Information Processing Model
What is Teaching Model?
A model of teaching is a plan or
pattern that can be used to
shape curriculums (long-term
courses of studies), to design
instructional materials, and to
guide instruction in the
classroom and other settings
based on Joyce and Weil
• Aim of TM: To produce effective teaching.
Figure 1.1: Glaser’s Teaching Model
Function of complete &
Teaching perfect teaching
Enable teachers to
analyse & evaluate its
Provide guidance to
planners & teachers weaknesses so as to
As basic plan & implement
to enable them to
plan & carry out the guidance for appropriate follow-up
teaching process teachers for actions
effectively. reflection during
MODELS OF TEACHING
Types of Information Processing Model
Information- Inquiry Teaching
Processing Model of Gagne’s Information Model
Memory Processing Model
What do OUR MEMORY HAVE?
Sensory Memory Hold a large amount of information
Compartment in a duration just enough for a
small portion to be selected for
Short-term Memory Capacity is limited.
Storage duration is brief (unless
assisted with rehearsal)
Long-term Memory A very large storage capacity
Information-Processing Model of Memory
Figure 1.2: Atkinson & Shiffrin’s Model of Memory
Information-Processing Model of Memory
Sensory memory Short-term Long-term
Sensory Retains information Can hold
for only a fraction of unrehearsed
a second but information for about
enough to select the 20 – 30 seconds.
portion of Information encoded
may last for
Short-term memory weeks, months or
attention. (The even years.
Information can be
information that stored longer if it is
caught one’s engaged under
attention is selected rehearsal.
Long-term memory for longer storage) (Repetition of
Gagne’s Information Processing Model
Figure 1.3: Gagne’s Theory of Learning Process
Important Aspects in Gagne’s 8 Phases
• Learning readiness
• Learning transfer
How it works?
• Process begins from extrinsic @ intrinsic motivation to
perceive stimuli from environment.
• New information recorded in short-term memory.
• Information will be processed by relating stored
information in long-term memory.
• New information is reinforced, retained & applied when
Expository Teaching Model
• Referred as explicit explanation in details of certain
• A way of presentation of information @ learning
contents to pupils directly.
• Presenting learning materials by
explanation, narration or demonstration.
• Suitably use to teach certain concept and skill during
the beginning of the lesson.
• Principle and concept are explained
verbally, as all the facts are written on
the board, showed on the screen.
• Time saving: Enables teacher to finish all
related concepts in a shorter period &
pupils merely listen quietly.
• More to a lecturing method. (Less
effective for primary schools).
Inquiry Teaching Model
• Scientific Inquiry Model:
–Used to study principles, phenomena &
characteristics of scientific knowledge.
–Research process based on 5 stages:
• Identify the problem.
• Ascertain relevant information.
• Determine hypothesis.
• Testing hypothesis.
• Evaluate, interpret, infer & conclude.
• Social Inquiry Model:
– Used to study topics related to social & humanity aspects.
– Based on activities such as observation, interview, @
– Emphasizes on social interaction process.
– 6 steps:
• Formulation of problem by teacher.
• Formulation of hypothesis by pupils.
• Define hypothesis.
• Discuss & confirm validity of the hypothesis.
• Collect & analyse evidences for the hypothesis.
• Interpret & derive inference @ conclusion.
• Juris-prudential Inquiry Model:
– Used to look for reality & accuracy in current issues
(learning science is more useful than learning arts).
– Concerns with science & philosophy of human law.
– Based on activities, discussions and debates.
– Two types:
• Guided inquiry: Teacher guides pupils to carry out the whole
• Open Inquiry: No guidelines given. Students have to do the
• Suchman’s Inquiry Model:
– Based on assumption that strategies used by scientists can be
used as a teaching model especially in the study of science.
• Teacher determines & indicates the problem.
• Teacher explains the inquiry process to solve the previous problem.
• Students are guided to form hypothesis, follows by the collection of
• Students use collected data to test hypothesis, aim to formulate
theorem, law, principle or theory.
• Discussion & making inferences.
• Teacher & students discuss together and analyse.
The Importance of Information
• Students are prepared with better equipments and
information for learning.
• Students are enforced with good mental exercises through
different methods and approaches.
• Students are informed of the objectives and learning
outcomes that should be achieved.
• Help students to remember the information for a longer
period of time.
Direct Instruction Model
– A teaching technique involves the use of a teacher’s skill to
demonstrate @ perform a certain activity in the class.
– Teacher has a strong control over what is learnt in the
classroom, provides feedback, monitoring students, grading
work and strict classroom rules & regulations. (Teacher-
• Refers to a theory & practice of using remedial teaching based on
feedback of pupil’s performance to assist them to achieve the learning
– Determine learning outcomes by planning explicit learning objective (based
on students’ performance).
