  5. 5. Types of cropping systems  Crop rotation:crops are changed in the field from year to year according to a planned sequence rather than the sme crop being grown in the sme field.  Multiple cropping:two or more crops grown in the same field with in a given year with a defnite row arrangement.  Mixed cropping:two or more crops grown in the same field with in a given year without a defnite row arrangement.  Strip-intercropping:two or more crops are planted in the same field in alternate rows.
  6. 6. Efficient cropping systems • Cropping systems depends on farm resources, farm enterprise and farm technology. • When land is limited, intensive cropping is adopted to fully utilise available water and labour. • When sufficient and cheap labour is available, vegetable crops are also included in the cropping system. • When capital is not a constraint, commercial crops like sugarcane, banana, turmeric etc can be fitted in cropping system. • Rainfall is <750 mm/annum, monocropping is followed. • Rainfall is > 750 mm/annum, intercropping is practiced. • When water is plenty, triple and quadrupe cropping is adopted. • Farm enterprises like dairying,poultry etc also influence the type of cropping system. • When farm enterprises includes dairy, the cropping system should contain fodder crops as component crops.
  7. 7. Rice based cropping systems In rice growing areas several crop combinations (cropping systems) are in practice I. Based on agro-ecological conditions, II.Market and domestic needs and III.Facilities available with farmers. some of the rice based systems are, 1.Mixed varietal cropping of rice. 2.Inter cropping rice with other crops. 3.Relay/paira/utera cropping. 4.Sequential cropping in rice.
  8. 8. Mixed varietal cropping of rice • System of mixing seed of early rice (ahu) with late maturing deep water rice (bao). • Mainly practiced in West Bengal. • Can avoid total crop loss at the event of flood. • The seed of both the types of mixed in 1:1 ratio and has given higher yield than sole cropping of either type. • Growing of a mixture of autum and winter varieties in 3:1 ratio in Tamil Nadu (known as udo) and Kerala (called as koottumundkan). • Under normal conditions it has created problems in performing agricultural operations like harvesting, deciding fertilizer doses etc.
  9. 9. Intercropping rice with other crops • It is a common practice under upland conditions in north and north-eastern part of the country • To grow rice intercropped with black gram, green gram, sesame, maize, finger millet or other miner millets. • The ratio of rice and inter crop is preferred to be 3-4:1.
  10. 10.  Relay/paira/utera cropping • The seed of succeeding crops like lentil, gram, pea, lathyrus, berseem, linseed etc. is sown  broadcast in maturing rice crop. • This practice saves time; money (to be spent on land preparation etc.) utilizes residual  fertility.  • This practice is common in both upland and lowland rice culture.    Sequential cropping in rice.  Sequential cropping refers to the crops grown as preceding or succeeding with rice as shown  below; • Irrigated conditions                                               under upland •        Rice-Rice-Rice                                                       Rice-Chickpea •        Rice-Rice-Cereal                                                   Rice-Lentil •        Rice-Rice-Pulses                                                   Rice-Mustard/Linseed •        Rice-Wheat-Pulse                                                Rice-Barley •        Rice-Toria- Wheat                                                Rice – Wheat •        Rice – Wheat                                                        Rice – Wheat •        Rice – Mustard                                                     Rice – Pea • Rice under integrated farming system • Rice-Fish-Poultry • Rice-Fish-Duckery
  11. 11. Major Rice Based cropping pattern • Rice -Rice- Rice -T.N.  • Rice- Rice - Cereals other than rice  • Rice -Rice pulses • Rice -Groundnut- A.P., T.N., Kerela  • Rice - wheat  • Rice -wheat - pulses  • Rice- Toria-wheat
  12. 12. Maize based cropping systems • Maize has wide adaptability and compatibility under diverse soil and climatic  conditions . • Hence it is cultivated in sequence with different crops under various agro- ecologies of the country • Among different maize based cropping systems,  • maize-wheat ranks 1st  having 1.8 m ha area mainly concentrated  in rainfed ecologies.  • Maize-wheat is the 3rd  most important cropping systems (after rice-wheat and rice- rice that contributes about 3 % in the national food basket. ) • The other major maize systems in India are  o maize-mustard, o  maize-chickpea,  o maize-maize, o  cotton-maize  • rice-maize has emerged a potential maize based cropping system in peninsular  and eastern India.  • compared to existing cropping systems like rice-wheat and rice-rice, maize based  cropping systems are better user of available resources and the water use  efficiency of maize based cropping systems was about 100 to 200 % higher at  different locations.
  13. 13. • Table 1. Maize based sequential cropping systems in different ago-climatic zones of India • Agro-climatic region Irrigated Rainfed • Western Himalayan Region maize-potato-wheat Maize-mustard • Eastern Himalayan Region Maize-maize sesame-rice+maize • Lower Gangetic Plain region Jute-rice-maize rice-maize • Middle Gangetic Plain region Maize-wheat Maize-wheat • Upper Gangetic Plain region Maize-wheat-mungbean Maize-wheat  • Trans Gangetic Plain region Maize-wheat-mungbean Maize-wheat • Eastern plateau & hills region Maize-wheat-vegetables Rice-potato-maize • Southern plateau & hills region Maize-rice Sorghum-maize • East coast plain and hills region Maize-rice Rice-maize • West coast plain and hills region Rice-maize Rice-maize • Gujrat plains and hills region Rice-maize • Western dry region Maize-chickpea Maize+legumes • Island region Maize-rice Rice-maize + cowpea
  14. 14.   � � �
  15. 15. Wheat based cropping system • One of the majoor cropping system in wheat based cropping system is wheat- rice cropping system. • the rice-wheat based cropping systems (RWCS) in India have significantly contributed in enhancing the foodgrain production and achieving the food self-sufficiency and food security • . Major rice-wheat growing states are Punjab, Haryana, UttarPradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Bihar, and West Bengal • rice-wheat growing agroclimatic zones 1. Lower Gangetic Plain 2. Middle Gangetic Plain 3. UpperGangetic Plain 4. Trans-Gangetic Plain. The average productivity is5–10 t/ha),
  16. 16. Wheat based cropping systems • Over mining of nutrients from soil, • Disturbed soil aggregates due to puddling in rice • Decreasing response to nutrients • Declining ground water table • Build up of diseases/pests • Build up of Phalaris minor • Low input use efficiency in north western plains other wheat based systems • Wheat –chickpea • Wheat –fallow • wheat-rice-wheat • wheat-green manure-wheat • wheat-fallow-wheat.
  17. 17. Benefits of cropping systems • Maintain and enhance soil fertility. • Enhanced crop growth. • Minimize spread of diseases. • Control weeds. • Inhibit pest and insect growth. • Increase soil cover. • Use resources more effectively. • Reduce risk for crop failure. • Improved food and financial security.
  18. 18. REFERENCE • www.agropedia.com • www.wikipedia.com • www.reap-canada.com • www.expert.iasri.res.in

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