– Teach pupils with effective teaching method & technique (use of suitable
learning materials to suit different learning styles)
– Evaluate learning result by diagnostic test & summative test (level of
mastering & achievement)
– Carry out remedial activities for pupils who have not fully mastered certain
skills & provide enrichment activities for pupils who have mastered the
Programmed Instruction Model
• Computer Assisted Instruction (CIA)
– The application of technology & computer system in
– Pupils follow designed learning materials in software
without teacher’s help.
– Teacher has to facilitate the pupils to have interest in
• Non-directive Teaching Model
• Developing Positive Self-concepts
• Project Model
– Research Project
– Handicraft Project
– Educational Visit
Non-directive Teaching Model
• Based on Carl Rogers’ work, he
believes that positive human
relationships enable people to
• Therefore instruction should be
based on concepts of human
Phase 1 : Defining the Helping Situation
Teacher encourages free expression of feelings.
Phase 2: Exploring the Problem
Student is encouraged to define problem. Teacher accepts and clarifies feelings.
Phase 3: Developing Insight
Student discusses problem. Teacher supports student.
Phase 4: Planning and Decision Making
Student plans initial decision making. Teacher clarifies possible decision.
Phase 5: Integration
Student gains further insight and
Teacher is supportive.
develops more positive actions.
Action Outside the Interview
Student initiates positive actions.
The Importance of Non-directive
• Teacher helps students to explore new ideas.
• Students have freedom to making decisions and choices.
• Teacher and students are partners in learning.
• Nurtures and moulds students to be the way they are.
• Encourages students to think and reflect their uncertain
feelings and become better and be positive.
Developing Positive Self-concepts
• Appreciate the abilities and talents one
• Positive self-concepts evolves with the
moral values that should be emphasised
• Activities that help: Group/Individual
Presentation, musical performances,
The Importance of Positive Self-concepts
• Gain knowledge and experiences by
enhancing their interests in learning
• Teacher shows positive approaches
and optimistic reinforcements.
• Boost their confidence.
• Provide opportunities for students to
express their ideas and listen to
• Based on the belief that learning would be
effective if pupils are interested and ready
to carry out learning activities.
• Examples of Project Model:
– Research Project.
– Handicraft Project.
– Educational Visit.
1. Research Project (Principles)
• Teacher determines suitable research
topic in accordance to the pupils’
experience, ability and interest.
• Aims and procedures must be determined
first and pupils are informed about this.
• Teacher prepares relevant materials
(check list, questions to be answered, etc.)
to facilitate pupils.
• Research should be carried out safely
& every pupil should actively involve in
• Teacher supervises and provides
guidance to pupils.
• Teacher discusses the outcomes of
research & evaluation should be
conducted after research is
2. Handicraft Project (Principles)
• Planning of the project is based on pupils’
interest and ability.
• Prepare sufficient materials.
• Explain procedure precisely.
• Show examples of correct ways to do the
• Time period is required!
• Discussion is carried out to assess the work
when it is done.
• Display good quality work to the other
3. Educational Visit (Principles)
• Before the Visit:
– Identify the place of visit.
– Obtain permission.
– Arrange for transport.
– Conduct briefing session regarding safety,
precautions, behaviours, aims of visit and
– Prepare sufficient equipments.
• During the Visit:
– Divide pupils into several small groups.
– Every pupil should actively involve.
– Watch out for pupils’ safety.
– Give appropriate response to pupils’ inquiry.
• After the Visit:
– Hold discussion session with pupils regarding their
– Plan follow-up activity (making model, draw plan
or model, display things)
The Importance of Project Model
• Students able to relate their previous experiences to what
they are studying.
• Able to understand objectives of the projects before and after
• Fun activities that attract students’ interests in learning more
& apply what they have learnt.
• Moral values are applied.
• Theories, facts & hypotheses are brought into practices (I do,
I remember & understand).
• Co-operations among students.
• Direct experiences & additional knowledge.
• Model of Group Teaching & Co-operative
• Simulation Model
Uses group inquiry and
Encourages assimilation and Relies on the students’
understanding of the personal and social
Ways of Teaching
AND CO-OPERATIVE SIMULATION
LEARNING LEARNING ROLE-PLAY SOCIODRAMA
Emphasize the social Role-playing is a teaching
nature of learning strategy that fits within the
social family models
stimulate students both
socially and intellectually -Joyce and Weil, 2000-
Improves interpersonal skills and
1. Preparation and explanation of the activity by the teacher
2. Student preparation of the activity
3. The role-playing
4. The discussion after the role-playing activities
More like an acting activity
Based on a story which reflects a certain situation
involving conflicting issue, for example, Hang Tuah and
Script should be prepared earlier
Helps them to become aware of the typical ways
they solve problems
Increases both social and personal awareness
Promote acceptance, cooperation in classroom
Informal learning group
temporary within a
Formal learning group
Being formed to complete
a specific tasks, such as
to carry a project,
performing a lab
groups with a
Individual & Group Group Processing
Interpersonal & Small-
Emphasize the worth of
The Importance of Social Model
Incorporate the Promote social skills including
collective energy of the self-
group discipline, negotiation, democrac